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Full text of "History of the County of Middlesex, Canada : from the earliest time to the present, containing an authentic account of many important matters relating to the settlement, progress and general history of the county, and including a department devoted to the preservation of personal and private records, etc. ; illustrated"

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From  the  Earliest  Time  to  the  Present ;  Containing  an  Authentic  Account 

of  Many  Important  Matters  Relating  to  the  Settlement,  Progress 

and  General  History  of  the  County ;  and  Including  a 

Department  Devoted  to  the  Preservation  of 

Personal  and  Private  Records,  etc. 


Toronto  ;tn 


LONDON,    ONT.  : 


.  Oft  -  2 


After  over  ten  months  of  labor,  this  volume  is  respectfully  tendered 
to  our  patrons.  The  design  of  the  work  was  more  to  gather  and  pre- 
serve in  attractive  form,  while  fresh  with  the  evidences  of  truth,  the 
enormous  fund  of  perishing  occurrence,  than  to  abstract  from  insuffi- 
cient data  remote,  doubtful  or  incorrect  philosophical  conclusions.  The 
true  perspective  of  the  landscape  of  life  can  only  be  seen  from  the 
distance  that  lends  enchantment  to  the  view.  So  short  has  been  the 
period  since  the  settlement  of  the  County  of  Middlesex,  and  so  numer- 
ous and  heterogeneous  the  number  of  important  events  crowded  into 
the  toiling  years,  that  no  general  attempt  was  made  to  prepare  a 
critical  or  philosophical  history.  It  is  asserted  that  no  person  is 
competent  to  write  a  philosophical  history  of  his  own  time ;  that, 
owing  to  imperfect  and  conflicting  circumstantial  evidence  that  yet 
conceals,  instead  of  reveals,  the  truth,  he  cannot  take  that  correct, 
unprejudiced,  logical,  luminous  and  comprehensive  view  of  passing 
events  that  will  enable  him  to  draw  accurate  and  enduring  con- 
clusions. The  duty,  then,  of  an  historian  of  his  own  time  is  to 
collect,  classify  and  preserve  the  material  for  the  Macaulay  of  the 
future.  The  present  historian  deals  in  fact;  the  future  historian, 
in  conclusion;  the  work  of  the  former  is  statistical;  of  the  latter, 

This  volume  has  been  prepared  under  depressing  obstacles,  among 
which  a  lack  of  paying  patronage  was  chief.  In  spite  of  this,  the 
Publishers  have  more  than  complied  with  their  promises  in  the  enor- 
mous amount  of  fact  crowded  into  the  solid  pages,  and  in  nearly  two 
hundred  pages  more  of  matter  than  were  promised.  In  addition  to 
this,  a  competent  resident  of  the  county  was  specially  employed  to 
read  the  proofs  of  the  book,  that  the  number  of  mistakes  might  be 
limited  to  the  fewest.  Much  of  the  volume,  in  all  departments,  was 
compiled  by  local  writers,  to  whom  credit  is  properly  given. 






Soil 11 

River  Thames,  The 11 

Other  Streams 13 

Geology 13 

Building  Stone 13 

Sand  and  Gravel 14 

Oil  Wells 14 

Salt  Wells 14 

Fire  Clay 15 

Trees  and  Shrubs  —  15 



Indians,  The  Earliest 16 

Tribal  History 17 

Indians  of  1812 21 

Border  Incidents 21 

Missions  and  Churches 25 

Marriages  Among  Indians 25 

Indian  Orange  Lodges 27 

Race  Statistics 27 

Trails 28 



First  Settlers 29 

Crown  Land  Entries 29 

Other  Settlers 30 

Pioneer  Mails .  33 

London  Vicinity  in  1818 34 

Wolf  Story,  A 35 

Colored  Inhabitants 36 

"Old  John  Brown" 36 

Marriage  Laws 36 

Pioneer  Cabins..                                .  39 



Catholics,  The 

Enerlish  Church,  The 

Presbyterians,  The    

Presbyterian  Marriages 

Baptist  Church,  The 

Ministers  and  Marriages  . . 

Congregationalists,  The 

Marriages,  etc 

Methodist  Church,  The 

Their  Marriages 

Bible  Christians 



Other  Religious  Societies 



Counties,  The  First 

Quarter  Sessions  Court,  The 

County  Council,  The 

Early  Items 

County  Buildings 



House  of  Refuge 92 

Insane  Asylum , 94 

Scott  Act,  The 95 


POLITICS  FROM  1788  TO  1888 98 

Districts  Formed 98 

Legislative  Council,  The 98 

Assembly,  The 99 

Lieutenant  Govenors 100 

Crown  Land  Grants  or  Concessions..  100 
Political  Aspect,  Rebellion  of  1837. . .  102 

Execution  of  Rebels 106 

Contemporary  Memoranda 107 

Leaders  in  1837 108 

Political  Status 113 

Elections,  etc 115 



Earliest  Practitioners 118 

Oldest  Court  Records 119 

Execution  of  Burleigh .  120 

Execution  of  Sovereen 121 

Execution  of  Jones 122 

Execution  of  Pickard 122 

Execution  of  Simmons 123 

Miscellaneous  Cases 124 

OtherTrials 127 

Judges  and  Counsel 132 

Present  Bar 140 

Early  Probate  Business 142 



Simcoe's  Designs 143 

Surrender  of  Detroit 143 

Battle  of  the  Thames 144 

Battle  of  Lake  Erie 144 

Skirmish  at  Byron 346 

Affair  at  Battle  Hill 146 

Other  Military  Movements 148 

Pensioners  of  the  War    147 

Rebellion  of  1837-8,  The  149 

Preparations  to  Invade  the  States. . .  153 

Military  Organizations 153 

Affairs  in  1865    155 

Fenian  Invasion,  The 155 

Red  River  Troubles,  1869-70 158 

Militia,  The 160 

North-west  Troubles,  1885 161 

Military  School,  The 163 



Quebec  Papers 165 

Upper  Canadian  Papers 165 

London  District  Papers 166 

Modern  Papers 168 

Present  Papers 171 

Other  Periodicals 174 

Printers'  Union,  The 175 

Country  Publications  176 





English  School,  The  First 179 

Amendment  of  School  Acts 179 

Common  School  Svstem  180 

Legal  Teachers,  1842 180 

Statistics 181 

Superintendents 18* 

Expenditures.      1? 

Institutes,  Origin  of 186 



Corduroy  Roads  187 

Roads  Projected 188 

Funds  for  Road  Building 189 

Toll  Roads 180 

Expenditure  on  County  Roads 192 

Early  Bridges 1»4 

Railroads 195 

Railroad  Accidents 197 




Fairs.  The  First zui 

Fair  of  1851,  The 201 

Fair  Officers,  etc 202 

Provincial  Exhibition,  The 202 

Old  Grounds,  The 203 

Receipts 204 

Western  Fair  Association 204 

New  Grounds,  The    206 

Farmers1  Institute 207 

Stock  Breeders1  Association ...  207 

Fish  and  Game  Society 207 

Population 208 

County  Finances 211 

Statistics 212 


LONDON  Cm 213 

The  Forks 213 

Earliest  Inhabitants 214 

Business,  The  First 216 

During  the  "  Forties  " 221 

Business  Houses  and  Men. 232 

Real  Estate,  1852-7 224 

Post-office 225 

Custom  House,  The 226 

Notable  Buildings  227 

Village  of  London  Council 231 

Town  of  London  Council 233 

Parks 235 

Exhibition  Grounds,  The 237 

Bridges 238 

Sidewalks  and  Laws 239 

Cemeteries,  Streets,  etc 240 

Incorporation 242 

City  Officers  and  Laws 243 

City  Finances 244 

Port  Stanley  Railroad 246 

Important  Transactions 247-258 

Fire  Department 258 

Council  and  Fire  Department 260 

Conflagrations 262-268 

Police  Department 268 

Water  Supply 273 

Analysis  of  Water 276 

Victoria  Disaster,  The 277 

Flood  of  1883 "281 

Street  Lighting 281 

Market,  The  Public . '  282 

Hospitals 284 

Guthrie  Home "  287 

Schools  of  London 288 


Collegiate  Institutes 292 

Hellmuth  College 294 

Medical  College,  The 29a 

Law  School,  The 296 

Art  School 2j 

Separate  Schools 2£ 

English  Church.  The 297 

Methodist  Church,  The 301 

Methodist  New  Connexion  Church. . .  305 

Bible  Christians.  309 

Methodist  Episcopal  Church 309 

Catholic  Church,  The 310 

Presbyterian  Church,  The 314 

Congregational  Church 318 

Baptist  Church 319 

Other  Religious  Bodies  321 

Mechanics1  Institute 321^ 

Secret    and    Other    Societies    and 

Clubs 322-359 

Musical  Organizations 360 

Board  of  Trade 362 

Chamber  of  Commerce 365 

Travellers1  Association 367 

Manufacturing  Enterprises 368-380 

Wholesale  Houses 387 

Taverns  and  Groceries 388 

Banks  and  Bankers 394 

Loan  Companies 397 

Insurance  Companies 403 

Miscellany 408 

London  East 409 

Statistics 412 



Residents,  The  First 413 

Business,  The  First  414 

Merchants  and  Customers 416 

Charter  and  Officers 419 

Schools 423 

Fire  Department 425 

Fires 426 

Accidents 430 

Churches 430 

Cemeteries 435 

Societies,  etc 435 

Banks ..440 

Railroads 440 

Manufacturing  Enterprises 441 



Boundary 443 

Population 443 

Settlers,  The  First ...  443 

Prominent  Citizens 445 

Official  History 447 

Fires  and  Accidents. .  448 

Adelaide  Village 448 

Schools  and  Churches 449 

Kerwood 453 

Keyser 454 



Boundary  and  Population  455 

Pioneers,  The 455 

Colored  Colony,  The 456 

Official  Record 456 

Granton 457 

Clandeboye 458 

Ireland 453 

Mooresvillo 459 

Adare 459 

Churches 459 





Old  Name 461 

Appearance,  The  First 461 

Residents,  The  First 461 

Lots,Saleof 462 

Officers,  etc 463 

Finances 465 

Schools 465 

Fires  467 

Accidents 467 

Commerce   467 

Post-office  and  Banks 468 

Societies,  Clubs,  etc 468 



Boundary,  etc 471 

Old  Records 471 

Land  Patents,  The  First 471 

Settlers,  The  First 472 

Schools 473 

Accidents ..473 

Mt.  Brydges 474 

Churches 474 



Situation,  etc 476 

Longwoods  Road 476 

Land  Grants 476 

Settlers 478 

Aliens,  The 477 

Officers,  etc 479 

Incidents 480 



Early  Appearance 




Kilworth 484 

Woodhull  Settlement,  The 484 

Village  in  1851,  The 484 

Later  Events 484 

Churches 485 

Lodges 485 



Location,  etc 486 

Official  Record 486 

Settlers,  The  First 487 

Residents,  Later 488 

Putnamville 488 

HarrietsviUe 489 

Belmont 490 

Dorchester  Station 491 

Nilestown 492 

Avon 493 

Crumlin 493 

Gladstone 493 

Mossley 493 



Survey  of  Crown  Lands 494 

Boundary,  etc 494 

Pioneers,  The 495 

Records,  The  Oldest 495 

Officers 496 

Agricultural  Society 497 


Accidents 497 

Ekfrid  Village 497 

Appin 498 

Melbourne 499 

Middlemiss 499 

Strathburn 500 

Mayfair 500 

Muncey 500 

Christina 500 

Knox  Church 500 



Location 502 

Population 502 

Official  History 502 

Pioneers,  The 504 

Crown  Land  Entries 504 

Komoka    506 

Churches  . .      507 

Lobo  Village 507 

Poplar  Hill 508 

Coldstream . .  508 

Fernhill    508 

Duncrief 508 

Ivan 508 

Amiens   509 

Siddallsville 509 



Situation,  Streams,  etc 510 

Records,  The  Early 510 

Pioneers  511 

Citizens,  Prominent,  Early 512 

Events  of  Note 514 

Churches 515 

Arva,  or  St.  Johns 517 

Hyde  Park  Corner 518 

London  West 518 

Birr 520 

Elginfleld 520 

Denfield 521 

Ilderton 521 

Vanneck 521 

Bryanston 521 

Kingston 522 



Situation,  Streams,  etc 523 

Official  Matters 523 

Settlers,  etc 524 

West  McGillivray 525 

Lieury 525 

Corbett 525 

Moray 525 

Brinsley 525 

McGillivray 526 

Churches,  etc  526 

Agricultural  Society 527 



Location,  Water  Courses,  etc 528 

Crown  Land  Entries 528 

Incidents 529 

Settlers,  The 530 

Napier 530 

Churches 530 

Societies 531 

Katesville 531 

Wisbeach 532 

Kilmartin 532 





Situation,  Creeks,  etc 5*5 

Settlers,  The  First »** 

Officers,  etc ££ 

Agricultural  Society 534 

Churches *» 

Fires Jtf 

Longwood $35 

Knapdale 086 

Cashmere 536 



Name,  The  First 537 

Merchants,  The  First 537 

Population 537 

Incorporation,  etc 6*5 

Schools 538 

Fires W9 

Societies 539 

Churches 540 

Miscellany 541 



Earlv  Appearance  543 

Merchants,  The  First 542 

Business  Men,  Later 543 

Population,  etc 543 

Official  Matters 543 

Fires 544 

Societies 545 

Churches 545 

Schools 546 



Origin 548 

Organization 548 

Commerce 551 

Buildings 551 

Exports  and  Imports 553 

Banks 553 

Schools 553 

Churches 554 

Fire  Department 556 

Band 557 

Rifle  Association . .  557 

Accidents 558 

Societies,  Clubs,  etc 558 

Cemetery 558 

Salt  Well 558 

Mechanics'  Institute 559 



Streams,  Boundary,  etc 561 

Survey,  Land  Entries,  etc 561 

Settlers,  The 561 

Records,  The  563 

Thorndale S63 

Wyton  Village .....'....  564 

Stives 564 

Belton 565 

Devizes. '    555 

Rebecca ;.'„"  555 



Drainage.  Location,  etc 566 

Statistics 566 


Survey,  Land  Sales,  etc 587 

Pioneers,  The. • 567 

Organization,  Officers,  etc 568 

Pioneer  Incidents 56* 

Crown  Lands  Entered 570 

Old  Settlers  Living 575 

Westminster  Insurance  Company...  575 

Churches 576 

Byron 577 

Lambeth 578 

Hall  Mills 579 

Pond  Mills 579 

Glanworth 580 

Derwent •»* 

Maple  Grove 581 

Glendale 581 

Maguire 581 

Accidents 581 



Leading  Residents,  Some 583 

Churches 582 

Statistics 583 

Schools 584 



Streams,  etc 586 

Canada  Company,  The 586 

Living  Old  Settlers 587 

Organization,  Officers,  etc 587 

Churches 588 

Springbank  and  Vicinity 589 

Falkirk 590 

Nairn 590 



Settler,  The  First 591 

Village  in  1868,  The 591 

Business,  The  Early 591 

Business,  Later 593 

Population 592 

Incorporation 593 

Lodges 594 

Accidents ..594 



Water  Courses,  etc 596 

Organization,  etc 596 

Settlement 598 

Sylvan 598 

Bornish 699 

Agricultural  Society 600 



Origin,  The , 601 

Settlers,  The  First 601 

Business 602 

Manufactories 603 

Banks 604 

Organization 605 

Schools 606 

Fires 608 

Accidents.       609 

Churches 609 

Societies,  etc 612 





GENERAL  ITEMS -  •  615 

Herbs  and  Weeds 615 

Zoology 616 

Storms 617 

Rain  and  Snow 618 

Duration  of  Sunshine 619 

Indian  Summer 619 

Archceology 620 

Miscellany 630 

Statistics,  Early 620 

Indebtedness,  etc 623 

Statistics,  Late  628 

Population 632 



Public  Schools 635 

London  South  Schools 636 

ArtSchool 636 

Agricultural  Association 637 

Ailsa  Craig  Mechanics1  Institute 637 

Spring  Show 638 

Scott  Act  Repealed 638 

Sale  of  Fair  Ground  Lots 639 

Assessment  Roll,  1889 639 

Liquor  Licenses,  1889 640 

Western  Congregational  Association  642 

Railway  Subsidies 642 

Asylum  Improvements 643 

Masonic  Officers 643 

Amalgamation  of  London  South 643 

Law  Candidates 645 

Canal  Comparisons 645 

Imports 646 


MISCELLANY— Continued .' 647 

Board  of  Trade 647 

Women's  Christian  Association 648 

Knights  of  the  Maccabees,  etc 650 

Piccadilly  Lodge,  Sons  of  England. . .  650 

Court  Defiance 650 

London  Lodge  of  Perfection 650 

Local  Poetry 651 

Liberal  Conservatives  652 

London  West  Schools 653 

Typographical  Union    653 

Glencoe  Mechanics'  Institute .  653 

Strathroy  Board  of  Trade 653 

Bank  Statement 653 

Repeal  of  the  Scott  Act 654 

Good  Templars 654 



Early  Items 656 

Small  Towns 656 

County  Postmasters 657 

Westminster  Township  Presbyterian 

Church 657 

Strathroy  Spring  Fair,  1889 657 

Glencoe  Statistics,  1889 659 

Glencoe  Presbyterian  Church 659 

Caradoc  Spring  Show 660 

Protestant  Home  Board 680 

St.  George's  Church 661 

Mechanics'  Institute,  London 661 

Hospital  Trust,  The 662 

MeviH  Masonic  Report 662 

Strathroy  Finance  Report 662 

k? VIS  Ll<    XXVl/     CL\J    0t**a>VUA* 

Glencoe  Spring  Fair, 
Independent  Order  o 

Criminal  Statistics 

Court  Robin  Hood 665 

Railway  Land  Subsidies 666 

Church  Appointments 686 

Glencoe  Lacrosse  Club 666 

Entomology 666 

Old  Folks  Concert 667 

London  Cricket  Club. 667 

Insurance  Abstract 668 

Lawyers  Banquet 668 

Scott  Act  at  Strathroy 668 

J1889 669 
er  of  Foresters 669 

Mortuary  Statistics 670 

Methodists,  The 670 

Dairying  Interests 671 

Oddfellows'  Annual  Statement.  ...    671 

Public  Revenue 672 

Strathroy  Mechanics'  Institute 672 

A,  O.  U.  W 674 

Base  Ball  Association 674 

Papal  Aggression 674 

Presbytery  of  London 676 

Canadian  Pacific  Railway 678 

District  Methodist  Meeting 678 

Loyal  Orange  Association 680 

Sundry  Notes 680 

Physicians 683 

Strathroy  Methodists 684 

West  Middlesex  Reform  Association  685 

Victoria  Circle 686 

Australian  Population 686 

Collegiate   Institute   Examinations, 

1889 686 

Scraps  of  Early  History 688 

Early  Fair  Premiums 691 

Canadian  Order  of  Foresters  693 



Norse  Discoverers,  The 695 

English  Discoverers,  The 695 

French  Settlements 696 

Explorations  by  the  French 697 

Cham  plain  698 

Treaties  of  Peace.  700 

Conquest  by  the  English 702 

Canadian  Government,  Early 703 

Changes,  etc 704 

War  of  1812,  The 705 

Confederation 706 

Upper  Canadian  Rebellion 707 

BIOGRAPHY 709-1076 


Tecumseh,  the  Shawanee  Chief. 



Marquette's  Map 43-44 

Roman  Catholic  Cathedral. 92-93 

View  on  Richmond  Street,  London. .  125-126 

An  Old  Settler 190-191 

London  Water-works 271-272 

Pheasant  Hunting 352-353 

London  Medical  School 401-402 

Hellmuth  Ladies'  College 451-452 

A  Midsummer  Scene 549-550 

Masonic  Temple,  London 663-664 

Site  of  an  Early  Log  Cabin 761-762 

A  Midwinter  Scene 827-828 

George  T.  Hiscox 858-859 

By  the  River 909-910 


)F  THE- 




Location  and  Valuation. — Middlesex  County  may  be  said  to  be 
the  central  tract  of  the  Erie  and  Huron  Peninsula  of  Ontario,  in  lati- 
tude 42°  58'  20",  and  longitude  81°  14'  8".  In  1827,  and  even  later, 
the  County  extended  from  Lake  Erie  to  Lake  Huron,  and  from  the  line 
of  Zone  Township  to  the  line  of  Burford, — a  tract  now  embracing  the 
counties  of  Middlesex,  Elgin,  Oxford,  Huron,  Perth,  and  Bruce.  In 
1887  the  total  number  of  acres  assessed  was  758,571,  exclusive  of  the 
acreage  within  the  boundaries  of  incorporated  towns.  Including  the 
town  property,  the  total  assessed  value  of  real  estate  amounted  to 
$24,853,322  ;  and  the  equalized  value  of  all  property — real  and  per- 
sonal— was  placed  at  $34,223,607,  being  about  two-thirds  of  the  true 
value  of  the  County,  exclusive  of  London  City. 

Soil. — The  valley  of  the  Thames,  together  with  the  rich  alluvial  flats 
which  extend  from  it  northward  to  the  north  of  the  North  Branch  of  Bear 
Creek,  and  southward  nearly  to  the  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  i§  remarkable 
for  its  great  fertility  and  its  luxuriant  forest  growth.  The  soil  is 
generally  clay,  with  a  covering  of  rich  vegetable  mould,  and  is  clothed 
in  the  natural  state  with  oak,  elm,  black  walnut,  and  white-wood  trees 
of  large  size,  together  with  fine  groves  of  sugar  maple.  Toward  the 
north  of  the  Thames,  and  on  the  borders  of  Lake  St.  Clair,  is  an  area 
of  natural  prairie  of  about  30,000  acres. 

The  River  Thames. — Among  the  reminiscences  of  the  French 
explorers  of  the  17th  century,  there  is  no  distinction  drawn  between 
the  estuary  of  this  river  and  the  mouths  of  the  various  streams  which 


flow  into  the  waters  connecting  Lake  Huron  with  Lake  Erie;  in 
fact,  those  children  of  faith  in  religion,  in  adventure,  and  in  commerce, 
were  not  seeking  anything  diminutive  in  nature.  The  great  lakes  and 
rivers,  the  distant  Mississippi,  the  far-away  "Mountains  of  the 
Setting  Sun,"  and  the  savage  inhabitants  of  the  unknown  lands, 
formed  the  objects  of  their  search,  so  that  it  is  not  to  be  wondered  at 
that  the  pioneers  of  a  new  world  left  to  men  of  later  days  the  task  of 
exploring  the  smaller  rivers,  lakes  and  mountains  of  the  continent.  In 
the  archives  of  the  Minister  of  Marine,  at  Paris,  may  be  found  the 
first  chart  of  the  country,  now  known  as  the  Valley  of  the  Thames. 
This  chart  and  accompanying  report  was  made  to  Louis  XV's 
Secretary  in  1744,  and  both  were  printed  the  same  year  by  N.  Bellin, 
the  report  going  so  far  as  to  state  that  the  river  was  without  a  rapid 
for  eighty  French  leagues,  and  that  for  centuries  it  was  known  as 
Askunesippi,  or  Antlered  Kiver.  On  this  report  being  transmitted 
to  Canada,  the  trapper,  the  voyageur,  and  the  adventurer  directed 
some  of  their  attention  to  the  beautiful  valley,  and  in  1745-6  the  river 
is  heard  of  as  La  Tranchee.  In  the  latter  half  of  the  18th  Century  it 
is  called  La  Tranche,  and  on  July  16,  1792,  the  present  name — The 
Thames — was  conferred  upon  it  by  the  official  act  of  Governor  Simcoe. 
Shortly  after  the  United  States  cast  off  the  bondage  of  trans-atlantic 
rule,  Lord  Edward  Fitzgerald,  one  of  the  Irish  Eevolutionists  of  1798, 
traversed  this  valley,  accompanied  by  the  African  who  saved  his  life  after 
the  battle  of  Eutaw  Springs,  S.  C.,  Sept.  8, 1781,  and  by  a  few  Mohawks 
under  Brant.  He  it  was  who  first  described  the  Thames,  and  along  its 
banks  dwelt  on  the  cause  of  liberty,  against  which  he  so  recently  and 
so  gallantly  fought.  During  the  winter  of  1792-3  Governor  Simcoe, 
Major  Littlehales  and  Lieutenant  Talbot,  with  four  other  army  officers, 
came  up  from  Navy  Hall  at  Niagara,  halting  en,  route  at  the  Nelles' 
House,  on  the  Grand  Kiver,  and  at  the  Village  of  the  Mohawks,  where 
Brant  and  a  crowd  of  his  Indians  joined  them,  and  whence  they  set 
out  to  La  Tranche,  a  name  hidden  or  stolen  the  year  before  by  the 
chief  of  that  very  party,  who  now  came  to  admire  the  old  river  under 
its  new  name.  In  the  early  part  of  1793  a  surveyor  named  McNift" 
was  ordered  to  sound  the  river  to  the  proposed  town  of  Georgina- 
upou-Thames.  He  reported  that  the  erection  of  two  locks  would  leave 
the  river  a  navigable  one  to  the  Upper  Forks,  and  this  report  was 
forwarded  with  all  due  solemnity  to  the  parties  in  interest,  its  principal 
enthusiastic  advocate  recommending  its  acceptance,  and  suggesting  the 
prompt  improvement  of  the  river.  The  subsequent  troubles  and 
removal  of  Simcoe  put  a  stop  to  public  improvements,  and  so  crippled 
the  Government,  that  the  rulers  were  well  pleased  to  be  able  to  cut  a 
military  road  or  trail  to  Chatham  and  Sandwich  along  the  river  bank 
or  plateau,  leaving  the  question  of  navigation  seriously  alone.  The 
Thames  may  be  said  to  form  the  great  drainage  basin  for  Southern  and 
Central  Middlesex,  as  well  as  for  London  City.  The  water  is 
impure  from  sources  to  estuary,  owing  to  this  being  the  case;  while,  as 



a  navigable  stream,  it  is  only  used  within  the  county  by  a  few  pleasure 
steamboats,  which  ply  between  London  and  the  water-works  at 
Springbank,  from  June  to  September.  In  the  early  years  of  the 
district,  grist-mills  were  erected  along  its  course,  and  to-day  a  few  are 
operated  by  this  water-power. 

Other  Streams. — The  Aux  Sauble,  in  the  northern  and  north- 
western townships,  has  played  an  important  part  in  the  drama  of 
progress.  This  river  drains  an  immense  area,  its  head- waters  spreading 
out  in  every  direction,  affording  water-power  to  many  mills,  and 
drainage  advantages  to  many  sections. 

Bear  Creek,  the  Wye,  the  two  forks  of  the  Thames,  and  a  hundred 
minor  creeks,  give  a  stream  to  almost  every  farm,  and,  with  the  greater 
river,  contribute  to  render  bridge  and  culvert  construction  a  permanent 
local  industry  of  no  small  importance. 

Geology. — Middlesex  has  never  been  made  the  field  of  extensive 
geological  exploration,  although  scientists  have  established  the  fact 
that  at  about  the  same  level  are  found  nearly  the  same  deposits  as  in 
the  country  adjacent  on  the  east  and  south — indicating  that  this  section 
of  Canada  has  not  undergone  any  modern  geological  disturbance.  In 
1861-5  the  country  suffered  from  an  unhealthy  oil  fever;  but  soon 
after  men  learned  that  this  was  not  the  region  to  find  a  great  coal  bed, 
nor  yet  a  great  oil  fountain.  Director  Selwyn,  of  the  Canadian 
Geological  Survey,  writing  under  date  of  June  13,  1888,  says : — "About 
London  the  country  is  covered  to  a  depth  of  more  than  100  feet  by 
sand  and  clay,  with  pebbles  and  boulders.  Beneath  these  surface 
deposits,  the  whole  area  of  the  county  is  supposed  to  be  underlaid  by 
the  Devonian  formations — known  as  the  Hamilton  shales  and  the 
Corniferous  limestone.  The  greater  part,  if  not  all  the  oil  and  salt 
wells  of  Ontario,  are  bored  in  these  formations.  At  greater  depths,  the 
formations  which  yield  the  large  supplies  of  gas  and  oil  in  Ohio  would 
be  found  to  underlie  the  whole  of  the  County  of  Middlesex,  and  might 
yield  similar  valuable  deposits.  The  Trenton  limestone,  which  crops 
out  along  the  north  shore  of  Lake  Ontario,  from  Kingston  to  Port 
Newcastle  and  through  to  the  Georgian  Bay,  yields  the  gas  and  oil  in 
Ohio,  being  reached  at  a  depth  of  2,200  feet  from  the  surface." 

Building  Stone. — In  November,  1843,  Surveyor  Cull  deals  very 
fully  with  the  building  of  the  jail,  introducing  Tristram  Coates,  a 
would-be  contractor  for  lumber,  and  Garrison  &  Sifton,  cut-stone 
contractors.  It  appears  that  Cull  managed  to  cut  off  these  men,  and 
better  still,  to  discover  a  quarry.  Speaking  of  this  quarry,  Cull  says : — 
"  I  stated  to  the  Council  that  a  valuable  quarry  had  been  discovered 
on  the  banks  of  the  North  Kiver,  about  four  miles  from  London.*  That 
quarry  is  believed  to  contain  an  almost  inexhaustible  supply.  The 
proprietor  at  first  demanded  as  high  as  twelve  shillings  and  sixpence 

*  F.  B.  Talbot  thinks  it  is  the  present  Barnes'  quarry,  six  miles  distant,  while  William 
McClary  thinks  it  was  taken  out  of  Gray's  quarry,  on  the  North  Branch,  two  concessions 
north  of  the  Asylum.— ED. 

14  HISTORY   OF    THE 

per  cord.  After  some  difficulty,  an  agreement  was  made  witli  him  for 
seven  shillings  and  sixpence  per  cord,  and  five  shillings  per  cord  for 
quarrying."  This  stone  is  very  rough,  but  durable.  A  good  limestone 
is  found  in  Westminster. 

Sand  and  Gravel— Throughout  the  county  great  sand  and  gravel 
beds  exist.  At  the  beginning  of  the  pike  roads  in  this  section  of 
Canada,  County  Engineer  Talbot,  unacquainted  with  these  great 
deposits,  suggested  the  building  of  charcoal  roads ;  but  his  report  to 
the  County  Council  brought  out  the  fact  that  heavy  gravel  could  be 
found  in  every  township.  Subsequently  the  toll-road  system  was 
introduced,  and  henceforth  the  gravel  beds  of  the  county  offered  a 
wide  field  for  development — particularly  at  Komoka,  in  Lobo ;  and  at 
Putnamville,  in  Dorchester. 

Oil  Wells.— The  Indians,  it  is  said,  used  to  collect  crude  petroleum 
along  the  Thames  in  early  days  and  sell  it  to  the  pioneers,  to  be  used 
for  lighting  purposes  as  well  as  axle  grease  ;  but  Indian  enterprise  did 
not  seek  below  the  surface  for  this  very  marketable  commodity  ;  so, 
that  for  half  a  century  the  so-called  oil  fountains  were  left  unexplored. 
During  the  year  1865,  several  oil  prospectors  were  in  the  county,  and 
every  day  brought  an  account  of  some  new  well  in  Delaware,  Williams, 
Adelaide,  and  even  London  and  eastern  townships.  In  November,  the 
Hicks'  oil  well  was  bored — 266  feet — 86  through  sand  and  gravel, 
80  through  white  lime  rock,  50  through  sand,  and  50  through  soft  lime 
rock.  At  15  feet  in  the  white  lime  rock,  a  vein  of  black  sulphur  water 
was  struck.  On  the  evening  of  November  10th,  a  crevice  in  the  soft 
lime  rock  was  tapped  when  a  flow  of  petroleum-impregnated  water 
was  struck,  yielding  1,000  barrels  per  day,  of  which  there  were  about 
three  barrels  of  oil.  In  1865,  Professor  Winchell  denounced  the 
statement  that  oil  existed  in  any  paying  quantities  within  Middlesex 
County ;  while  T.  M.  Reynolds,  then  residing  at  London,  stated  that 
"  excellent  oil  springs  existed  above  and  below  the  Thames  Forks." 
Reynolds  based  his  opinion  on  statements  made  by  Professor  Hall,  at 
the  great  oil  meeting  held  at  the  City  Hall,  October  6th,  1865,  who  said 
that  in  1846  he  saw  two  fossils  taken  from  the  Thames  at  London, 
peculiar  to  the  Hamilton  group.  The  Professor  was  so  earnest  in  this 
opinion  that  he  purchased  an  interest  in  the  Hicks'  well,  then  beinc* 
bored  west  of  the  city  on  the  Thames.  Previous  to  this,  wild  state- 
ments were  made  at  the  oil  men's  banquet  at  the  Tecumseh  House 
which  the  Michigan  geologist  thought  well  to  deny.  At  Cashmere  in 
Mosa ;  Sylvan,  in  West  Williams,  and  on  Poore's  Farm,  in  McGillivray 
small  quantities  of  oil  were  produced. 

Salt  Wells.— The  Onondaga  rock  enters  Canada  on  the  Niagara 
River  above  the  falls.  In  Middlesex  County,  it  is  represented  in  the 
western  townships-at  Glencoe,  Park  Hill,  and  other  places  where  the 
salt  rock  has  been  penetrated.  The  salt  rock  at  Warwick  was  struck 

af  ^nPf    f     ™°°  feft>  and  the  Salt  stratum  was  Pierced  to  a  depth 
of  100  feet.    The  rock  at  Warwick  is  only  90  feet  below  the  level  of 



that  at  Goderich,  80  miles  north ;  300  feet  below  the  rock  at  Kincardine, 
30  miles  north  of  Goderich,  and  500  feet  below  the  rock  at  Inverhuron. 
The  strata  from  Inverhuron  to  Warwick  is  almost  identical,  being 
limestone,  white  flint  rock,  blue  shale,  salt  rock,  and,  beneath,  a  spongy 
sulphurous  rock  containing  sulphur  beds. 

Fire  Clay. — In  almost  every  section  of  the  county  excellent 
material  for  brick,  tile  and  drain-pipe  manufacture  exists.  From  the 
period  when  the  first  brickyard  was  opened  on  Con.  1 ,  of  Westminster, 
by  the  Griffiths,  or  that  on  Bathurst  street,  between  Talbot  and  Ridout, 
to  the  present  time,  Middlesex  cream  bricks  have  attained  celebrity ; 
and  since  the  introduction  of  the  Michigan  brick  machine,  have  almost 
approached  in  excellence  the  manufactures  of  the  Milwaukee,  (Wis.) 
yards.  Potter's  clay  is  also  found  in  some  quantity,  and  the  owners  of 
the  London  Pottery  now  propose  to  use  it  in  some  wares,  in  preference 
to  imported  earth.  The  Tiffany  brick  machine  was  invented  by  Geo. 
S.  Tiffany,  of  Tecumseh,  Mich.,  while  the  machine  manufactured  at 
Park  Hill,  is  the  invention  of  another  citizen. 

Trees  and  Shrubs. — In  the  days  of  the  pioneers,  the  plateau  of  the 
Thames,  the  eastern  and  central  part  of  Dorchester  and  parts  of  Dela- 
ware, formed  the  pine -district.  The  trees  were  known  as  white  pine, 
although  in  one  case — Miles  V.  Jolly — the  latter  tried  to  set  aside  a 
contract  reserving  the  white  pine  on  lands  purchased  from  the  former, 
basing  his  case  on  the  fact  that  the  trees  were  not  really  white  pine, 
but  of  some  other  class  of  the  pine  family.  In  the  northern  part  of 
the  county  hemlock  predominated ;  but  throughout  the  maple,  oak, 
elm,  and  all  those  hardwood  giants  of  the  Canadian  forest  attained  a 
heavy  growth.  In  March,  1879,  a  white- wood  tree  was  cut  on  Donald 
McPherson's  farm  in  East  Williams,  which  yielded  6,000  feet  of  sawn 
lumber — the  butt  alone  yielding  1,200  feet.  The  product  brought  $120. 


'    CHAPTER  IT. 

INDIAN   RESIDENTS   FROM    1580   TO   1888. 

Earliest  Indian  Residents.— The  Indian,  being  without  a  litera- 
ture, knows  nothing  of  his  origin.  The  Frenchman  and  Spaniard 
found  him  here,  and  learning  from  him  all  he  did  know,  gave  the  story 
to  civilization  as  an  Indian  legend,  while  treating  the  new-found  race 
historically  as  they  found  it. 

The  Hurons,  originally  the  Wyandots,  were  at  Quebec  in  Io34, 
when  Jagques  Cartier  arrived  there.  Later,  they  formed  an  alliance 
with  the  Adirondacks,  but  when  the  latter  joined  the  Southern  Iroquois 
Confederacy  (about  1580),  the  prestige  of  the  Wyandots  began  to  fade, 
and  the  dispersion  of  the  tribe  overall  Canada  to  Lake  Huron  followed. 
Early  in  the  16th  century,  they,  with  some  Mississaugas  and  members 
of  other  tribes,  formed  a  new  confederacy  with  villages  along  the 
Thames  and  Lake  and  Eiver  St.  Glair.  In  1649,  this  new  branch  of 
the  tribe  was  dispersed  by  the  Southern  Confederacy.  The  name 
originates  in  the  phrase  Quelles  Hures  (What  Heads),  applied  by  the 
French  of  Marquette's  time  on  first  seeing  them  in  their  new  western 
home.  During  the  winter  of  1615-16,  Champlain  visited  among  the 
tribes  then  inhabiting  the  Peninsula,  formed  by  Lake  Erie  and  St.  Clair 
river.  The  country  was  then  inhabited  by  a  tribe,  to  whom  Champlain 
gave  the  name  Neutral  Nation,  or  Nation  de  Truite ;  while  the  whole 
country  west  was  called  Conchradum,  and  after  the  Iroquois  war> 
Saguinan.  The  Hurons  were,  undoubtedly,  a  branch  of  the  great 
Algonquin  race/Avhich,  under  several  names,  owned  Ontario  from  the 
Ottawa  to  Lake  Huron.  To  this  Ontario  division  the  general  title  of 
Iroquois  du  Nord  was  given  by  the  French  for  military  and  political 
purposes.  After  the  great  war  of  1649,  the  Otchipwas  and  Mississ- 
augas moved  from  the  South  into  Canada,  and  the  victorious  Iroquois  of 
the  South  returned  to  their  original  homes. 

The  Mississaugas  are  first  named  by  the  French  in  1620.  Prior  to 
the  Revolution  they  moved  from  the  Upper  Lake  region  -and  Minnesota 
to  the  country  east  of  the  Georgian  Bay,  and  in  the  Albany  (N.  Y.) 
Council  of  1746  they  were  taken  into  the  Iroquois  Confederacy  as  the 
seventh  nation.  Charlevoix  speaks  of  them  as  having  villages  at 
Niagara,  on  the  La  Tranchee  and  on  Lake  St.  Clair  subsequent  to  1649. 
They  were  also  known  as  Souters  or  Jumpers,  and  at  the  close  of  the 
eighteenth  century  seemed  to  be  the  sole  aboriginal  occupiers  of  what 
now  constitutes  the  Province  of  Ontario. 

Back  in  the  beginning  of  the  15th  century  the  Mohawks,  Oneidas, 
Cayugas,  Onondagas,  and  Senecas,  inhabiting  what  is  now  the  States 
of  New  York,  Pennsylvania  and  Ohio,  and  roaming  at  will  over 



adjacent  territory,  entered  into  a  treaty  of  friendship,  under  the  title 
"  Five  Nations ;"  and  so,  the  Iroquois,  with  a  few  changes,  such  as 
ousting  the  Oneidas  and  taking  the  Aucguagas,  continued  to  live  under 
this  treaty  for  nearly  three  hundred  years,  when,  in  1712,  the  Tuscaroras 
came  from  North  Carolina  to  join  the  confederacy,  and  were  admitted 
as  the  sixth  nation,  since  which  time  the  name — Six  Nations — has 
been  applied,  with  the  exception  of  the  short  period,  the  Mississaugas 
held  a  place  in  the  Council.  Their  powerful  opponents  were  the 
Dela wares,  Cherokees,  Mohicans,  Adirondacks  and  Hurons.  The 
latter's  power  was  broken  about  1647  by  the  terrible  Iroquois,  while 
in  1653  the  Erie  nation  was  almost  wiped  out  of  existence  by  the 
fierce  warriors.  The  Iroquois  on  July  19,  1701,  ceded  to  the  British 
all  the  following  described  tract : — 

"  That  vast  tract  of  land  or  colony  called  Canagaviavchio,  beginning  on  the  north- 
west side  of  Cadavachqui  (Ontario)  Lake,  and  includes  all  the  land  lying  between  the 
great  lake  of  Ottawa  (Huron),  and  the  lake  called  by  the  natives  Sahiquage,  and  by 
the  Christians  the  Lake  of  Sweege  (Oswego  for  Lake  Erie),  and  runs  till  it  butts  upon 
the  Twichtwichs,  and  is  bounded  westward  by  the  Twichtwichs,  on  the  eastward  by  a 
place  called  Quadoge,  containing  in  length  about  800  miles,  and  breadth  400  miles, 
including  the  country  where  beavers  and  all  sorts  of  wild  game  keep,  and  the  place 
called  Tjeughsaghrondie,  alias  Fort  De  Tret,  or  Wawyachttenock  (Detroit),  and  so 
runs  round  the  Lake  of  Sweege  till  you  come  to  a  place  called  Oniardarundaquat." 

Tribal  and  Individual  History. — The  Mohawks,  one  of  the 
tribes  composing  the  Six  Nations,  were  adherents  of  the  British,  and 
in  the  British  service  during  the  American  Revolution.  They  were 
also  known  by  the  French  as  Agniers.  After  the  war  the  Mohawks 
crossed  from  their  temporary  home  on  the  American  side  of  the 
Niagara,  and  ultimately  settled  on  a  tract  of  land  on  the  Bav  of  Quinte, 
purchased  from  the  Mississaugas  by  the  British  for  them.  The  Senecas 
desired  that  the  Mohawks  should  live  nearer  to  them,  and  on  the 
latter  expressing  a  desire  to  accede  to  the  wish  of  the  Senecas,  the 
Government  granted  them  six  square  miles  on  Grand  River.  Their 
advent  to  Canada  dates  back  to  1780-1,  even  before  the  down- 
fall of  the  British  force  under  Cornwallis.  Brant  commanded  the 
whole  tribe,  with  his  cousin,  John  Brant,  an  older  man,  second  in 
command.  In  1783-4  the  tribe  wintered  at  Cataraqui. 

Thayendinagea  was  the  original  Indian  name  of  the  chief,  Joseph 
Brant.  He  was  born  on  the  banks  of  the  Ohio  in  1742,  where  his 
father,  Tchowaghwengaraghkwin,  a  full-blooded  Mohawk  of  the  Wolf 
Tribe,  held  sway;  but  Soieugarahta — old  King  Hendrick — was  the 
great  chief  whom  Joseph  Brant  succeeded.  John  Brant,  chief  of  the 
Six  Nations,  died  of  cholera,  at  Brantford,  Aug.  27,  1832.  He  was 
the  son  of  the  Indian  Chief  Brant,  who  died  Nov.  24,  1807,  while  his 
squaw  retired  to  Grand  River,  where  she  also  died.  His  annual  pay 
and  perquisites,  granted  him  by  the  British  for  his  service  against  the 
Americans,  amounted  to  £500  annually. 

John  Smoke  Johnson,  a  Mohawk  chief,  who  aided  the  British  in 
1812-14,  died  in  1886,  aged  94  years. 


After  a  part  of  the  Oneidas  ceded  their  lands  near  Oneida  Lake, 
N.  Y.,  in  1829  or  1830,  they  migrated  westward  in  charge  of  two 
Church  of  England  missionaries — Davis  and  Williams.  They  settled 
near  Green  Bay.  In  1840,  the  remainder  of  their  lands  was  sold,  and 
coming  to  Canada  they  purchased  5,000  acres  in  Delaware  township, 
where  Moses  Schuyler  was  a  chief,  and  Taylor  Dockstader,  a  large 
fanner,  in  1850.  In  1871  this  band  numbered  641;  in  1881,  688, 
and  in  1887,  775.  Their  reservation  comprises  5,000  acres  in  Dela- 
ware; Township,  purchased  by  them  about  1838,  and  held  in  trust  for 
them  by  the  Government.  Of  their  four  schools,  one  is  presided  over 
by  a  white  female  teacher,  and  the  others  by  natives.  The  Oneidas 
belong  to  the  second  division  of  the  Western  Superintendency,  of  which 
Thomas  Gordon  is  agent. 

The  Munceys  originally  belonged  to  Pennsylvania,  and  were  among 
the  tribes  with  whom   Penn's  memorable,  though  unwritten,  treaty 
was  made.     From  this  time  until  the  year  1757  they  lived  quietly 
under  British  rule.     In  the  series  of  conflicts  which  then  took  place 
between  the  English  and  French  troops,  the  Munceys  invariably  fought 
under  the  English  flag  despite  all  overtures  made  to  them  by  the 
French.     By  a  treaty  made  between  them  and  Sir  William  Johnston, 
commander  of  the  British  forces  at  Fort  Johnson  in  1757,  these  Indians 
were   promised  in    return  for  their  alliance,  the  protection   of  the 
" Great  King  George  the  Third"  against  all  their  enemies;  that  their 
material  interests  should  be  continuously  looked  after,  and  the  pos- 
session of  their  lands  guaranteed  to  them.     The  Indians,  on  their  part, 
agreed  to  "rise  up  as  one  man,  and  assist  His  Majesty's  arms  in  driving 
the  French  out  of  the  country."     It  is  upon  this  treaty,  and  the  pro~- 
mises  it  contained,  the  Munceys  now  rely.     The  Munceys  kept  their 
promises,  and  when  the  Revolutionary  War  broke  out  some  years  later 
were  moved  by  their  allies  to  undisturbed  British  soil.     Colonel  Sir 
VVilliam  Butler,  then  commanding  the  Royal  troops,  havincr  said  to 
them  on  that  occasion,  that  King  George  III  would  replace  their  losses 
m  Canada.     Grants  of  land  were  made  to  all  the  friendly  Indians 
except  to  the  Munceys  and  the  Shawanees.     The  former  ultimately 
settled  on  the  Grand  River,  till  their  services  were  called  for  on  the 
outbreak  of  the  War  of  1812,  when   they  fought  under  Tecumseh. 
When  peace  was  proclaimed,  the  claims  of  the  Munceys  (now  only  a 
•emnant  of  a  tribe)  were  again  overlooked,  but  they  were  allowed  to 
wander  at  will.     Finally  they  settled  where  they  now  are,  on  land 
Kjlongmg  to  the  Otchipwas,  who  allowed  them  to  remain  there  tern- 
>ranly.     Some  years  later  the  land  was  purchased  of  the  Otchipwas 
he  Canadian  Government,  but  the  Munceys  have  been  in  possession 
down  to  the  present  time.     The  reservation  is  about  seven  miles  in 
*ngth,  forming  an  irregular  square,  and  is  now  intercepted  by  two 
r^ways-the  mam  line  of  the  Canada  Southern,  and  a  loop  line  of  the 

Jd  bv  th     O    V1"2  the  r  Sti°n  °f  evictinS  the  wh'le  tribe  TO 
issed  by  the  Otchipwas  and  carried  to  such  extremes  that  Half 


Moon,  an  educated  youth,  was  deputed  to  visit  Philadelphia  in  search 
of  evidence  to  sustain  their  claims,  and  the  second  chief  of  the  tribe, 
who  was  also  their  schoolmaster,  to  go  to  England  and  urge  them  before 
the  Queen.  Half  Moon,  however,  died,  but  the  Quakers  of  the  city 
found  the  records,  and  the  delegate,  Wahbunahkee,  who  called  him- 
self Scebie  Logan,  was  sent  to  England.  He  is  a  broad  shouldered 
fellow  of  five-and-twenty,  a  full-blooded  Indian,  having  descended  from 
Muncey  and  Mohican  parents.  In  appearance  he  possesses  all  the 
most  marked  characteristics  of  the  red  race,  including  the  heavy  gait 
which  appears  so  prominent  if  European  costume  is  worn,  but  ceases  to 
be  apparent  in  Indian  costume.  He  was  educated  at  the  Mohawk 
Institute  at  Brantford,  Ontario,  and  was  elected  second  chief  of  the 
Muncey s  in  April,  1881,  his  selection  being  on  account  of  his  educa- 
tion which  was  superior  to  that  of  most  Indians,  and  of  his  being  a  total 
abstainer  from  the  destructive  fire-water.  Besides  being  a  school- 
master, he  was  a  substantial  farmer.  The  historic  tomahawk,  which 
was  carried  by  their  chief  through  many  a  battle,  and  hung  in  the 
wigwam's  smoke  for  many  a  year,  was  to  be  presented  to  the  Queen. 
In  March,  1883,  a  deputation  from  the  Munceys  visited  Ottawa,  to  ask 
the  Government's  assistance  in  settling  their  dispute  with  the  Otchipwas. 
In  1886,  Inspector  Dingman  suggested  that  the  Munceys  should  be  left 
in  possession  of  their  lands,  except  498  acres.  This  area  was  to  be 
detached  in  fifty  acre  tracts  from  the  holdings  of  James  Huff,  Jacob 
Dolson,  Jacob,  Joseph  and  Scebie  Logan,  Nellis,  Timothy,  the  heirs  of 
widow  Wilson,  and  W.  Waddilove,  thirty-eight  acres  from  the  lands 
of  James  Wolf,  Sampson,  John,  and  Eichard  Wilson,  and  seventy 
acres  from  James  Wolf.  The  Indians  protested.  In  1871  the  Mun- 
ceys numbered  130;  in  1881,  129,  and  in  1887,  125.  Their  single 
school  is  presided  over  by  a  white  teacher. 

Six  families  of  Pottawattamies,  and  three  families  of  half-breeds, 
who  live  on  this  reserve,  are  not  enumerated  in  the  census  and  tabular 
statement,  as  they  do  not  belong  to  either  of  the  bands  owning  it, 
although  they  are  located  on  the  land  they  occupy.  These  families, 
numbering  twenty  souls,  make  the  number  of  Indians  within  the 
agency  1,378. 

The  Otchipwas,  or  Chippewas,  are,  according  to  Bishop  Baraga,  a 
branch  of  the  Algonquin  race.  They  were  inhabitants  of  Nippissing  and 
Lake  Superior  region  before  the  historic  period,  and  have,  since  that  time, 
been  associated  with  the  Upper  Lake  country.  The  name  was  first  given 
to  a  band  of  Nippercineans,  and  ultimately  was  applied  to  all  speakers  of 
the  Nippercinean  language,  who,  in  1649,  fell  back  on  Lake  Superior 
before  the  advancing  Iroquois,  just  as  the  Bone  Cave  Builders  fell  back 
before  the  Nippercineans.  Their  dialect  was  the  most  refined  of  all  the 
Indian  tongues,  and  won  the  praise  of  the  great  French  students  who 
visited  their  villages.  Such  historic  names  as  Mudjekeewis,  Wanbojug, 
Andaigweos,  and  Gitchee  Waiskee  were  applied  to  the  early  chiefs, 
who  kept  the  tribal  fire  burning  perpetually.  The  first  war  within  the 


historic  period  was  waged  against  the  Upper  Nipperciiieans  by  the 
M<  nominees,  who  dammed  the  mouth  of  Menominee  Kiver,  and  thus 
abolished  the  upper  sturgeon  fisheries.  The  war  raged  from  1627  to 
1648  without  intermission,  and  the  feud  was  carried  down  even  to- 
1857.  Their  war  against  the  Sauks  began  about  1519,  and  continued 
until  nearly  the  whole  of  Michigan  and  Canada,  from  Erie  to  Nippissing, 
bore  marks  of  the  strife.  Nawassiswanabi  succeeded  the  first  chief  of 
the  Otchipwas  of  the  Thames.  Tomaco,  the  next  chief  of  importance, 
was  an  uncle  of  the  present  Nelson  Beaver,  on  his  father's  side.  In 
1812,  those  Indians  served  with  Tecumseh  against  the  Americans. 
Old  Simon,  Yahobance,  Miskokoman,  Jim  Muskalonge,  Kanotaing, 
Jim  Carey  or  Bakakadus,  and  other  warriors,  are  well  known  names 
connected  with  the  war  and  with  this  tribe,  the  present  Nelson  Beaver 
being  born  within  a  half  mile  of  Lambeth,  in  1819.  At  this  time  the 
tribe  was  uncivilized,  but  believed  in  one  ruling  spirit  who  would  take 
them  west  to  the  happy  hunting  grounds,  where  huckleberries  grew, 
the  bad  Indians  falling  off  a  log  into  a  deep  river. 

In  1851,  the  Otchipwas  possessed  9,000  acres  in  Caradoc.  At 
Upper  Muncey  or  Colborne,  at  Old  Munceytown,  and  at  Bear  Creek, 
on  the  north  line  of  the  reservation,  wer,e  their  settlements.  The 
Munceys  settled  among  the  Otchipwas  since  the  beginning  of  the 
present  century,  and  shared  in  the  presents  annually  made  to  the 
Otchipwas,  but  not  in  the  annual  payment  of  £600.  At  Upper 
Muncey,  John  Eiley  was  Chief  and  Peter  Jones  was  Methodist 
Missionary.  In  1840,  Eev.  E.  Flood  was  appointed  Missionary  at  Old 
Muncey,  and  later  a  church  house  was  erected  there.  Logan  was 
Chief  at  this  time. 

The  Otchipwas  of  the  Thames,  in  1871,  numbered  470  ;  in  1881, 
483,  and  in  1887,  458.  With  the  Munceys  they  occupy  the  Caradoc 
Eeserve.  The  reserve  is  composed  of  the  best  land  in  the  Township  of 
Caradoc,  and  contains  12,095  acres.  A  very  large  proportion  of  tha 
waste  land  belonging  to  this  band  has  been  leased  by  the  Department 
to  white  farmers  for  a  short  term  of  years,  under  conditions  of  paying  a 
certain  rental,  and  improving  the  land  by  clearing  it,  making  good 
fences  and  ditching.  The  work  already  done  by  these  lessees  has  made 
a  marked  improvement.  Agent  Gordon,  in  his  report  of  1887,  states  : 
"  Ihere  are  three  schools  upon  the  reserve,  all  taught  by  Indian  teachers. 
Ihe  attendance  at  these  schools  is  not  so  numerous  as  could  be  wished 
Indians  are  careless,  and  often  indifferent  in  sending  their  children  to 
The  teachers  state  that  they  have  done  all  in  their  power  to 
e  children  to  attend,  but  with  indifferent  success.  The  three 

^n  teachers  are  very  exemplary  men  ;  one  of  them  is  head  chief  of 

the  band,  another  is  chief  of  the  Indians  of  Ontario,  chosen  at  the  last 

meeting  of  the  Grand  Council,  and  the  third  teacher  was  lately  head 

the  Munceys  of  the  Thames.     The  new  Council  house  upon 

Reserve  is  just  finished,  and  appears  to  be  a  very  fine  building 
indeed.     It  is  built  of  brick  with  stone  foundation,  and  is  60  by  3? 


feet.  Much  credit  is  due  to  the  contractor  for  the  manner  in  which 
the  work  was  done.  The  Church  of  England  and  the  Methodist  Church 
of  Canada  have  also  each  a  mission  on  this  reserve.  Dr.  Sinclair,  of 
Melbourne,  is  their  medical  adviser,  and  appears  to  be  very  attentive 
to  them.  The  Mount  Elgin  Industrial  Institution,  under  the  able 
management  of  the  Eev.  W.  W.  Shepherd,  continues  to  do  good  work. 
The  children  in  school  and  in  the  workshops  are  making  very  good 

Indians  of  181%. — The  Council  of  Petagwano,  now  Point  Edward,, 
was  held  about  1775.  The  question  which  the  British  agents  placed 
before  this  Council,  "  Which  should  they  help,  American  or  British  ?" 
was  discussed.  They  had  been  in  council  six  days,  but  could  not 
agree,  so  that  they  sent  for  the  great  prophet  and  chief  of  the  Hurons — 
Weinekeuns.  This  chief  was  grimly  grotesque.  Large  and  power- 
full  as  he  was,  Providence  endowed  him  with  three  noses  or  sets  of 
nostrils — a  small  nose  on  each  side  of  the  centre  one.  On  arriving  he 
stepped  into  the  centre  of  the  Council,  and,  addressing  the  warriors, 
said  : — "  My  brothers,  the  Great  Spirit  tells  me  that  we  poor  Indians 
had  best  keep  silence,  for  the  Keshemokomon  (Big  Knife,  or 
American),  will  drive  us  away  beyond  the  Rocky  Mountains.  These 
beautiful  forests  will  not  be  our  home.  It  may  be  you  and  I  will  be 
gone  to  the  happy  hunting  grounds  of  our  fathers,  but  these  things 
will  surely  come.  The  Americans  fight  for  themselves  and  the  British 
for  their  King.  The  Americans  are  few,  but  they  can  fight  for  them- 
selves, and  have  a  great  advantage  ;  they  will  drive  the  English  back 
over  the  great  waters,  and  will  fight  to  the  last.  So  there  is  no  hope 
for  us.  Remain  in  peace.  The  Great  Spirit  has  spoken."  This  chief 
was  known  to  the  early  settlers  along  the  river.  He  reached  the  age 
of  125  years  and  his  wife  101  years,  they  being  the  parents  of  fifteen 

Border  Incidents. — In  1813,  the  Indians  of  the  Western  and 
London  Districts  held  a  great  council  on  the  St.  Clair  River,  at  which 
it  was  decided  to  capture  and  kill  all  American  sympathizers  on  each 
side  of  the  river.  A  friendly  squaw  gave  the  alarm,  and  the  greater 
number  fled  to  Detroit;  but  King,  an  Englishman,  who  settled  in 
Canada,  did  not  think  they  would  harm  him ;  but  next  day,  he  and  a 
man  named  Rodd,  husband  of  old  mother  Rodd,  were  shot  and  killed 
— the  Indians  not  approaching  near  enough  to  recognize  them  as 
Englishmen.  Among  the  savages  engaged  in  this  affair  were  Old  Salt, 
Black  Foot,  Wapoose  (the  medicine  man),  and  Wawanosh,  who  died  at 
Sarnia  about  1878.  For  those  miscreants  the  British  erected  houses  in 
1828  near  Sarnia,  building  material  and  shingles  being  purchased  from 
Burtch,  of  Port  Huron.  At  Marine  City,  and,  indeed,  along  the 
American  bank  of  the  St.  Clair  River,  the  settlers  suffered  much  during 
the  War  of  1812-14.  Families  were  marked  out  for  Indian  vengeance 
by  the  British  on  account  of  the  older  boys  being  in  the  American 



army,  and  it  was  common  for  a  mother  and  her  children  to  hide  in  the 
willow  groves  for  weeks.  The  tragedy  at  Bunce's  Creek,  a  few  miles 
south  of  Port  Huron,  points  out  the  manner  in  which  this  war  was 
conducted  in  Western  Canada.  A  party  of  five  soldiers  started  from 
Fort  Gratio.t  to  row  to  Detroit.  A  company  of  Indians  under  Tawas, 
a  quarter-breed,  was  at  this  point  awaiting  them,  and,  when  the  soldiers 
appeared,  hoisted  a  white  flag  to  decoy  them.  The  troops,  unfortu- 
nately, rowed  toward  the  creek  ;  but  when  close  to  the  river  bank,  the 
Indians  opened  fire,  killing  four  of  the  men,  leaving  the  fifth  to  sink  or 
swim  in  the  river.  He  saved  himself,  however,  and,  after  many  hard- 
ships, returned  to  Fort  Gratiot.  The  Indians  made  life  along  the  border 
so  unendurable  that  all  the  families,  except  Mrs.  Harrow's,  moved  to 
Canada,  and  swore  allegiance  to  the  British  ;  but  many  returned  afte"r 
the  defeat  of  Proctor  on  the-  Thames. 

The  half-breed  Magee  commanded  the  Indians  during  Major 
Mulir's  occupation  of  Detroit,  or  from  the  surrender  of  Hull  to  the 
arrival  of  Harrison.  At  times  the  Indian  captain  would  be  so  drunk 
regular  troops  would  have  to  remove  him.  Whether  drunk  or  sober 
his  power  over  his  dusky  command  was  remarkable,  and  it  is  said  that 
Magee's  terrific  yell  (he  had  a  voice  like  a  lion,)  would  gather  round 
him  all  the  savages,  as  a  bugle  call  would  gather  the  regular  troops  to 
Mulir's  quarters.  During  the  year  ending  in  October,  1813,  a  number 
of  Americans  were  killed  along  the  border,  and  it  required  the  greatest 
care  and  vigilance  on  the  part  of  the  British  commanders  to  check  the 
Indians,  as_wejl_as  their  own.  .trporjs,  ^in  their  murderous  designs  on 
border  wcTnieii  and  children,  who  had  moved  into  Canada,  and  taken  the 
required  oath  of  allegiance.  The  original  instruction  to  the  savages  to 
annihilate  the  Americans  was,  however,  carried  out  by  them,  as  far  as 
it  was  possible.  <  In  1812,  and  for  years  before,  the  Shanaway  Indians 
resided  on  Big  Bear  Creek,  making  camps  up  that  creek  and  the 
Thames,  from  March  to  October,  and  spending  the  winters  near  Lake 
•St.  Clair.  There  were  five  sons,  who  were  all  British  warriors.  One 
of  them  named  Megish  was  killed  at  Lundy's  Lane  by  Capt.  Chesby 
O'Blake,  who  was  mate  of  a  brig  lying  at  Newburyport,  who,  being 
blocaded  by  the  British,  tied  up  his  ship,  and,  with  his  men,  joined 
Scott's  brigade. 

Nimecance,  or  Lightning,  a  son  of  Kioscance,  served  under  Patrick 
Sinclair,  commander  of  the  British  garrison  at  Pine  River,  now  St. 
Clair  City,  Mich.  In  1817  this  Indian  was  105  years  old,  and  still 
attended  to  his  corn  fields,  four  miles  south  of  the  Port  Huron  Custom 
House.  He  died  about  1824,  aged  112  years. 

His  father,  Kioscance,  was  chief  of  the  Otchipwas,  in  their  wars 
against  the  Wyandots  and  Six  Nations.  His  fleet  was  so  extensive 
that  it  covered  the  old  broad  St.  Clair  from  Point  Edward  to  Walpole 
Nicholos  Plane,  chief  of  the  Sarnia  Indians,  is  a  great 
grandson  of  old  Kioscance.  His  tribe  was  known  as  the  Rapid  Tribe, 
whose  village  was  about  a  mile  north-east  of  the  present  town  of  Point 



Edward,  prior  to  their  removal  to  Fort  Gratiot,  after  their  incursion 
into  the  Erie  country. 

Okemos,  the  nephew  of  Pontiac,  and  head  chief  of  the  Otchipwas, 
was  born  in  Michigan  in  1763.  In  later  years  he  performed  feats  of 
valor  for  the  British  at  Sandusky,  which  won  for  him  the  name  of  being 
the  greatest  warrior  and  chief  of  his  tribe.  He,  with  Manito  Corbay 
and  sixteen  other  warriors,  was  afterwards  sent  out  by  the  British 
Commandant  at  Detroit  to  reconnoitre  as  far  as  the  British  rendezvous 
at  Sandusky.  They  ambushed  a  party  of  mounted  American  rifle- 
men, but  suffered  so  terribly  from  the  charge  which  followed,  that  they 
would  not  join  Tecumseh  in  1812.  Okemos  died  in  1858,  with  a  name 
known  from  Sandusky  to  Niagara  and  Detroit. 

The  half-breed,  John  Riley,  who  in  early  years  resided  at  Port 
Huron,  but  made  his  home  along  the  Thames,  Bear  Creek,  and  Aux 
Sauble.  was  a  great  hunter.  One  Sunday,  while  walking  in  the  woods 
with  a  boy,  he  discovered  a  large  log  in  which  some  animal  was  living. 
He  said  to  the  boy  "  Abscoin,  hashapun  "  (John,  a  raccoon).  The  boy 
entered,  but  came  out  with  great  speed,  crying  4<  Moguash,  Moguash " 
(a  bear,  a  bear).  Eiley  drew  his  tomahawk,  and  when  the  bear's  head 
appeared  buried  the  weapon  in  his  brains,  thus  obtaining  400  pounds 
of  bear  without  intentionally  breaking  the  Sabbath,  of  which  he  pre- 
tended to  be  a  strict  observer. 

Kumekumenon,  or  Macompte,  although  residing  for  years  on  the 
western  border  of  Lake  St.  Glair,  exercised  much  influence  over  the 
Indians  of  Western  Canada  until  1816,  when  death  relieved  him  of 
power.  His  sons — one  bearing  the  same  name,  and  one  Francis — 
moved  to  Lakeville,  Mich,  in  1830.  The  latter,  with  Truckatoe  and 
Kanobe,  was  subsequently  an  important  man  until  the  westward 
movement  of  the  tribes.  Kanobe  moved  to  Canada  in  1 827. 

Shignebeck,  a  son  of  Kioscance,  was  109  years  of  age  at  his  death 
in  the  thirties.  Ogotig,  a  daughter,  lived  to  see  107  years;  old 
mother  Rodd,  who  died  in  1870,  on  the  Sarnia  reservation,  was  104 
years  old,  while  Onsha,  a  third  son  of  the  chief,  reached  a  very  old  age. 

Old  Wittaniss  was  a  sub-chief  among  the  remnant  of  the  Hurons 
in  1776.  About  that  time  he  assisted  the  British,  and  during  the  war 
of  1812  was  one  of  their  Indian  allies. 

Tipsikaw,  who  left  the  St.  Glair  region  for  the  west  in  1837,  was  a 
brave  of  great  speed  and  a  celebrated  wrestler. 

Negig,  an  Indian  Chief,  who  died  in  1807,  was  one  of  the  best 
known  Indians  in  the  St.  Glair  District. 

Kishkawko,  a  desperate  Otchipwa,  served  in  the  War  of  1812. 

Among  the  Indians  who  traversed  this  western  section  of  Canada,, 
and,  indeed,  claimed  parts  of  Michigan,  were  Black  Snake  and  his  son- 
in-law  Black  Duck.  Like  the  half-breed,  John  Eiley,  they  con- 
sidered themselves  Americans,  but  were  friendly  to  the  British  Indians. 
On  one  occasion,  the  Canadian  Indians  visited  what  is  now  Port 
Huron,  to  hold  a  feast  or  picnic.  Whisky  was  plentiful,  and  with  it 



they  were  eloquent  speakers.  Among  the  Britishers  was  a  brave  from 
the  Aux  Saubles,  who  boasted  of  his  war  career  in  1812-13,  and  told 
the  number  of  American  scalps  he  had  taken  during  the  war.  Black 
Duck  listened,  and  when  the  speaker  had  finished,  addressed  him  thus : 
"  You  are  a  great  brave;  you  have  killed  many  Americans ;  you  have 
taken  their  scalps.  The  Americans  you  killed  were  my  friends,  and 
you  will  kill  no  more."  Black  Duck  buried  his  tomahawk  in  the 
boaster's  brain,  and  the  feast  ended.  At  this  time  and  for  years  after, 
the  Indian  wigwams  were  chinked  with  moss — some  capable  of  shelter- 
ing twenty  persons.  Deer  was  plenty :  the  present  Nelson  Beaver 
killed  over  2,000  in  his  younger  days,  and  often  furnished  London 
with  venison  to  supply  all  demands. 

In  March,  1828,  a  youth  named  Petit  set  out  from  Port  Huron 
to  search  for  an  Indian  hunting  party,  under  Tawas,  who  were  in 
Canada  all  winter.  Others  had  set  out  before  this,  but  failed  to  meet 
Tawas.  In  this  search  he  was  accompanied  by  one  armed  Indian,  who 
had,  some  years  before,  murdered  his  squaw,  where  Sarnia  now  stands, 
and  hid  the  body  in  Black  River  at  Port  Huron.  The  two  proceeded 
to  Sebewaing,  and,  following  the  lake's  Canadian  shore,  they  reached 
White  Rock.  Next  day  they  discovered  Tawas  and  his  band  in  a 
sugar  camp,  which  they  had  selected  on  account  of  the  stream  close  by 
affording  plenty  of  fish.  The  Indians  had  a  number  of  brass  kettles 
of  various  sizes,  which  had  been  presented  to  them  by  the  British 
Government.  He  purchased  from  them  500  marten  skins,  at  one  dollar 
each,  but  did  not  buy  the  large  quantity  of  coarse  furs  which  the  band 
had  collected. 

A  young  Indian  named  John  Seneca,  of  the  Muncey  tribe,  was 
induced  to  go  to  the  United  States  during  the  war.  There  he  was 
compelled  to  enter  the  army,  and  was  subsequently  killed.  His 
father,  Peter  Seneca,  believed  a  resident  of  Mt.  Brydges  guilty  of 
leading  his  son  away,  and  treasuring  up  revenge,  attacked  the  voung 
man  in  September,  1870. 

In  April,  1887,  the  Hallelujah  Band,  of  Moraviantown,  visited 
Munceytown,  and  on  the  23rd,  a  similar  band  was  organized  there 
with  Chief  W.  J.  Waddilove,  captain  of  the  men,  and  Phoebe 
Waddilove,  captain  of  the  women,  with  Peter  Jones,  lieutenant  of  the 
hrst,  and  Frances  Wilson,  of  the  second  band. 

Nelson  Beaver,  chief  of  the  Caradoc  Reserve,  was  sixty  years 
connected  with  his  tribe  up  to  1881.  Among  the  agents  of  whom  he 
speaks  highly  were  Froome  Talford,who  succeeded  Col.  Clinch;  Agent 
T  f«e«T^  l°Wf  CHuch'  and  in  1878  ASent  Gordon  took  charge. 
tt^ZSFSS&lX*  r°Undlv  deno™ced,  and  ultimately 
abolished.— (  Vide  Sketch  of  Nelson  Beaver  ) 

T>J^lS^  House,  at 

London,  about  1849,  an  Indian  approached  from  York  street,  while  the 
chief  Nelson  Beaver,  came  down  from  Dundas  street.  The  two  Indians 
met  at  the  corner,  but  Nelson's  salutation  was  not  understood  as 


Indian  No.  1  proved  to  be  an  Oneida.  Beaver  said  to  him : — "  What 
are  you  saying  ?  You're  a  blacker  Indian  than  1  am,  and  yet  you  can't 
speak  Indian.  You're  a  fool.  Can  you  talk  anything  ? "  The  query 
led  to  a  quarrel ;  both  Indians  took  off  their  blanket  rolls  or  budgets, 
but  the  moment  the  argumentum  ad  hominem  was  to  be  made, 
Beaver  picked  up  his  roll,  and,  running  over  to  the  crowd  on  the  hotel 
piazza,  cried  out,  "  Didn't  I  fool  that  Indian,  eh  ?  " 

Indian  Churches  and  Missions. — The  Missions  of  the  Canada 
Wesleyan  Conference  among  the  Indians  were  instituted  in  1822,  two 
years  before  the  Missionary  Society  was  formed  at  Grand  River,  Brant 
County,  Ont.,  with  Rev.  Alvin  Tory,  preacher.  In  1828,  a  mission 
among  the  Otchipwes,  Oneidas  and  Munceys  of  Caradoc  and  Delaware 
was  commenced,  the  membership  being  15,  increased  in  1873  to  123. 
Thomas  Hurlburt  was  preacher  from  1828  to  1833  inclusive ;  Ezra 
Adams,  1833-4;  Solomon  Waldron,  1835-40;  Peter  Jones,  1840-3; 
with  D.  Hardie  in  1843  ;  C.  Flumerfelt  in  1844;  Sol.  Waldron,  1845  ; 
Peter  Jones,  1846-48;  Abrarn  Sickles  being  assistant  from  1843  to 
1870,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  years;  Samuel  D.  Rice,  1849; 
Samuel  Rose,  1850-5,  with  John  Sunday  and  A.  Sickles,  assistants ; 
James  Musgrove,  1856-62,  with  Chase,  Sickles  and  Matt.  Whiting, 
assistants ;  Francis  Berry  and  Sickles  served  from  1864  to  1866.  In 
1860,  the  Mount  Elgin  school  was  placed  in  charge  of  Reuben  E. 
Tupper,  and  the  mission  in  charge  of  Peter  German,  both  of  whom 
served  until  1870.  A  year  later,  the  school  and  mission  work  were 
reunited,  with  James  Gray  in  cha.rge.  He  was  succeeded  in  1872  by 
Ephraim  Evans  and  Allan  Salt,  who  were  the  preachers  in  1873,  the 
membership  being  then  141.  The  Muncey  Indian  Mission  of  the 
Methodist  Church  of  Canada  was  presided  over  from  1874  to  1880  by 
Thomas  Cosford.  Allan  Salt  assisted  in  1874;  Samuel  Tucker,  in 
1875-7;  Abel  Edwards,  in  1878-80;  W.  W.  Shepherd  and  A. 
Edwards,  in  1881-3,  while  Abel  Edwards  and  W.  W.  Shepherd  served 
in  1884,  at  the  time  of  the  second  Methodist  union. 

In  early  years  the  old  Indians  arranged  many,  if  not  all  of  the  mar- 
riages ;  later  the  young  warriors  arranged  matters  with  the  girl,  and 
later  still,  even  in  this  day,  a  system  of  promiscuous  living  together 
was  introduced,  not  over  one  half  of  the  number  at  present  availing 
themselves  of  the  marriage  ceremony.  In  fact,  in  Nelson  Beaver's 
early  years,  girls  did  ncrt  run  at  large  ;  but  the  matter  of  inter-sexual 
honor  has  now  almost  disappeared,  and  white  children  are  also  very 

Rev.  Ezra  Adams,  of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  Church,  joined  the 
following  natives  in  marriage  during  the  years  1834-5 : 

Sept.  1,  1834-~James  Thomas,  to  Peggy  ;  Seneca  Jack,  to  Polly  Beaver ;  Henry 
Maskarioorgaand,  to  Eliza.  Nov.  12 — Talbut  Chief,  to  Margaret  Wabesenasequa. 
Dec>  2 — James  Tunkey,  to  Margaret.  Feb.  IP,  1835 — George  Peter,  to  Ohpetapowqua. 
Feb.  1 — James  Egg,  to  Matilda  Quawi.  Feb.  1 — James  Kewaquam,  to  Polly  Ohnahpe- 
wanoqua.  Sept.  1,  1834— John  Maskanonge,  to  Jane  Stagway. 


The  following  record  by  Solomon  Waldron,  minister  of  the  Wes- 
leyan  Methodist  Church  at  Munceytown,  was  made  in  1836;  David 
Sawyer,  being  a  witness  in  each  case : 

Jan.  3— John  Tomico,  to  Elizabeth  Half  Moon  ;  Isaac  Dolson,  to  Electa  Tipic 
Kises  •  Polly  Quaitloop,  to  John  Dolson.  Feb.  10— Joseph  Deertail,  to  Nancy  Loon. 
May  3— Waginge  Bond,  to  Nancy  Caleb  ;  John  Beaver,  to  Hannah  Elmore  ;  John 
Beaver,  2nd,  to  Eliza  Rishekains.  July  17— John  Quaitloop,  to  Polly  Bean. 

Abram  Sickles,  an  Indian  minister,  made  the  following  returns 
in  October,  1850 : 

May  14,  1848— David  Lunduff,  to  Margaret  Shallo,  of  Delaware.  Dec.  21 — 
Daniel  Ninham,  to  Margaret  Doxdater,  of  Delaware.  Jan.  21,  1849— Nicholas  Nich- 
olas, to  Mary  Ann  Williams,  of  Delaware.  June  17 — Bapdist  Sunmer,  to  Nelly 
Schegler,  of  Delaware.  June  17 — Abram  Schegler,  to  Susannah  Williams,  of  Dela- 
ware. June  19— John  Bread,  to  Mary  Island,  of  Delaware.  July  10— Charles  Bate- 
man,  to  Mary  A.  Ewerren,  of  Caradoc.  April  14,  1850 — Peter  Alvarn,  to  Margaret 
Andone,  of  Delaware.  Oct.  13— John  Nicholas,  to  Margaret  Elem,  of  Delaware. 

His  certificate  reads  as  follows  : — "  I  certify  that  the  above  mar- 
riages were  performed  by  me  within  the  period  included  between  the 
first  and  last  on  the  list ;  and  that  my  not  having  made  the  returns 
within  a  year  after  the  first  was  solemnized,  arose  from  my  ignorance 
of  the  law — being  an  Indian  and  not  long  resident." 

The  principal  Munceys,  who  were  members  of  the  English  Church 
in  1847,  were  Henry  C.  Hogg,  catechist;  Mrs.  Hogg,  J.  Wampum 
(Kachnakaish),  interpreter ;  Mrs.  Wampum,  Ann  Johnston  (Ainhah- 
wooky),  Capt.  Wolfe  (Weirchawk),  Phoebe  Hank  (Aishkunkg),  Mary 
Hank  (Tahtapenawh),  David  Hank,  Abram  Hoff,  Wm.  Waddilove 
(Shapaish),  John  Smith,  Mary  Delaware  (Waimlaish),  Moses  Shuyler. 
Mary  Wilcox  (Papatahpahnelaiky),  David  Bear  (Maquah),  Thomas 
and  Nancy  Wahcosh. 

]n  1851,  Rev.  R.  Flood  was  appointed  to  the  Muncey  Mission. 
In  1859-60,  Rev.  A.  Potts  presided  over  the  English  Church  at 
Munceytown.  H.  C.  Hogg's  name  appears  as  an  incorporated  member 
in  1857.  In  1861-2,  Rev.  R.  Flood  took  charge  of  this  and  the 
Delaware  Church.  In  1865,  Rev.  H.  P.  Chase  was  appointed  over 
L  Paul's,  at  Muncey,  and  St.  John's,  at  Chippewa.  In  1869,  Zion 
Church,  of  the  Oneidas,  was  established.  In  1885,  Rev.  A.  G  Smith 
took  charge  of  the  three  Indian  Churches. 

The  Oneida  Methodist  Mission  was  part  of  Muncey  until  1871 
when  William  Cross  was  appointed  preacher.  The  Oneida  Indian 
Mission  of  the  Methodist  Church  of  Canada  succeeded  the  Weslevan 
Mission  in  1874,  with  William  Cross  preacher.  In  1877  Elisha 
Tennant  took  charge;  in  1879,  Benj.  Sherlock;  in  1880-3,  Erastus 
[urlburt  with  A  Sickles;  in  1884,  E.  Hurlburt  at  Muncey,  with 
John  Kirkland  and  Sam.  G.  Livingstone  at  the  College 

Elgin  Industrial  Institution  may  be  said  to  date  back  to 
±5,  when  Peter  Jones  collected  moneys  in  England  and  Scotland 




and  had  his  Indians  contribute  also.  In  1847-8,  the  buildings  were 
erected,  and  in  1849  the  Institution  was  opened,  with  Eev.  Dr.  Eice, 
Superintendent.  Since  that  time  the  names  of  Methodist  ministers, 
connected  with  the  Institution  and  Mission,  are  named  in  the  history 
of  the  Mission.  In  June,  1887,  W.  W.  Shepherd,  present  Principal, 
reported  favorably  of  this  school. 

Loyal  Orange  Lodges. — In  connection  with  the  churches  and 
schools,  there  are  a  few  Loyal  Orange  Lodges,  the  members  of  which 
parade  on  every  12th  of  July  with  band  and  regalia.  As  a  rule,  fire- 
water is  freely  used  on  the  occasion ;  but  the  Lodges,  after  all, 
compare  very  favorably  with  those  of  their  white  brethren.  The 
tribes  have  also  an  agricultural  organization  and  an  annual  fair. 

Indian  Statistics. — On  June  10,  1857,  an  act  was  assented  to 
providing  for  the  gradual  civilization  of  the  Indians,  and  the  removal 
of  all  legal  distinctions  between  them  and  other  subjects.  The 
expenditures  on  account  of  Indians  in  1886-7  amounted  to  $53,604.90 
for  Ontario  and  Quebec;  $6,038.01  for  Nova  Scotia;  $6,049.08  for 
New  Brunswick ;  $2,135.26  for  Prince  Edward  Island  ;  $61,076.40  for 
British  Columbia;  $1,072,397.67  for  Manitoba  and  the  North-west. 
The  tribes  represented  now  in  Quebec  and  Ontario,  with  the  receipts 
credited  up  to  June  30,  1886,  are  given  as  follows :  Otchipwas  of 
Sarnia,  $200,755.87 ;  Otchipwas  of  Thames,  $77,332.61 ;  Munceys  of 
Thames,  $2,805.09;  Oneidas  of  Thames,  $662.89;  Moravians  of 
Thames,  $167,018.70  ;  Pottawattamies  of  Walpole  Island,  $6,806.90; 
Otchipwas  of  Walpole  Island,  $74,648.60 ;  Batchewana  Indians, 
$4,468.40 ;  Otchipwas  of  Beausoleil,  $59,748.80 ;  Otchipwas  of  Nawash, 
$367,753.08 ;  Otchipwas  of  Kand,  $54,895.44 ;  Otchipwas  of  Saugeen, 
$289,852.91 ;  Otchipwas  of  Snake  Island,  $25,972.61 ;  Fort  William 
band,  $14,148.28  ;  French  River  baud,  $928.67 ;  Garden  Eiver  Indians, 
$36,761.85;  Henvey's  Inlet  Indians,  $7,561.05;  Lake  Nippissing 
Indians,  $29,829.50;  Manitoulin  Indians  (unceded),  $2,530.36; 
Maganetewans,  $582.57;  Mississaugas  of  Alnwick,  $80,033.84; 
Mississaugas  of  Credit,  $120,423.49;  Mississaugas  of  Eice  Lake, 
$22,831.04 ;  Mississaugas  of  Mud  Lake,  $38,231.38 ;  Mississaugas  of 
Scugog,  $11,895.69;  Mississaugas  of  Bay  of  Quinte,  $134,924.98; 
Ojibbewas  and  Ottawas  of  Manitoulin,  $117,794.94;  Ojibbewas  of 
Lake  Huron,  $61,357.59  ;  Ojibbewas  of  Lake  Superior,  $50,917.64; 
Ojibbewas  of  the  Mississauga  Eiver,  $4,695.49  ;  Parry  Island  Indians, 
$45,365.26  ;  Serpent  Eiver  Indians,  $3,004  ;  Six  Nations,  $915,988.30  ; 
Shawanaga  band,  $8,691 ;  Spanish  Eiver  Indians,  $3,058;  Thessalon 
Eiver  Indians,  $13,278.91 ;  Tootoomenai  and  band,  $963.30  ;  White- 
fish  Eiver  Indians,  $3,939.46;  Wyandots  of  Anderdon,  $24,969.17; 
Abenakis  of  St.  Francis,  $4,158.36;  Abenakis  of  Becancour,  $1,279; 
Amalecites  of  Isle  Vest  and  Viger,  $5,799 ;  Golden  Lake  Indians,  $21 ; 
Hurons  of  Lorette,  $26 ;  Iroquois  of  Caughnawaga,  $8,271 ;  Iroquois  of 
St.  Eegis,  $31,271 ;  Lake  St.  John  Indians,  $1,397 ;  Lake  of  Two 


Mountains  Indians,  $1,260 ;  Mississaugas  of  Upper  Ottawa,  $3,041, 
and  River  Desert  Indians,  $40,379. 

The  territory  over  which  the  supervision  of  Indian  affairs  extended 
in  1862  consisted  of  what  is  now  embraced  in  the  Provinces  of  Ontario, 
and  Quebec,  which  then  composed  the  old  Province  of  Canada.  The 
Department  now  exercises  control  of  Indian  matters  from  the  Pro- 
vinces of  Prince  Edward  Island  and  Nova  Scotia,  on  the  Atlantic,  to 
British  Columbia,  on  the  Pacific  Ocean. 

The  number  of  Indians  who,  according  to  the  Report  for  the  year 
1863,  were  then  under  the  care  of  the  Department,  was  19,181.  The 
census  returns  published  with  this  report  show  that  the  Indians  of  the 
Dominion  of  Canada  number  approximately  128,000  souls.  The- 
number  of  reserves  occupied  by  the  various  bands  of  Indians  of  the 
old  Province  of  Canada  in  1862  was  fifty-six.  In  the  seven  pro- 
vinces, and  in  the  North-west  Territories,  and  in  the  district  of  Kee- 
watin,' there  are  at  the  present  time  1,147  Indian  reserves ;  while  in 
British  Columbia  additional  reserves  are  being  assigned  to  the  Indians 
of  that  province,  as  the  work  of  the  Commissioner  appointed  to  allot 
the  same  proceeds. 

According  to  the  report  for  the  year  1863,  there  were  thirty  schools 
in  operation  for  the  instruction  of  the  Indian  children.  In  1887  there 
were  198  schools  in  operation. 

Indian  Trails. — In  the  days  when  Ontario  was  solely  in  pos- 
session of  the  native  tribes,  well  defined  routes  of  travel  existed 
between  their  several  noted  summer  camps,  as  well  as  between  their 
winter  towns.  There  were  several  practicable  routes  for  the  traders 
to  reach  the  upper  lake  region.  The  original  and  best  known  one  was 
by  the  Ottawa  River,  Nippissing  and  Georgian  Bay,  which,  though 
long  and  hazardous,  was  the  principal  channel  of  intercourse  between 
Western  Canada  and  the  Lower  St.  Lawrence ;  the  second  was  by 
the  Trent  River  to  Lake  Simcoe  ;  the  third  was  from  the  present  site 
of  Toronto  to  Lake  Simcoe ;  the  fourth  was  from  the  head  of  Lake 
Ontario,  the  Grand  River  to  Lake  Erie  and  (La  Tranchee)  Thames 
River  to  Lake  St.  Clair,  and  the  fifth  by  Niagara.  The  latter  route 
was  seldom  chosen,  owing  to  the  savage  character  of  the  New  York 
Indians,  as  well  as  the  rough  character  of  the  route.  So  soon  as 
Upper  Canada  was  organized  for  the  purposes  of  Government,  two 
great  highways  were  established— Yonge  and  Dundas  streets;  and 
from  this  beginning  the  modern  system  of  roads  spread  out. 




Retrospection. — When  the  pioneers  came  for  the  first  time  to  the 
Indian  camp  grounds  along  the  Thames,  they  beheld  spread  out  before 
them,  as  far  as  their  vision  could  reach,  one  of  nature's  most  beautiful 
panoramas — a  land  which  gave  promise,  through  the  perfection  of  its 
natural  resources,  of  a  future  that  some  day  would  become  excellent 
in  every  detail  of  civilization,  if  not  celebrated  in  the  annals  of 
history.  That  condition,  then  so  dimly  foreshadowed,  has  at  last 
been  realized.  Scarcely  eighty  years  have  passed  by,  and  the  scenes 
that  then  held  the  forms  of  the  wilderness,  now  move  onward  to  the 
notes  of  the  plowman's  whistle,  the  faithful  call  of  domestic  animalsr 
the  constant  whirling  sound  of  busy  machinery,  the  shrill  notes  of  the 
locomotive,  the  laborer's  song,  and  school  children's  happy  shouts. 
Less  than  eighty  years  ago  wild  flowers  bloomed  in  countless 
profusion  and  variety  on  these  lands,  and  the  sons  of  civilized  life 
had  scarcely  invaded  the  precincts  of  the  great  wilderness;  now 
all  is  changed.  The  whole  country  teems  with  the  fruits  of  industry 
and  peace,  and  thousands  of  happy  families  dwell  in  happy  homes. 
What  a  marvellous  transformation!  The  country  is  aged  already, 
so  precocious  has  been  its  development. 

First  Settlements  in  the  County. — Who  were  those  white 
travellers  who  first  entered  the  forests  to  carve  out  a  home  ?  They 
were  Americans,  driven  from  their  country  by  the  sentimental 
grievance  which  the  new  Eepublic  created.  In  the  deep  Canadian 
woods  they  had  time  for  reflection,  and,  within  a  decade  after 
settlement,  their  studies  took  shape,  and  again  they  are  found 
among  the  soldiers  of  the  Union  they  once  deserted. 

Delaware  is  credited  with  the  first  settlements  made,  in  what 
now  constitutes  Middlesex  County.  Ethan  Allan  (son  of  Ebenezer), 
and  Jasper  Crow  (his  brother-in-law),  two  Americans,  who  fled  from 
their  country  rather  than  serve  it,  located  their  gardens  along  the 
Thames,  and  for  some  years  resided  there.  During  those  years 
the  glory  of  the  young  Eepublic  floated  as  a  vision  before  them,  so 
that  when  the  Union  required  new  troops  for  a  new  war,  Allan  and 
Crow  were  among  the  very  first  to  answer  the  call.  In  1812,  Allan 
bid  farewell  to  his  Canadian  home  forever,  and  was  followed  by 
Crow,  who  left  his  wife  and  family  the  farm  which  he  had  improved.  * 

Ebenezer  Allan,  to  whom  Governor  Simcoe  granted  2,200  acres, 
in  Delaware,  in  1793,  for  his  services  in  leading  the  Indians  against 

*  The  story  of  the  two  men,  and  of  the  father's  motley  family,  belongs  to  the  history  of 
Delaware  Township,  where  it  is  given. 


the  Americans,  in  1775-81,  sold,  within  seven  years  his  grant  for 
£3000  and  Delaware  entered  on  its  career  of  prosperity.  In  17W, 
the'  Springers  came,  followed  by  the  Woodhulls  in  1798,  and  then  a 
steady  tide  of  immigration  filled  the  county. 

The  first  settlement  of  the  eastern  townships  was  made  in  1794, 
the  following  letter  giving  the  story  of  the  pioneers  :— 

INGERSOLL,  Nov.  5,  1888. 

Mr  William  McClary  :— Your  card  received,  and  in  reply,  as  William  is  a  noted 
name,  I'will  give  you  some  facts.  My  grandfather's  name  was  William  Reynolds. 
He  and  Major  Ingersoll,  who  was  a  resident  of  New  York,  came  to  Canada  m  1773 
(1793)  and  applied  to  Governor  Simcoe,  who  resided  at  Niagara,  for  a  grant  of  land  m 
the  Township  of  Dorchester,  to  my  grandfather,  and  in  Oxford  to  Mr.  Ingersoll,  pro- 
viding each  would  cause  fifty  settlers  to  come  into  the  township  ;  and  the  following 
year  moved  into  Dorchester,  which  would  be  1774  (1794).  He  was  not  able  to  get  the 
required  number  of  settlers.  The  Governor  withdrew  his  offer  and  gave  my  grand- 
father 1,000  acres,  and  each  of  his  children  200  acres  He  then  had  five  boys  and  two 
daughters.  The  same  year  my  father  was  married  to  Sarah  Stevens,  of  Burford,  and 
settled  in  the  township  next  his  father,  and  helped  to  build  a  saw-mill  near  where  a 
flouring-mill  (Cartwright's)  now  stands.  At  that  time  there  was  not  a  white  man, 
save  his  employes,  in  the  township.  My  brother  David,  who  now  lives  in  Petrolea, 
was  the  first  white  child  born  in  Dorchester.  Mr.  Seth  Putnam  moved  into  the  town- 
ship six  years  later.  It  would  take  me  several  days  to  give  a  full  history  of  the  hard- 
ships, they  being  surrounded  by  Indians  camps  ;  would  further  say  I  now  hold  the 
old  crown  deed  to  my  grandfather,  and  I  know  these  dates  are  true. 

Yours,  very  truly, 


Other  Prominent  Settlers. — There  is  another  pioneer  of  this 
district  whose  name  finds  mention  in  almost  every  chapter  of  the 
general  history  of  Middlesex.  His  advent  to,  and  life  in,  the  Erie 
country  —  mysterious  and  eccentric  —  seems  like  a  provision  of 
Providence ;  for  it  required  just  such  a  character  to  win  from  the 
impoverished  hearths  of  Wales,  England,  Scotland  and  Ireland,  the 
bone  and  sinew  able  to  cope  with  the  wild  country,  which  he  determined 
to  open  up.  Thomas  Talbot,  born  at  Malahide,  Dublin  Co.,  Ireland, 
in  1771,  was  Colonel  in  the  24th  British  Kegiment  at  Quebec,  in  1790, 
and  in  1791  was  appointed  aide-de-camp  to  Governor  Simcoe.  In  the 
latter's  letter  of  Feb.  11, 1803,  he  states  that  young  Talbot  accompanied 
him  into  Upper  Canada  as  his  confidential  secretary.  Four  years  after 
this  (1795)  he  was  ordered  home  to  join  the  5th  Eegiment  in  Flanders. 
Simcoe  recommended  him  to  Lord  Hobart,  Secretary  of  the  Colonies, 
and  begged  for  him  5,000  acres  of  land,  as  a  resident  field  officer,  to  be 
located  in  Yarmouth  Township,  and  the  remainder  of  that  township  to 
be  reserved  for  him,  and  granted  to  him  at  the  rate  of  200  acres  for  each 
family  he  may  locate  thereon — 50  acres  to  be  given  to  such  family, 
and  150  acres  held  by  himself.  The  Governor  stated  that  young 
Talbot's  plan  was  to  introduce  himself  to  the  body  of  Welch  and 
Scotch,  who  arrived  in  New  York  in  1801,  and  win  them  over  to 
colonize  Yarmouth,  as  well  as  to  help  him  in  the  cultivation  of  hemp, 
for  which  the  township  was  so  well  adapted.  The  recommendations  of 



Simcoe  were  carried  out,  and  further  grants  of  618,000  acres  made, 
but  South  Yarmouth,  having  hitherto  been  purchased  by  Col.  James 
Baby,  and  the  north  part  by  the  Canada  Company,  Talbot  failed  to 
obtain  his  first  selection.  He  came,  nevertheless,  and  located  at  Port 
Talbot,  Dunwich  Township,  May  21,  1803,  where  he  felled  the  first 
tree  that  day.  Long  Point,  60  miles  eastward,  was  the  nearest  settle- 
ment. He  was  accompanied  by  George  Crane ;  six  years  later  came 
John  Pearce,  Backus  or  Backhouse,  Mrs.  Story,  and  Col.  L.  Patterson 
(from  Pennsylvania),  who,  in  1810,  were  joined  by  Wm.  Davis,  Daniel 
Eapelge,  Moses  Eice,  Benj.  Wilson,  John  Mandeville,  and  in  1809  by 
the  Burwells.  Col.  Talbot  observed  the  terms  of  his  grant  closely ; 
but  out  of  the  150  acres  of  every  200  granted  as  bonus  for  placing  a 
family  on  the  quarter  of  50  acres,  he  was  willing  to  sell  100  acres  for 
£6  9s.  3d.  The  point  chosen  by  him  for  a  house  is  less  than  eight 
miles  westward  of  the  heights  at  Port  Stanley.  As  is  related  in  the 
history  of  London,  he,  next  to  Lord  Edward  Fitzgerald,  was  among  the 
first  English-speaking  explorers  of  the  district,  of  which  London  is  the 
commercial  centre. 

In  speaking  of  this  location,  and  its  most  distinguished  owner,  Mr. 
Grant  says  : — "  From  the  lookout  at  Port  Stanley  we  can  discern,  seven 
or  eight  miles  westward,  Talbot  Creek,  and  the  spot  where  this  military 
hermit  renounced  the  world  of  rank  and  fashion,  and  entered  the 
wilderness,  there  to  abide  with  brief  intermission  for  nearly  50  years  ; 
the  spot  also  where,  after  a  stormy  life,  he  now  peacefully  lies,  listening 
to  the  lapping  of  the  lake  waves  upon  the  shore.  Talbot  was  two 
years  younger  than  Arthur  Wellesly,  the  future  Duke  of  Wellington, 
and  while  still  in  their  teens,  the  young  officers  were  thrown  much 
together  as  aides  to  Talbot's  next  relative,  the  Marquis  of  Buckingham, 
then  Viceroy  of  Ireland.  The  warm  friendship  thus  formed  was  kept 
up  to  the  end  of  their  lives  by  correspondence  and  by  Col.  Talbot's 
secular  visits  to  Apsley  House,  where  he  always  found  Wellington 
ready  to  back  him  against  the  intrigues  of  the  Canadian  Executive. 
Through  Simcoe's  influence  Talbot  obtained,  in  1803,  a  township  on 
the  shore  of  Lake  Erie ;  the  original  demesne  grew  in  half  a  century  to 
a  principality  of  about  700,000  acres,  with  a  population  of  75,000  souls. 
There  was  an  arcadian  simplicity  about  the  life  of  these  pioneers.  The 
title-deeds  of  the  farms  were  mere  pencil  entries  by  the  Colonel  in 
his  township  maps ;  transfers  were  accomplished  by  a  rubber  and 
more  pencil  entries.  His  word  of  honor  was  sufficient,  and  their  con- 
fidence was  certainly  never  abused.  The  anniversary  of  his  landing 
at  Port  Talbot,  the  21st  of  May,  was  erected  by  Dr.  Eolph  into  a  great 
festival,  which  was  long  kept  up  in  St.  Thomas  with  all  honor. 
Immediately  after  this  brief  respite  the  hermit  would  return  to  his 
desolation,  in  which  there  was  an  odd  mixture  of  aristocratic  hauteur 
and  savage  wildness.  The  acquaintances  of  earlier  life  fell  away  one 
by  one,  and  there  were  none  others  to  fill  the  vacancies.  While  cre- 
ating thousands  of  happy  firesides  around  him  his  own  hearth  remained 


desolate.  Compassion  was  often  felt  for  his  loneliness ;  his  nephews, 
one  of  them  afterwards  General  Lord  Airey,  of  Crimean  fame,  attempted 
to  share  his  solitude,  but  in  vain.  Then  his  one  faithful  servant, 
Jeffrey,  died.  The  recluse  had  succeeded  in  creating  around  him  an 
absolute  void,  for  no  account  is  taken  of  the  birds  of  prey  that  hovered 
about.  Wellington,  his  first  companion  and  last  of  his  friends,  was 
borne  to  his  tomb  in  the  crypt  of  St.  Paul's,  amid  all  the  magnificent 
woe  of  a  State  funeral.  Three  months  later  poor  Talbot  also  died.  It 
was  the  depth  of  winter  and  bitterly  cold.  In  the  progress  of  the 
remains  from  London,  where  he  died,  to  the  quiet  nook  by  the  lake- 
shore,  the  deceased  lay  all  night,  neglected  and  forsaken,  in  the  barn 
of  a  roadside  inn.  *  *  *  What  was  the  mystery  in  this  lonely 
man's  life  ?  *  *  *  Charlevoix's  description  of  this  Erie  shore  had 
cast  a  spell  upon  him." 

During  the  Talbot  era  the  ways  of  the  country  were  primitive 
indeed.  He  maintained  a  peculiar  rule.  No  one  was  considered  by 
him  his  equal,  and  the  settlers  who  had  gathered  round  his  woodland 
castle  were  as  unfamiliar  with  him  after  forty  years'  acquaintanceship 
as  at  its  beginning.  New  men,  however,  came  on  the  scene,  and 
innovations  on  feudal  customs  were  spoken  of.  Men  came  to  work 
amid  the  forests — not  to  bow  to  another  man.  A  new  system  was 
gradually  built  up,  and  within  a  few  years  a  body  of  independent 
yeomen  had  their  own  society  and  constitutions  without  consulting  the 
hermit  Colonel.  Thomas  Meek,  the  night  turnkey  of  the  county  jail, 
who  came  to  reside  in  Port  Stanley  in  1818,  relates  "that  during  mid- 
winter and  Christmas  time,  he  had  often  yoked  in  the  oxen,  and  on  a 
rough  '  bush-whacker '  sleigh,  had  taken  half-a-dozen  farmers'  daugh- 
ters and  their  sturdy  sweethearts  for  a  ride  over  the  rough  forest  road. 
These  were  occasions  for  the  outburst  of  unusual  hilarity,  and  the  girls 
laughed  as  loudly  as  their  lungs  permitted,  without  the  slightest  fear 
of  disturbing  the  nearest  settler,  several  miles  away.  And  if  Jack 
Chopper  did  squeeze  Mary  Baker,  and  perhaps  get  a  ghilopejia  on  the 
girl  next  to  him,  nobody  talked  about  it,  or  thought  any  the  less  of 
either  John  or  Mary.  In  another  cabin,  that  looked  out  upon  nothing 
but  leafless  trees,  the  old  settler  took  down  the  thumb-marked  family 
Bible,  and  read  the  story  of  our  Saviour's  birth  in  the  little  Nazarene 
village,  but  beyond  this,  necessity  limited  their  festivities  to  the 

It  is  said  that  on  account  of  the  absence  of  the  annual  almanac, 
some  of  the  old  settlers  actually  forgot  the  days  of  the  month,  and 
either  let  Christmas  slip  by  without  knowing  it,  or  celebrated  the  event 
in  the  middle  of  December  or  away  along  in  January.  But  who  could 
blame  them  if  they  did  ?  "  Why,  we  didn't  care  a  fig  about  the  day 
of  the  week  or  month,"  said  this  silver-locked  old  pioneer,  "  and  the 
wolves  howled  around  the  house  as  loudly  on  Christmas  Eve  as  any 
other  night  in  the  year.  What  we  wanted  was  to  get  these  big  trees 
out  of  the  road,  and  then  go  in  for  fun  and  keeping  track  of  dates 



•afterwards.  When  London,  or  '  The  Forks/  as  it  was  then  called, 
had  assumed  all  the  importance  of  a  village,  parents,  bent  on  the  pur- 
chase of  some  toy  to  fill  the  home-made  stocking  of  the  little  girls  and 
boys,  thronged  the  corner  store  and  the  Court  House  square  with  the 
same  enthusiasm  that  they  crowd  Dundas  and  Richmond  streets  to-day. 
It  was,  in  fact,  a  great  night  among  the  villagers,  and,  in  Westminster 
and  London  townships,  was  looked  upon  as  the  best  time  in  the  year 
for  a  rollicking  party.  And  those  were  parties  of  the  real  old  brand, 

Squire  Matthews,  in  his  reference  to  London,  states  that  Dennis 
O'Brien  kept  a  little  low  building  where  O'Mara  Bros,  had  their  pork 
packery  on  West  Dundas  street,  in  1881;  while  McGregor  kept  an 
equally  small  tavern  close  by.  Geo.  Goodhue,  about  this  time,  had  a 
small  store  on  the  1st  Concession  of  Westminster ;  and  there  was  also 
an  ashery  and  dry  goods  store.  Before  those  houses  were  established, 
the  settlers  had  to  go  to  Five  Stakes,  near  St.  Thomas,  to  Hamilton's 
store,  on  Kettle  Creek,  where  he  made  them  pay  75  cents  per  yard  for 
factory  cloth.  Wheat  was  only  worth  37  J  cents  per  bushel,  and  for 
it  they  would  receive  goods  or  black  salt,  but  no  cash;  there  was  no 
cash.  This  black  salt  was  made  out  of  lye  and  ashes.  Mr.  Mat- 
thews made  tons  of  it,  burning  up  log  piles  on  purpose  to  obtain 
ashes.  This  was  hard  work,  but  necessary  to  obtain  cash,  as  cash  was 
necessary  to  buy  leather  and  salt.  When  they  had  a  barrel  ready  they 
would  start  for  Kettle  Creek  with  wagon  and  oxen ;  a  trip  that  occupied 
thirty  hours  then,  if  they  did  not  camp  out  at  night.  Crossing  the 
Thames  was  a  dangerous  proceeding  even  then,  and  the  Squire  has 
seen  oxen,  wagon,  barrels  and  driver  swimming  that  river. 

Pioneer  Mails. — Daniel  Springer  settled  in  Delaware  in  1797, 
and  soon  after  was  appointed  postmaster,  this  being  the  only  office 
between  Sandwich  and  Burford,  or  in  a  distance  of  160  miles.  In 
1816,  an  office  was  established  at  McGregor's  Creek,  Chatham,  with 
Wm.  McCrea,  master.  Two  Frenchmen,  the  Souggnay  brothers, 
strong  and  very  energetic  men,  carried  the  mail  from  Sandwich  to 
Toronto  once  a  month,  while  Wm.  McGuffin,  a  short  Irishman, 
-carried  the  mail  from  Delaware  to  Burford.  Mail  for  Westminster  or 
London  had  to  be  called  for  at  Delaware;  but  about  1825  mail 
(newspaper)  was  left  at  Nathan  Griffith's  Hotel,  in  Westminster. 
Prior  to  the  establishment  of  the  London  office,  Capt.  Thomas 
Lawrason  kept  the  office  in  his  small  store,  120  rods  east  of  the 
bridge,  on  the  London  and  Byron  road ;  then  came  Ira  Scofield,  who 
was  the  first  postmaster  at  London.  John  Harris  filled  the  office 
later  during  Goodhue's  suspension.  In  these  old  times  a  payment  of 
six  shillings  was  often  demanded  for  the  delivery  of  some  loving 
message  from  beyond  the  ocean,  while  smaller  sums  were  charged  for 
letters  from  America,  as  the  settlers  then  styled  the  United  States. 

The  postmasters  in  1831  were  Charles  Berczy,  at  Amherstburg ; 
Joseph  Defried,  of  Bayham;  Geo.  Goodhue,  of  London;  John 

34  HISTORY   OF    THE 

Bostwick,  of  Port  Stanley ;  F.  L  Walsh,  of  Vittoria,  and  K.  McKenny,. 
of  Yarmouth.  The  rates  of  postage  were  four  and  a-half  pence,  not 
exceeding  60  miles;  sevenpence,  not  exceeding  100;  ninepence,  not 
exceeding  200,  and  twopence  for  every  additional  100  miles. 

In  1839,  J.  P.  Bellairs  was  postmaster  at  Amiens,  where  one  mail 
was  received  every  week  ;  J.  K.  McKnight,  at  Bayham ;  W.  Merigold, 
at  Beach ville ;  W.  Whitehead,  at  Burford ;  Wilson  Mills,  at  Delaware  ; 
Wm.  Sparling,  at  Ekfrid:  J.  Matheson,  at  Embro;  K.  Brown,  at 
Kateville ;  G.  J.  Goodhue,  at  London ;  I.  Adamson,  at  McGillivray ; 
A.  Meyer,  at  McKillop;  N.  Eagles,  at  Middletown;  G.  Gibbs,  at 
Mosa ;  Thomas  Wallace,  at  Norwich ;  J.  H.  Cornell,  at  Otterville ;  C. 
Ingersoll,  at  Oxford ;  John  Burwell,  at  Port  Burwell ;  A.  Jenkins,  at 
Port  Dover;  J.  Bostwick,  at  Port  Stanley;  M.  Burwell,  at  Port 
Talbot;  J.  Cowan,  at  Princeton;  E.  Ermatinger,  at  St.  Thomas;  D. 
Campbell,  at  Simcoe ;  J.  N.  Daly,  at  Stratford ;  Joseph  Patterson,  at 
Tyrconnell ;  Thomas  Jenkins,  at  Vienna ;  S.  McCall,  at  Vittoria ;  A. 
McClellan,  at  Walsingham ;  C.  E.  Nixon,  at  Warwick ;  T.  S.  Short,  at 

London  Neighborhood  in  1818. — Thomas  Webster,  writing  from 
Newbury,  Dec.  5,  1878,  speaks  of  London  as  he  saw  it  sixty  years 
before,  thus : — "  In  the  summer  and  fall  of  1818  the  people  commenced 
crossing  the  river  a  half-mile  below  the  Forks,  by  means  of  a  canoe 
kept  by  one  Montague,  or  by  fording  when  the  water  was  low.     The 
travellers  would  halt  at  Montague's  Flats,  afterwards  called  Kent's 
Flats  (west  of  the  North  Branch),    to   refresh  themselves  and  their 
cattle.     The  forest  along  the  banks  had  a  grand  and  imposing  appear- 
ance,  and  especially  so  on  a  fine  evening  when  the  setting  sun  cast  its 
mellow  rays  on  the  deep  green  foliage  of  the  trees  on  the  elevated 
landscape,   or  on  the  tinted  leaves  of  every  hue,  in  the  fall  of  the 
year.     At  such  times  the  scene  was  grand  beyond  the  powers  of  des- 
cription.    The  writer  sat  down  at  his  first  London  camp  fire  in  com- 
pany with  his  father's  family  and  Thomas  Belton,  March  18,  1819,  on 
the  lownlme  between  the  Gore  of  London  and  Dorchester,  nor  far 
north  of  where  the  Grand  Trunk  E.  E.  crosses  the  bridge  at  the  Town- 
line  road      I  visited  the  Town  plot  in  quest  of  game,  and  the  Forks 
i  quest  of  fish.     The  ground  on  which  the  city  is  now  built,  was  then 
covered  with  a  dense,  dark  forest ;  north  of  Dundas  street,  and  in  some 
ces  south  of  it,  was  a  thick  pinery.     Behind  where  the  old  barracks 
were  built,  and  on  the  rising  land  north  of  the  old  fair  grounds,  and  off 
the  little  stream,  then  called  English's  Creek,  which  runs  into  Lake 
T'HWasfa  he^v  growth  of  oak,  maple,  and  beech;  while  down 
the  direction  of  the  railroad  station  was  hard  wood  mixed  with  pine ; 
more  especially  so  to  the  east.     In  the  vicinity  of  Strong's  hotel  was  a 

ri  If?'  SWai?P'  rUnnlDf  tOWard  the  old  tanneries  west  of  the 
«  H  IY°m?  Places  the  sma11  brush  w°°d  stood  very 

nnovina  Z^S^S  CreePers  and  vi^>  often  presenting  a  very 
Qoymg  obstruction  to  the  eager  hunter.     Along  the  banks  of  both 



rivers  the  wild  plum,  hawthorn,  crab-apple,  and  grape,  grew  in  abund- 
ance. The  waters  were  literally  swarming  with  fish,  and  the  eddies 
were  often  covered  with  wild  ducks.  In  the  brush  might  be  heard 
the  drumming  of  the  partridge,  the  calls  of  the  magnificent  wild  turkey, 
or  low  breathing  of  the  timid  deer  or  less  welcome  growling  of  the 
black  bear,  the  screeching  of  the  wild  cat,  the  hooting  of  owls,  and  the 
terrific  howling  of  packs  of  ravenous  wolves,  whose  unharmonious 
chorus  frequently  made  night  hideous.  The  Indians  in  large  numbers 
used  to  encamp  at  the  forks  of  the  river.  They  navigated  the  rivers 
with  their  bark  canoes,  and  roamed  through  the  forest.  London  and 
its  surroundings  was  then  and  had  been  for  generations,  the  Indian's 
favorite  hunting  ground ;  but  a  change  was  at  hand.  The  poor  red- 
man  and  his  family  had  now  about  nine  years  grace.  The  white  man 
was  to  come  with  his  axe,  and  the  forest  about  the  Forks,  as  well  as 
at  other  places,  was  to  melt  away  like  snow ;  the  game  to  depart,  and 
the  whole  scene  to  change.  Long  lines  of  buildings  now  raise  their 
stately  fronts  where  then  stood  the  wigwam,  and  where  the  primeval 
forest  then  towered;  busy  men  and  women  with  pale  faces  now 
traverse  the  streets.  There  the  Indian  then  tracked  his  game  through 
the  deep  woods  amid  silence  and  solitude ;  but  now  he,  too,  like  the 
deer,  has  nearly  vanished  from  the  land." 

The  Court  House  and  Gaol,  at  Vittoria,  near  Long  Point,  having 
been  destroyed  by  fire,  it  was  thought  desirable  that  the  new  buildings 
should  be  erected  in  a  more  central  position.  The  district  was  very 
large.  London  being  nearly  the  central  point  between  its  eastern  and 
western  boundaries,  a  struggle  for  the  location  of  the  new  buildings 
here  commenced.  Mayor  Schofied,  Edward  Allan,  Talbot  and  others 
pushed  the  claims  of  London,  and  won.  A  considerable  portion  of 
the  town  plot,  at  the  forks,  was  immediately  surveyed  into  half  acre 
lots,  to  be  granted  free  to  all  mechanics  who  would  clear  off  the  lot, 
and  erect  thereon  a  frame  house  18x24  feet,  one  and  a-half  story 
high.  Mr.  McGregor  put  up  the  first  housB;  others  followed,  and 
within  a  few  weeks  a  small  frame  house  was  built,  for  court-room  and 
prison,  and  the  first  court  held  therein  in  January,  1827. 

A  Wolf  Story. — In  other  pages  reference  is  made  to  the  hunting 
exploits  of  Abraham  Patrick,  and  other  pioneers,  as  well  as  to  the 
Indian  hunters.  Here,  however,  is  given  a  quaint  story  of  an 
adventure  with  a  wolf;  by  men  who  were  not  hunters,  and  knew 
comparatively  little  of  the  wild  animals  which  then  inhabited  the 
forests.  Hiram  Dell  tells  the  following  story : — "  I  caught  another 
very  large  wolf  about  half  a  mile  back  in  the  woods,  and  he  brought 
the  trap  clear  up  to  the  barn,  but  being  unable  to  climb  the  fence,  he 
sought  shelter  under  a  log-heap,  where  I  found  him.  I  called  to  a 
neighbor  to  bring  his  trap  and  dogs,  as  I  had  a  wolf  in  a  log-heap.  He 
and  other  neighbors,  with  their  wives,  were  soon  on  the  ground  to  see 
the  fun.  One  neighbor  set  his  trap,  and,  crawling  into  the  log  heap, 
placed  it  on  one  of  the  wolfs  feet ;  then  the  animal  was  drawn  out. 


36  HISTORY   OF    THE 

The  dogs  attacked  him,  and  it  would  have  done  you  good  to  see  the 
fur  fly.  When  the  wolf  had  one  dog  down  the  other  two  were  on  his 
back.  He  would  then  let  the  under  dog  go,  and  take  another  one 
down  ;  still,  the  dogs  had  the  advantage,  as  there  were  three  of  them, 
and  the  wolf  had  two  traps  attached  to  him.  After  awhile  the  wolf 
laid  down,  and  when  the  dogs  would  come  near  he  would  snap  at 
them.  My  neighbor  said,  '  I  will  soon  fix  him  so  he  cannot  bite  the 
dogs !'  and,  getting  a  stick,  placed  it  on  the  wolfs  neck,  so  as  to  give 
the  dogs  a  chance  to  take  him  by  the  throat.  In  doing  this  the  stick 
broke,  and  the  neighbor  fell  with  his  head  on  the  wolfs  head.  Both 
were  terrified.  The  neighbor's  wife's  scream  scared  the  wolf,  and, 
perhaps,  the  husband,  for  he  made  the  fastest  move  in  getting  away 
he  was  ever  known  to  make  in  his  life.  I  ultimately  shot  the 
animal,  which  stood  three  feet  high,  and  weighed  over  one  hundred 

Colored  Settlers  and  Visitors. — The  Wilberforce  Colored  Colony 
was  located. near  Lucan,  in  the  thirties,  by  friendly  Quakers  of  Ohio, 
and  thenceforward  Canada  became  the  Mecca  of  the  slaves.  The  settle- 
ment of  refugee  slaves  along  the  Thames,  from  London  to  Lake  St.  Glair, 
dates  back  to  1849,  when  the  underground  railroad  was  first  conceived  in 
the  United  States.  Between  the  years  1856  and  1859,  this  remarkable 
railroad,  without  rails,  conducted  large  numbers  of  negroes  into  this 
western  district.  It  is  related  that  in  January,  1859,  the  famous  John 
Brown  set  out  for  Canada  with  twelve  refugee  slaves,  and  on  March  12, 
that  year,  arrived  here  with  them,  three  or  four  of  whom  reside  still 
along  the  Thames.  During  the  trip  from  Missouri,  the  famous 
abolitionist  had  many  adventures,  one  of  which,  known  as  "The 
Battle  of  the  Spurs,"  gave  Brown  a  decisive  victory. 

A  Refugee  Chapel  and  Alms  House  were  established  at  London  by 
the  Colonial  Society,  of  which  the  Rev.  I.  Hellmuth  had  charge,  and 
by  other  methods  the  plan  of  driving  the  States  to  civil  war  was  for- 
warded here ;  while  the  refugees  were  fairly  treated. 

John  Brown  at  London. — In  May,  1858,  John  Brown,  with  his 
abolition  lieutenants,  T.  H.  Kagi  and  A.  D.  Stevens,  resided  in 
€anada,  passing  their  leisure  hours  at  London  or  Hamilton,  and  their 
working  hours  at  Chatham,— drafting  the  constitution  of  their  pro- 
posed provisional  government  for  the  United  States.  Toward  the 
close  of  the  month,  an  abolitionist,  then  in  Congress,  advised  Brown 
that  his  plans  were  all  exposed,  and  he  at  once  returned  to  Kansas. 
About  this  time,  Pat  Devlin,  of  Missouri,  applied  the  term  Jayhawks 
to  Brown  and  his  ^  followers,  and  the  name  soon  came  into  general  use. 

Early  Marriage  Laws.— Among  the  aborigines,  prior  to  the 
coming  of  the  French,  and  among  the  tribes  which  did  not  at  once 
become  associated  with  the  religion  of  the  great  missionary  fathers, 
marriage  was  a  simple  affair— the  dusky  maiden  flying  to  the  wigwam 
oi  her  lover  from  her  parent's  lodge.  Wherever  the  Recollet  or  the 
Jesuit  had  established  a  Mission,  the  case  was  changed,  for  both  the 



red  and  white  people  within  range  felt  the  necessity  of  religious 
ceremony.  In  July,  1620,  the  first  marriage  ceremony,  that  of 
Guillaume  Couillard,  to  Guillmet  Hebert,  was  recorded  in  the  first 
register  of  the  first  French  Parish.  On  Oct.  7,  1 637,  Jean  Nicolet 
married  Marguerite  Couillard,  at  Qiiebec,  a  daughter  of  said  Guillaume 
and  Guillmet  Couillard. 

In  later  years,  when  the  British  obtained  power  here,  the 
regimental  chaplain  was  looked  upon  by  the  troops  and  Protestant 
settlers  as  the  proper  person  to  administer  the  ceremony;  but  the 
chaplain  was  not  often  present,  and  so  the  duty  devolved  on  one  of 
the  officers  of  the  garrison.  This  was  the  rule  at  the  Niagara  Post, 
and,  indeed,  wherever  the  British  troops  formed  a  garrison.  Simcoe's 
Parliament,  held  at  Newark  (Niagara),  in  1793,  took  cognizance  of 
this  state  of  affairs,  and  passed  a  law  to  validate  all  such  marriages. 
At  this  time  there  was  not  one  Protestant  clergyman  (in  what  is  now 
Ontario),  so  that  this  act  confirmed  all  marriages  performed  by 
magistrates,  colonels,  adjutants,  or  regimental  surgeons.  At  this  time, 
also,  persons  living  farther  away  than  eighteen  miles  from  a  Church  of 
England  minister,  were  permitted  to  apply  to  a  neighboring  Justice  of 
the  Peace,  who  would,  for  a  one  shilling  fee,  give  public  notice  of  the 
intended  marriage,  and  then  unite  the  couple  according  to  Church  of 
England  form.  In  1798,  ministers  of  the  Church  of  Scotland, 
Lutheran  or  Calvinist  Church,  were  allowed  to  celebrate.  Such 
ministers  were  bound  to  appear  before  six  magistrates  to  prove  their 
ordination,  and  take  the  oath  of  allegiance,  before  they  could  solemnize 
marriage,  and  were  further  required  to  have  one  of  the  parties  to  the 
marriage  prove  that  he  or  she  was  a  member  of  his  particular  church 
for  six  months  prior  to  date  set  for  the  marriage  ceremony.  This  act, 
as  well  as  that  of  1793,  provided  for  the  record  of  all  marriages  with 
the  Clerk  of  the  Peace ;  but  evidently  made  the  Church  of  England 
its  own  recorder.  In  1821,  marrying  without  the  publication  of 
banns,  was  made  a  criminal  offence. 

In  1831  another  act  was  approved,  providing  for  the  confirmation 
of  marriages  performed  up  to  that  time  by  magistrates,  military  officers 
or  clergymen,  who  acted  under  authority  of  the  former  acts.  The  early 
system  is  fairly  exemplified  by 'the  following  formal  document,  bearing 
date  April  8,  1823,  which  tells  the  interesting  little  legend  : — "  Whereas 
Alphonso  McKnight,  of  the  Township  of  Woodham,  and  Margaret 
Staiidon,  of  the  Township  of  Middleton,  are  desirous  of  intermarrying 
with  each  other,  and  there  being  no  parson  or  minister  of  the  church 
within  eighteen  miles,  &c.,  &c.,  I  declare  them  legally  joined,  &c." 

An  account  of  the  marriage  of  Thomas  Carling,  affords  another 
good  example  of  the  legal  requirements  of  pioneer  time.  In  October, 
1820,  this  settler  introduced  to  his  new  home,  Margaret,  daughter  of 
Thomas  Eoutledge,  of  the  same  township  as  his  wife.  Previous  to 
the  consummation  of  this  interesting  ceremony,  notice  of  a  novel 
character  had  been  given.  There  were  no  marriage  licenses  readily 


38  HISTORY   OF    THE 

obtainable  in  these  days,  and  the  bond  was  written  on  paper  and 
tacked  to  a  tree  by  the  roadside.  This  was  rendered  necessary  in 
consequence  of  the  absence  of  ministers  of  the  Gospel,  and  the  rite  was 
performed  by  Col.  Burwell,  J.  P.,  and  Squire  Springer,  of  Delaware. 
The  marriage  thus  recorded  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  of  any  two 
white  persons  in  the  Township  of  London,  north  of  the  Thames.  The 
identical  beech  tree  on  which  the  notice  of  the  bond  of  union  between 
Thomas  Carling  and  Margaret  Eoutledge  was  tacked,  still  stands  on 
Lot  20,  or  what  is  generally  known  as  Quaker  Wright's  Hill,  in  London 

Prior  to  1831,  the  Church  of  England  and  Church  of  Scotland 
ministers,  with  Lutheran  and  Calvinist  ministers  (the  latter  only  foi 
a  few  years),  were  the  only  clergymen  who  could  legally  celebrate 
marriage  in  Upper  Canada.  In  that  year  the  privilege  was  extended 
to  Presbyterians,  Baptists,  Congregationalists,  Methodists,  Menonites, 
Tunkers,  Moravians,  and  Independents,  so  that  the  great  reservation 
of  the  Church  of  England  was,  so  to  speak,  parcelled  out  among  dis- 
senting bodies.  It  must  be  remembered,  however,  that  under  treaty 
rights,  the  Catholic  missionaries  and  secular  priests  could  administer  the 
sacrament  of  matrimony  in  their  districts.  During  the  days  of  religious 
intolerance,  Elder  Eyan,  Eev.  S.  B.  Smith,  and  Elder  Sawyer,  all 
Methodists,  were  accused  of  marrying  persons  without  legislative 
authority,  and  so  fled  the  country  or  were  tried  for  the  misdemeanor. 
In  July,  1818,  a  Methodist  Irishman  named  Henry  Eyan,  was  indicted 
for  marrying  Benj.  Davis  and  Hannah  McPherson,  without  first  having 
obtained  permission  from  the  English  Church  authorities.  This  crime 
was  such  a  serious  matter  seventy  years  ago,  that  the  "gentlemen 
magistrates  "  sent  the  unfortunate  preacher  to  jail  to  await  the  judg- 
ment of  the  Assize  Court. 

On  May  31,  1814,  five  persons  were  appointed  to  issue  marriage 
licenses  for  Upper  Canada.  The  agents  for  issuing  marriage  licenses 
in  1839  in  the  Western  Peninsula  were  John  Harris,  of  London; 
Wm.  Cosgrove,  of  Chatham;  John  Burwell,  of  Port  Burwell; 
Murdock  McKenzie,  of  St.  Thomas,  and  Alex.  Wilkinson,  of  Sandwich. 

The  Moravians  of  early  days  never  selected  a  wife— no  chance  was 
given  them.     God  was  their  great  designer,  and  to  him  they  left  the 
The  manner  in  which  their  God  made  the  selection  was  crude 
indeed.     One  of  the  missionaries  brought  forth  a  cylindrical  tin  case ; 
this  he  placed  bark  or  paper  slips,  with  the  names  of  all  the  male 
jandidates  for  matrimony.     Another  missionary  brought  forth  a  similar 
tin  case  in  which  were  tickets,  each  bearing  the  name  of  a  marriage- 
able girl.     Number  one  case  would  be  thoroughly  shaken  up,  when  the 
missionary  would  extract  a  ticket  and  read  the  name  aloud.     Number 
two  case  was  similarly  treated  and  the  girl's  name  called  out;  both 
ckets  would  then  be  examined  and  witnessed,  the  nuptials  proclaimed 
and  the  wedding  banquet  spread. 

The   Eoger   Bates'  memoir,  in  the  Dominion  Library,  brings  up 


memories  of  old-time  marriages.  "The  mode  of  courting  in  those 
days,"  says  he,  "  was  a  good  deal  of  the  Indian  fashion.  The  buxom 
daughter  would  run  through  the  trees  and  bushes,  and  pretend  to  get 
away  from  the  lover ;  but  somehow  or  other  he  managed  to  catch  her, 
gave  her  a  kiss;  and  they  soon  got  married,  I  rather  think,  by  a 
magistrate.  Time  was  too  valuable  to  make  a  fuss  about  such  matters. 
In  preparing  for  the  journey  to  the  magistrate's  house  or  cabin,  they 
generally  furnished  themselves  with  tomahawks  and  implements  to 
defend  themselves,  and  to  camp  out,  if  required.  The  ladies  had  no 
white  dresses  to  spoil,  or  fancy  bonnets.  With  deer  skin  petticoats, 
homespun  gowns,  and,  perhaps,  squirrel  skin  bonnets,  they  looked 
charming  in  the  eyes  of  their  lovers,  who  were  rigged  out  in  similar 
materials.  I  have  heard  my  mother  say,  that  a  magistrate,  rather 
than  disappoint  a  happy  couple  who  had  walked  twenty  miles,  made 
search  throughout  the  house,  and  luckily  found  a  pair  of  old  English 
skates,  to  which  was  attached  a  ring.  With  this  he  proceeded,  and 
fixing  the  ring  on  the  young  woman's  finger,  reminded  her,  that, 
though  a  homely  substitute,  she  must  continue  to  wear  it,  otherwise 
the  ceremony  would  be  dissolved." 

Pioneer  Cabins. — The  log  cabins  of  the  pioneers  were  designed  by 
circumstances.  The  first  builders  of  such  cabins  in  Ontario  were  exiles 
from  the  New  Eepublic,  who  knew  all  about  such  structures  ;  for  then, 
in  the  North  Atlantic  States,  cabins  were  the  rule  rather  than  the 
exception.  They  were  raised  by  members  of  the  family,  and  usually 
all  the  adult  males  of  a  settlement  would  be  present  to  assist  in  adding 
another  home  to  the  few  in  the  wilderness. 

How  natural  to  turn  our  thoughts  back  to  the  log-cabin  days  of 
this  section,  and  contrast  with  the  present.  Let  us  enter  this  cabin 
dwelling.  With  reverence  we  bow  the  head  in  presence  of  this  relic 
of  ancestral  beginnings  and  pioneer  battles  with  the  wilderness.  There 
is  the  wide  hearth,  with  back-log  remains,  in  whose  deep  recess  a  school 
might  play  hide-and-go-seek  and  count  the  stars  through  a  chimney,  as 
through  a  great  telescope.  Ah,  long  ago,  how  many  sat  'round  the 
cheerful  fire  listening  in  awe  to  the  communal  story-teller  as  he  spoke 
of  ghosts  and  giants,  and  wise-men  and  witches,  and  to  the  visiting 
hunter,  whose  tales  of  wolf,  and  bear,  and  Indian,  would  make  the 
listening  family  hold  their  breath  and  their  hair  stand  out  like  porcu- 
pine quills.  There,  hanging  on  the  old  crane,  is  the  tea  kettle,  and  the 
pot  of  all  work.  The  shovel  and  tongs  stand  in  their  accustomed 
places,  and  the  andirons  are  still  there ;  above  hangs  the  rifle ;  here  is 
the  spinning  wheel ;  there  is  the  loom,  a  pine  table  white  as  snow,  a 
dresser  with  rows  of  pewter  plates,  some  wooden  cups  and  relics  of  a 
long  list  of  china  ware,  strings  of  dried  apples  and  poles  of  drying 
pumpkins,  with  a  few  puncheon  seats  complete  the  main  hall.  In  a 
curtained  corner  is  mother's  bed ;  while  a  rude  ladder  leads  up  to  an 

NOTE.— The  early  marriage  record,  instructive  on  account  of  the  number  of  names  and 
dates  given,  has  been  separated  from  this  chapter,  and  appears  elsewhere  in  this  volume. 



attic  where  the  children  sleep.  Hail !  old  cabin ;  never  again  shall 
such  happiness  exist  as  blessed  your  builders  and  sustained  them  in 
the  wilderness.  Many  of  those  spirits,  who  led  the  way  to  teeming 
wealth  and  sunny  prosperity,  though  dead,  live  again.  Many  of  the 
dramatis  personce  of  the  prelude  have  disappeared ;  but  the  drama  is 
still  on  the  stage,  and  will  appear  thereon  until  humanity  ceases  to 
exist ;  when  the  heavens  refuse  light.  The  actors,  singers,  columbines, 
and  spirits  of  the  past  are  playing  on  far  away  boards ;  but  their  songs 
and  acts  are  repeated  by  others,  and  out  of  the  darkness  new  foot-lights 
are  advanced,  new  shades,  new  scenery,  new  dress — all  things  new. 
But  the  hard  hands  that  prepared  the  way  for  fruitful  fields,  for  cities 
and  towns,  and  churches  and  schools,  and  all  other  evidences  of  pro- 
nounced progress,  are  folded  away  in  mother  earth,  leaving  us  in  pos- 
session of  material  wealth,  and  teaching  us  the  lesson  when,  where  and 
how  civilization  was  introduced  into  this  wilderness. 




In  this  chapter  the  story  of  the  beginning  of  the  various  churches,, 
now  represented  in  the  county,  is  told,  and  their  establishment 
sketched,  leaving  the  history  of  their  progress  to  be  given  in  that  of 
the  townships,  cities  or  incorporated  towns,  where  such  organizations 
exist  to-day.  In  a  civilized  country  the  Church  is  generally 
contemporary  with  settlements,  and  for  this  reason  the  chapter  holds 
the  next  place  to  that  dealing  with  the  first  occupation  of  this  district 
by  white  people. 

The  Catlwlic  Church — The  Catholic  Church  in  Upper  Canada  dates 
back  to  1615,  when  four  missionaries  came  with  Champlain.  One,  at 
least,  was  a  Recollet  priest,  Rev.  Joseph  Le  Caron,  and  he  it  was,  who, 
in  1615-16,  accompanied  the  Governor  in  his  tour  round  Canada,  via 
the  Ottawa,  Nippissing,  Georgian  Bay,  and  the  chain  of  lakes  and 
rivers,  from  Lake  Huron  to  the  St.  Lawrence,  via  Lake  Simcoe.  He 
is  said  to  have  established  a  Mission  near  the  foot  of  Lake  Huron. 
Eight  years  after,  Father  Nicholas  Veil  and  Brother  Gabriel  Sagard 
traversed  the  same  district,  and  in  1634  the  Jesuit  fathers,  Breboeuf 
and  Daniel,  established  a  Mission  on  Lake  Huron  shore  among  the 
Hurons,  with  whom  they  travelled  from  Quebec,  where  the  Hures 
were  visiting.  The  Abbe  D'Urfe  and  venerable  Dolliere  de  Kleus,  of 
the  Seminary  of  St.  Sulpice,  established  their  Mission  at  the  Bay  of 
Quinte  about  this  time,  and  still  later,  the  Chapel  on  Lake  Huron,, 
where  la  Riviere  Aux  Saubles  was  founded,  and,  it  is  said,  another  at 
the  Straits,  just  north  of  Sarnia,  about  the  time  Fort  St.  Joseph  was 
established,  where  the  village  of  Fort  Gratiot  now  stands.  In  June, 
1G71,  De  Courcelles  sent  messages  to  the  Indian  Missions  in  Ontario 
advising  them  of  his  approach,  and  in  1673,  Frontenac  was  received 
by  the  Abbe  D'Urfe,  and  the  chiefs  of  the  Five  Nations,  at  the  Bay 
of  Quinte. 

In  the  second  decade  of  this  country,  Edourd  Petit,  of  Black  River, 
discovered  the  ruins  of  an  ancient  building  on  the  Riviere  Aux  Saubles, 
about  forty  miles  from  Sarnia.  Pacing  the  size,  he  found  it  to  have 
been  40x24  feet  on  the  ground.  On  the  middle  of  the  south  or  gable 
end,  was  a  chimney  eighteen  feet  high,  in  excellent  preservation,  built 
of  stone,  with  an  open  fire-place.  The  fire-place  had  sunk  below  the 
surface.  This  ruin  had  a  garden  surrounding  it,  ten  or  twelve  rods, 
wide  by  twenty  rods  in  length,  marked  by  ditches  and  alleys  Inside 
the  walls  of  the  house  a  splendid  oak  had  grown  to  be  three  feet  in 
diameter,  with  a  stem  sixty  feet  high  to  the  first  branch.  It  seemed 
to  be  of  second  growth,  and  must  have  been  150  years  reaching  its. 

42  HISTORY   OF    THE 

proportions,  as  seen  in  1828-9.  Onicknick,  an  aged  Saguenay  chief 
(84  years  old),  told  Petit  that  a  white  man  built  the  house  at  the  time 
his  great-great-great-great  grandfather  lived,  and  that  white  people 
lived  then  in  all  the  country  around,  who  sold  every  article  for  a 
peminick  or  dollar.  Onicknick  also  stated  that  the  men  were  not 
French ;  but  beyond  this,  he  could  not  give  any  testimony  more  than 
the  ruin  conveyed.* 

On  the  Wye  Kiver,  north  of  Penetanguishene,  at  old  Michili- 
mackinack  and  other  places,  permanent  or  temporary  missions  had 
been  established  prior  to  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century ; 
while  the  great  mission  at  Ogdensburg  or  Soegasti  was  established  in 
1748  by  Abbe  Picquet,  "The  Apostle  of  the  Iroquois." 

Early  in  the  eighteenth  century  can  be  found  traces  of  regularly 
appointed  Catholic  missioners  among  the  Otchipwas  and  white  settlers 
along  both  banks  of  the  St.  Glair  River,  over  a  century  after  the 
Reverends  Dollier  and  Galivree  visited  the  locality — 1670-1,  who  are 
said  to  have  made  a  stay  at  the  Champlain  Mission  opposite  Fort 
Gratiot,  or  in  that  vicinity.  In  1786,  Nelson  Roberts,  who  visited  the 
Red  River  country  that  year,  reported  having  seen  a  priest  among  the 
Indians  of  the  Black  River  and  St.  Glair,  and  recorded  this  report  on 
liis  return  to  Montreal.  Assistant  Surgeon  Taylor,  U.  S.  A.,  writing 
in  1871,  from  Fort  Gratiot,  says:— "The  location  of  the  Recollet 
mission  in  this  vicinity  is  uncertain.  According  to  Bell's  History  of 
Canada^  it  was  an  important  one,  and  known  as  Ste.  Marie.  As  the 
Jesuits  had  one  also  of  the  same  name  located  among  the  Hurons  at 
the  head  of  Georgian  Bay,  it  would  seem  that  some  confusion  has 
arisen  in  relation  to  these  missions,  both  as  to  their  importance  and 
position.  Judge  Campbell  is  of  the  opinion  that  the  Recollet  mission 
was  located  on  the  present  site  of  Sarnia." 

In  1728,  the  Mission  at  Pointe  de  Montreal  was  founded  by  Pere 
de  la  Richardie.  Prior  to  this  date,  for  twenty-six  years,  the  Mission 
of  St.  Anne,  at  Detroit,  existed.  In  1733,  a  church  building  was 
•erected  at  Sandwich,  but  within  the  succeeding  decade  another  °house 
was  erected  on  Bois  Blanc,  sixteen  miles  down  the  river,  with  Pere 
Potier  in  charge;  but  in  1747,  the  founder  of  the  Mission,  at  Pointe 
de  Montreal,  returned,  and  rebuilt  the  Church  of  1733.  In  1757  he 
accompanied  a  band  of  Hurons  to  their  selected  huntin^  grounds  in 
the  neighborhood  of  where  Tiffin,  0,  now  stands;  but  the  following 
year  settled  among  the  Illinois,  in  which  nation  he  died  in  1758  The 
present  church  of  Sandwich  dates  back  to  1760,  when  the  Mission  was 
established.  Father  Potier,  who  resumed  charge  in  1757  of  the 
•on  Church  continued  pastor  there  until  his  death  in  1781.  Father 
Hubert  succeeded,  who  served  this  Parish  and  that  of  St.  Anne's  until 
i/»»,  witn  father  Frechette  assisting.  About  1789  Rev  F  X 

b^^vtfSS^'S^^^^*?  with  due  allowance  forerror.    The 
•sionaries  or  adventurers.    Onickr   :k  w**  mM^f.^%  ^i161^6?'  except  French  mis- 




Dufaux  was  appointed  pastor,  and  served  until  his  death,  Sept.  12, 
1796.  Other  priests  succeeded.  In  1803,  the  Parish  of  St.  Peter,  on 
the  Thames,  and  one  at  Maiden,  were  established,  with  which  the 
names  of  Rev.  T.  B.  Marchant  and  his  assistant  priests,  with  those 
of  Pere  Badin  and  Father  Angus  MacDonnell,  were  connected  for 
many  years.  In  1820,  Father  Besrinquet  arrived  from  Quebec,  and 
erected  a  small  church  building  on  Walpole  Island.  On  his  leaving 
for  the  Lake  Superior  county,  Father  Sagelle  was  appointed,  and  in 
1833,  the  celebrated  Austrian,  Father  Vizoiski,  took  his  place. 

The  founder  of  the  English-speaking  congregations  in  Ontario  was 
a  man  of  rare  power,  physically  and  mentally.  His  life  is  a  part  of 
the  history  of  the  Dominion,  and  for  that  reason  a  synopsis  of  it  is 
given  here.  Bishop  Alexander  McDonnell  was  born  in  Glengary, 
Scotland,  in  1760.  In  his  youth  it  was  a  penal  offence  to  attend  a 
Catholic  school,  even  as  it  was  to  preside  over  or  support  one,  so  that 
his  classical  education  had  to  be  obtained  at  Valladolid,  Spain.  In 
1790,  he  returned  to  his  native  country  with  the  order  of  priesthood, 
and  went  to  work  to  re-establish  the  proscribed  religion  among  his 
people  in  the  northern  Parish  of  Badenoch,  and  in  the  city  of  Glasgow. 
That  the  law  and  narrow  bigotry  of  those  days  countenanced  this 
action,  is  the  greatest  testimonial  to  his  zeal  and  accomplishments. 
This  Scottish  priest  joined  Lord  McDonnell's  regiment  of  Glengary 
Fencibles,  and  served  against  the  patriots,  winning  victories  by 
'Christian  methods,  and  saving  the  desperate  people  from  cruelties, 
such  as  other  regiments  inflicted.  Through  his  influence  this  Catholic 
regiment  was  recruited  in  Scotland,  and  the  second  Glengary  Fencible 
Regiment  was  raised  in  Canada  to  repel  the  American  invasion  in 
1812.  Bishop  McDonnell  came  to  Canada  as  a  priest  in  1804,  was 
consecrated  Bishop  of  Kingston  in  1822,  and  died  in  Dumfriesshire, 
Scotland,  in  1840.  His  body  laid  in  St.  Mary's  Church,  Edinburgh, 
until  1862.  when  it  was  brought  to  Kingston,  where  it  rests  in  the 
Cathedral.  In  1804,  there  were  only  two  Catholic  priests  in  Ontario, 
one  of  whom  deserted  his  mission  that  year,  and  the  other  would  not 
leave  his  district  of  Sandwich,  so  that,  in  fact,  the  great  Bishop  at  one 
time  travelled  throughout  Ontario  visiting  his  co-religionists,  among 
whom  were  many  U.  E.  Loyalists. 

The  Catholic  Church  clergy  of  1831,  were  Rev.  Joseph  Fluett,  of 
Amherstburg,  and  Rev.  Joseph  Crevier,  of  Sandwich  and  Rochester. 
The  venerable  Bishop  McDonnell,  of  Glengary,  is  said  to  have  visited 
the  London  district  once  or  twice  during  this  year.  The  Catholic  clergy 
in  London  and  Western  district  in  1839,  were  Rev.  M.  R.  Mills,  of 
London;  Edmund  Yvelin,  of  Sandwich,  and  Augustin  Vervais,  of 
Amherstburg.  In  1843-56  the  Jesuit  fathers,  Point,  Choue,  Duvan- 
quet,  Chazelle,  Jaffre,  Menet,  Tevard,  Grunot,  Mainguy,  and  Conil- 
leau,  attended  this  large  mission  field,  and  after  them  came  the  bishops 
and  priests  who  have  built  up  a  great  diocese  of  over  one  hundred 


The  history  of  the  Church  within  the  County  of  Middlesex  dates 
back  to  1833-4,  when  the  old  log  house  of  worship  was  erected  on  the 
corner  of  Richmond  and  Maple  streets,  and  dedicated  by  Father 
Downie,  of  St.  Thomas,  in  1834.  For  a  decade  the  Catholic  people  of 
London  were  visited  by  priests  from  Toronto,  St.  Peter  or  Sandwich, 
such  as  Father  Schneider,  the  Apostle  of  the  Huron  nation. 

Rev.  M.  E.  Mills  was  appointed  pastor  of  St.  Thomas,  June  6, 1843, 
his  district  embracing  the  townships  of  Yarmouth,  Southwold,  Mala- 
hide,  and  territory  adjacent  on  the  east  as  well  as  other  parts  of  the 
Diocese  of  Toronto,  to  which  pastors  were  not  appointed.  In  September 
Bishop  Power  visited  St.  Thomas  and  London,  and  on  the  20th  extended 
the  former  mission  so  as  to  include  concessions  7,  8,  and  9,  of  West- 
minster. In  December,  1844  Father  Mills  was  appointed  to  attend  the 
townships  of  Westminster  and  London,  this  appointment  being  made 
about  one  year  after  the  Bishop's  visit.  In  1847  is  found  the  name 
of  Rev.  P.  O'Dwyer;  in  1849  that  of  Rev.  John  Carroll,  and  on  April 
19,  1849,  of  Rev.  Thadeus  Kirwan.  On  June  29,  1851,  Bishop  De 
Charbonnel,  of  Toronto,  confirmed  130  persons  at  London,  and  85  at 
the  church  of  St.  Lawrence.  In  1854,  Rev.  P.  Crinnon  presided  over 
the  parish.  Rev.  Mr.  Carroll,  named  above,  was,  in  1885,  the  oldest 
priest  in  the  United  States.  He  was  bom  in  Maryborough,  Ireland, 
June  30,  1798 ;  came  to  America  in  1817 ;  was  ordained  at  Quebec 
by  Bishop  Edmund  Burke,  June  29,  1820,  and  served  the  Church 
in  Canada  until  1869,  when  he  was  removed  to  Chicago,  111. 

The  Diocese  of  London  was  erected  February  21, 1856,  and  on  the 
29th  day  of  that  month  the  Papal  Bulls  were  addressed  to  the  Rev. 
Peter  Adolphus  Pinsonneault,  Priest  of  the  Society  of  St.  Sulpice, 
Montreal,  naming  him  first  Bishop  of  the  new  See.  Bishop  Pinsonneault 
was  born  in  the  year  1815,  and  made  his  studies  in  the  College  of 
Montreal.  There  also  he  took  the  ecclesiastical  habit,  but  proceeded  to 
Paris  to  complete  his  theological  studies.  It  was  in  that  city  that  he 
was  raised  to  the  priesthood  in  1840.  Returning  to  America  soon 
after  his  ordination,  he  served  the  Church  for  many  years  in  Montreal, 
and  was  consecrated  there  May  18th,  Trim'ty  Sunday,  1856,  and  was 
installed  Bishop  of  London  June  29th  following,  the  record  being 
signed  by  Armandus,  F.  M.,  Bishop  of  Toronto ;  John,  Bishop  of 
Hamilton ;  T.  T.  Kirwan ;  Edward  Bayard ;  Louis  Musard. 

The  new  bishop  found  little  in  the  London  Town  of  1856  with 
which  to  be  satisfied,  and  so  urged  the  Church  authorities  to  transfer 
the  Episcopal  See  to  Sandwich,  and  a  brief  agreeable  to  his  views  was 
issued  February  2,  1859.  For  some  months  prior  to  this  date  Bishop 
Pinsonneault  was  visiting  in  Europe—Bishop  FarreU,  of  Hamilton, 
being  Administrator  from  September  19,  1858,  to  the  spring  of  1859. 
In  May,  1857,  the  title  of  Vicar-General  was  conferred  on  Rev.  P. 
Point,  Superior  of  the  Jesuits  of  Sandwich,  and  on  Revs.  J.  M. 
Soulerm  and  J.  M.  Bruyere,  of  Toronto.  When  Bishop  Pinsonneault 
retired  in  1867,  the  latter  was  appointed  Administrator  ~of  the  Diocese, 



which  position  he  filled  until  the  installation  of  Bishop  Walsh  at 
Sandwich,  November  14,  that  year.  The  official  record  of  that  cere- 
mony of  installation  bears  the  signatures  of  the  Bishops  of  Hamilton 
and  Kingston,  and  of  Geo.  Baby,  Mayor  of  Sandwich,  besides  those  of 
the  following  clergy: — J.  M.  Bruyere,  V.  G,  Sandwich;  J.  F.  Jamot, 
V.  G.,  Toronto ;  Conilleau,  S.  J. ;  "Michel,  S.  J. ;  Dean  Crinnon,  P.  D. 
Laurent,  Amherstburg ;  B.  G.  Soffers,  St.  Anne's,  Detroit ;  G.  Limpens, 
Detroit;  E.  Ouellette,  Director  College  of  St.  Hyacinths;  E.  B.  Kilroy, 
Sarnia ;  James  Farrelly,  Belleville ;  F.  P.  Eooney,  Toronto,  and  Jos, 
Bayard,  of  Sandwich. 

In  January,  1868,  the  new  bishop  removed  the  Episcopal  resi- 
dence from  Sandwich  to  London,  and  on  the  15th  of  November,. 
1869,  procured  from  the  Propaganda  a  decree  making  London  once 
more  the  Episcopal  See  of  the  Diocese.  Bishop  Walsh  was  on  his- 
accession  to  the  See  of  Sandwich  confronted  with  many  grave  diffi- 
culties. The  Diocese  was  involved  in  debt  to  the  extent  of  $40,000,. 
for  which  enormous  liability  little  or  nothing  could  be  shown.  What 
resulted  ?  From  1867  to  1885  no  less  a  sum  than  $952,798  was- 
raised  for  Diocesan  purposes ;  since  increased  to  over  $1,500,000, 
Throughout  the  Diocese  church  buildings,  worthy  of  Him  to  Whom 
they  are  dedicated,  are  to  be  seen  on  every  side ;  while  in  the  centre- 
rises  a  temple  that  would  do  credit  to  a  city  of  one  million  of  people. 
Eeferring  to  Father  Coffey's  sketch  of  the  Catholic  Church  of  London, 
published  in  1885,  Eev.  E.  E.  Stimson,  of  the  English  Church  of 
Toronto,  in  his  "  History  of  the  Separation  of  Church  and  State  in 
Canada,"  says  : — "  From  it  can  be  obtained  a  very  fair  apprehension  of 
the  progress  made  by  Catholics  in  this  part  of  Canada,  unaided  by  any- 
thing but  fidelity  to  their  cause,  and  willing,  faithful  hearts.  Contrast 
the  past  with  the  present — voluntaryism,  with  the  endowed  pulpit  from 
which  have  proceeded  warnings  since  it  first  received  preachers !"  The 
history  of  the  churches,  orphanages,  hospitals,  convent  schools  and 
colleges  of  this  Diocese  would  make  a  large  volume,  reading  like 
romance,  while  real  beyond  measure. 

English  Church  in  Canada. — The  first  clergyman  of  the  English 
Church  was  Eev.  John  Ogilvie,  D.  D.,  a  British  army  chaplain,  who 
accompanied  his  regiment  to  Fort  Niagara  in  1759,  when  the  French 
lost  that  position.  He  died  in  1774  while  pastor  of  Trinity  Church, 
N.  Y.,  and  was  followed  in  Canada  by  Eev.  John  Doughty,  in  1777, 
immediately  after  the  English  Churches  in  the  American  colonies  were 
closed  by  the  American  authorities.  He  was  missionary  at  Sorel  in 
1784,  having  previously  served  in  Canada  as  Chaplain  of  the  King's 
Eoyal  Eegiment  of  New  York. 

The  first  Protestant  clergyman,  who  can  lay  claim  to  the  title  of 
being  a  resident  pastor,  was  the  Eev.  John  Stuart,  a  son  of  one  of  the 
early  Irish  settlers,  of  Harrisburg,  Pa.  Although  his  two  brothers 
joined  the  American  army,  Mr.  Stuart  sympathized  with  the  British, 
and  so  thought  it  prudent  to  leave  the  States.  In  September,  1781, 


he  was  in  New  Brunswick,  and  in  1783,  at  Montreal,  and  in  1785,  at 
Cataraqui.  In  1789  he  was  appointed  Bishop's  Commissionary,  for 
what  is  now  Ontario.  His  death  took  place  in  1811,  at  Kingston, 

Rev.  Robert  Addison  came  in  1790,  as  a  missionary  from  the 
Society  for  Propagating  the  Gospel.  He  was  army  chaplain  for  a 
short  time  at  Niagara,  and  a  visitor  among  the  Grand  River  Indians. 
Added  to  this,  he  speculated  in  lands,  and  for  thirty  years,  prior  to 
1823,  was  Chaplain  of  Parliament.  Rev.  Mr.  Pollard  came  in  1791, 
and  later,  Rev.  J.  Langhorn,  who  returned  to  England  at  the  beginning 
of  the  troubles  of  1812,  so  as  to  escape  the  Americans,  of  whose 
"blood-thirsty  disposition"  he  entertained  strange  ideas.  The  first 
English  Protestant  Church  was  erected  at  Kingston  in  1793.  In 
1792,  however,  the  Protestants  and  Catholics  worshipped  in  turn  in 
Navy  Hall,  or  the  Council  Chamber  there.  The  second  English 
Church  building  in  Ontario  was  that  at  Belleville,  1819-20,  presided 
over  by  Mr.  Campbell,  which  was  used  up  to  1858.  Rev.  John 
Cochrane  and  Rev.  John  Grier  may  be  named  among  the  old  pastors 
of  that  old  church.  In  1793,  Rev.  Dr.  Jehosaphat  Mountain  was 
sent  out  from  England  as  first  Protestant  Bishop  of  all  Canada,  with 
his  See  at  Quebec.  At  that  time  his  church  claimed  but  five 
clergymen  in  the  whole  of  British  North  America. 

The  ministers  of  the  Church  of  England,  in  London  district,  in 
1831,  were  Rev.  M.  Burnham,  St.  Thomas;  Rev.  F.  Evans,  Wood- 
house,  and  Rev.  E.  J.  Boswell,  London.  In  the  Western  District  were 
Rev.  R.  Rolph,  of  Amherstburg ;  Wm.  Johnson,  of  Sandwich,  and  T. 
Morley  of  Chatham.  In  1832,  Rev.  Benj.  Crony n  was  appointed 
Rector  of  St.  Paul's,  London,  while  Rev.  D.  E.  Blake  was  placed  in 
charge  of  the  Adelaide  Church,  the  congregation  there  being  formed 
that  year.  On  July  12,  1836,  a  letter  from  the  Governor's  Secretary 
informed  the  magistrates  that  five  ministers  of  the  Church  were  then 
established  in  the  district. 

Rev.  Mr.  Macintosh,  the  first  English  Church  minister  in  this 
vicinity,  presided  at  Kettle  Creek  or  St.  Thomas,  and,  in  early  years, 
held  services  in  Wm.  Geary's  barn  on  Lot  14,  Con.  5,  London,  whose 
wife,  Miss  Jones,  herself  the  daughter  of  an  Irish  Protestant  minister, 
was  always  ready  to  welcome  such  gospel  messengers.  In  1829,  Rev! 
£.  N.  Boswell  came  to  take  charge  of  London,  and  established  St 
Paul's  parish. 

Under  date  January  16,  1830,  Mahlon  Burwell  writes  to  Rev 
Edward  J.  Boswell,  minister  of  London :— "  The  receipt  of  your  favor 
respecting  the  want  of  a  house  in  which  to  perform  Divine  service 
and  requesting  permission  to  use  the  Court-room,  is  acknowledged' 
The  magistrates  instruct  me  to  inform  you  that,  as  the  Court-house  is 
the  property  of  the  district,  erected  for  the  only  purpose  of  accommo- 
dating His  Majesty's  Courts  of  Law  in  the  administration  of  justice 
they  do  not  conceive  that  they  possess  the  right  of  granting  vou  your* 



In  April,  1831,  the  Court  granted  permission  to  Eev.  Mr.  Boswell 
to  hold  Divine  service  in  the  house  intended  for  a  public  school  house 
at  London;  later  the  order  was  rescinded.  In  1832,  Eev.  Benj. 
Cronyn  was  appointed  Eector,  and  in  1835  a  small  frame  church  was 
built  near  the  present  custom-house.  This  was  burned  in  1844,  and  a 
new  building  soon  took  its  place. 

The  ministers  of  the  Church  of  England  in  London  District,  in 
1839,  were  Win.  Betteridge,  of  Woodstock ;  D.  Blake,  of  Adelaide ; 
M.  Burnham,  of  St.  Thomas  ;  Benj.  Cronyn,  of  London ;  Eichard 
Hood,  of  Caradoc ;  T.  Petrie,  travelling  missionary ;  John  Eadcliffe, 
of  Warwick ;  J.  Eothwell,  of  Ingersoll.  In  the  Western  District  were 
J.  0'Meara;  of  Sault  Ste.  Marie;  Hugh  H.  O'Neil,  travelling 
missionary ;  T.  B.  Fuller,  Chatham ;  Fred.  Mack,  Amherstburgh. 

The  Anglican  Churches  of  1842-3  were  St.  Anne's  Kateville,  and 
tenth  concession  buildings  in  Adelaide,  the  Caradoc  Church,  the 
Delaware  Church,  St.  Paul's  at  London,  St.  John's  in  London  Town- 
ship at  Arva,  and  the  church  at  Strathroy. 

In  the  report  of  the  Church  Society  of  the  Diocese  of  Toronto, 
made  in  1842-3,  it  is  written  that  the  donations  of  land  in  the  London 
District  to  the  Church  amounted  to  1,877  acres,  of  which  J.  B.  Askin 
gave  46;  H.  L.  Askin,  35;  Col.  M.  Burwell,  1,096;  Eev.  Benja- 
min Cronyn,  James  Givens,  G.  J.  Goodhue,  L.  Lawrason  and  John 
Williams,  100  acres  each,  and  T.  Phillips,  200  acres.  Penny's  grant 
of  100  acres  to  the  Church  at  Wardsville  and  smaller  grants  in  West- 
minster and  London  Townships  are  unnoticed. 

Eev.  Benjamin  Cronyn,  speaking  July  17,  1851,  on  the  prosperity 
of  holding  land  for  church  purposes,  said : — "It  did  not  send  him  into 
a  man's  vineyard  to  steal  his  grapes,  or  a  man's  farmyard  to  milk  his 
cows."  Eev.  J.  Winterbotham,  in  reply,  pointed  out  that  church  lands 
were  not  always  used  for  the  purposes  granted,  and  said  : — "  I  refer 
now  to  my  brother  from  London,  who  managed  to  get  an  act  passed 
through  the  Provincial  Parliament  for  the  sale  of  his  glebe  there.  I 
asked  him  whether  $2,500  was  not  realized  by  the  sale  of  that  glebe. 
When  a  transaction  of  this  nature  is  seen  to  take  place  openly,  *  *  * 
is  thus  made  a  matter  of  speculative  sale  to  feed  the  grasping  avarice 
of  those  who  claim  credit  for  great  disinterestedness,  then  it  is  time  for 
Parliament  to  interpose."  In  1853  the  British  Parliament  authorized 
the  Canadian  Parliament  to  vary,  or  repeal  the  provisions  of  the  Eeserve 
Fund,  and  apply  the  proceeds  to  any  purpose,  but  not  to  reduce  the 
annual  salaries,  then  paid  to  ministers  of  the  English  and  Scotch 
churches,  during  their  lives.  This  permission  drew  from  "  The  Lord 
Bishop,  Clergy  and  Lay  Delegates  of  the  United  Church  of  England 
and  Ireland,  in  the  Province  of  Canada  West,  in  Synod  assembled  at 
Toronto,  Oct.  26,  1854,"  a  strong  protest,  but  the  Canadians  over- 
looked this  and  an  act  was  passed  in  accordance  with  the  British  act, 
and,  in  1855,  the  Lord  Bishop  Strachan  asked  his  ministers  to  com- 
mit their  claims  to  the  Clergy  Eeserve  Funds.  John  Hillyard  Cameron 


was  "iven  power  of  attorney,  by  several  of  such  clergymen,  to  commit 
their°claims,  and  in  March,  1855,  his  list  of  clergy  and  amount  to  be 
paid  each  was  approved  by  Bishop  Strachan.  In  this  list  the  names 
of  Revs.  D.  E.  Blake,  Michael  Boomer,  C.  C.  Brough,  A.  St.  G.  Caul- 
field,  H.  G.  Cooper,  Ben.  Cronyn,  R.  Flood,  John  Kennedy,  W.  Logan, 
J.  W.  Marsh,  T.  W.  Marsh,  A.  Mortimer,  A.  Lampman,  all  connected 
with  Middlesex,  occur.  The  commutation  moneys  paid  to  the  clergy 
of  the  Diocese  of  Huron  in  1855,  exclusive  of  Messrs.  Blake  and  others 
who  were  not  here  then,  amounted  to  $219,685.52,  and  this  payment 
did  not  incapacitate  any  of  them  from  earning  the  same,  or  large  annual 
salary,  from  their  congregations. 

The  first  report  of  the  Incorporated  Church  Society  of  the  Diocese 
of  Huron,  was  presented  June  22, 1859.  In  1857  the  western  division 
of  the  Diocese  of-  Toronto  was  so  far  endowed  and  preparations  for  the 
organization  of  a  new  diocese  so  far  proceeded  with,  that  the  Governor- 
General  approved  the  election  of  a  Bishop ;  and  in  July  of  that  year, 
Rev.  Benj.  Cronyn  was  chosen  and  consecrated  October  28,  1857.  In 
1858,  Hon.  M.  Foley,  M.  P.,  was  entrusted  with  the  Bill  of  Incor- 
poration, to  carry  it  through  the  House  of  the  Assembly  ;  while  G.  J. 
Goodhue  introduced  it  in  the  Legislative  Council.  Success  waited  on 
their  efforts,  and  on  July  24,  1858,  the  Diocese  was  incorporated. 
Bishop  Benj.  Cronyn,  son  of  John  Cronyn,  of  Kilkenny  City,  Ireland, 
was  born  there  in  1802 ;  he  won  the  degree  of  B.  A.  at  Trinity  College, 
Dublin,  in  1821,  and  of  M.  A.  in  1824,  together  with  the  Regius  Pro- 
fessors' prize  of  that  year.  In  1825  he  was  created  Deacon,  and  in 
1826  was  ordained  at  Quam,  Ireland.  After  a  six  years'  curacy  in 
Longford  County,  where  he  married  Miss  Bickerstaff,  of  Lislea,  he 
came  to  Canada  in  1832,  and  was  appointed  Rector  of  St.  Paul's, 
London.  In  1857,  Huron  Diocese  was  established  with  Rev.  Mr. 
Cronyn,  first  Bishop.  His  death  took  place  here  September  22,  1871. 

Among  the  clergy  of  1878,  who  were  in  the  Diocese  at  that  time, 
were  the  following  named,  the  date  of  their  connection  with  church 
work  in  the  old  Diocese  of  Toronto,  and  their  stations  being  given  : — 

Wm.  Bettridge,  B.D.  (Canon),  1834,  Strathroy;  M.  Boomer, 
LL.D.  (Dean),  1840,  London;  St.  G.  Caulfield,  LL.D.  (Canon),  1848, 
Windsor;  F.  Gore  Elliott,  1837,  Sandwich;  E.  L.  Elwood,  A.M. 
(Archdeacon),  1849,  Goderich;  E.  Grasett,  M.A.  (Canon),  1848, 
Simcoe;  Andrew  Jamieson,  1842,  Walpole  Island;  John  Kennedy, 
M.A,  1848,  Adelaide;  F.  Mack,  1839,  St.  Catharines;  J.  W.  Marsh, 
M.A.  (Archdeacon),  1849,  London;  A.  H.  R.  Mulholland  (R.  D.), 
1849,  Owen  Sound;  A  Nelles  (Canon,  R.  D.),  1829,  Brantford;  J. 
Padfield  (superannuated),  1833,  Burford;  E.  Patterson,  M.A.  (R.  D.), 
1849,  Stratford;  F.  W.  Sandys,  D.D.  (Archdeacon),  1845,  Chatham; 
G  J.  R.  Salter,  M.A.  (Canon),  1847,  Brantford;  J.  Smythe,  M.A., 
1854,  Shelburne;  A.  Townley,  D.D.  (Canon),  1840,  Hamilton. 

Among  the  members  at  this  time  were  H.  C.  R.  Becher,  G.  J. 
Goodhue,  L.  Lawrason,  C.  Monserrat,  John  Wilson,  Dr.  H.  Going, 



Eev.  E.  Gordon,  Dr.  A.  Harpur,  Eev.  T.  Hughes,  Dr.  Phillips,  James 
Stephenson,  Eev.  J.  McLean  (curate),  W.  Watson,  S.  Peters  and  J. 
Hamilton.  Eev.  E.  Gordon,  named  above,  presided  over  the  Fugitive 
Mission,  in  London  City,  on  the  Colored  People's  Mission  in  1858 ; 
but  he  was  not  here  twenty  years  later  when  the  above  list  of  clergy 
was  compiled. 

Bishop  Hellmuth  was  ordained  a  minister  in  1846,  created  Arch- 
deacon of  Huron  in  1861,  Dean  in  1867,  Coadjutor-Bishop  of  Norfolk 
in  1871,  and  Bishop  of  Huron  the  same  year,  to  succeed  Bishop 

On  November  30,  1883,  Very  Eev.  Maurice  S.  Baldwin,  Dean  of 
Montreal,  was  consecrated  Bishop  of  Huron. 

The  Diocese  comprises  235  congregations,  attended  by  123  min- 
isters. Of  the  numbers  given  42  and  25  are  respectively  credited  to 
Middlesex  County. 

Presbyterian  Church. — Eev.  John  Bethune,  a  native  of  Scotland, 
and  a  minister  of  the  Church  of  Scotland,  who  settled  at  Cornwall, 
Can.,  about  1780-1,  was  the  second  legal  clergyman  of  any  Protestant 
denomination  who  settled  in  Canada.  He  died  at  Williamstown, 
September  23,  1815.  Eev.  Mr.  McDowell  succeeded  him  in  the 
active  work  of  the  mission  in  1799  or  1800,  or  about  the  time  his 
co-religionist,  Dr.  Strachan,  came  hither.  Eev.  Mr.  Smart  came  in 
1811 ;  but  by  this  time  Dr.  Strachan  had  joined  the  English  Church, 
so  that  the  field  of  Presbyterianism  was  cultivated  by  Messrs.  Bethune 
and  McDowell,  the  latter  of  whom  asked  Mr.  Smart  to  assist  in  the 
work.  On  May  24,  1888,  the  celebration  of  the  one-hundredth  anni- 
versary of  the  adoption  by  New  York,  New  Jersey,  Philadelphia  or 
Pennsylvania,  Virginia,  and  the  Carolina  Synods  of  the  Presbyterian 
Congregation  of  the  resolutions  for  the  formation  of  the  first  Presby- 
terian General  Assembly  in  America,  was  held  at  Philadelphia.  As 
early  as  1695  the  Presbyterians  and  Baptists  began  to  flourish  in 
Philadelphia.  Their  interests  were  then  so  far  united  that  they  met 
for  worship  in  the  same  small  building,  known  as  the  "  Barbadoes  Lot 
Store."  This  fellowship  lasted  till  1698-99,  when  the  Presbyterians 
imported  a  permanent  minister,  the  Eev.  Jedediah  Andrews,  from 
New  England,  and  he  actually  took  possession  of  the  pulpit  in  the 
store  to  the  exclusion  of  any  Baptist  minister  who  might  happen  to 
<jome  along.  By  this  act  it  was  evident  to  the  Baptists  that  the 
Presbyterians  wanted  the  store  for  themselves,  because  of  their 
unwillingness  to  give  up  the  pulpit  to  Baptist  preachers.  Or,  in 
modern  slang,  the  Presbyterians  "  froze  out "  the  Baptists— a  process 
more  recently  known  nearer  home. 

Among  the  early  ministers  of  the  Church  of  Scotland  in  Middlesex 
were  Alex.  Eoss,  who  took  the  oath  of  allegiance  in  January,  1830, 
and  Donald  Mackenzie,  who  also  took  the  oath.  In  1833  other 
branches  of  the  Church  were  formed,  and  from  the  latter  years  dates 
the  progressive  Presbyterianism  of  the  present  time.  Among  the 


names  of  early  Presbyterian  preachers  are : — Alex.  Mackenzie,  of 
Goderich,  1837 ;  Wm.  R  Sutherland,  now  residing  in  Ekfrid,  1848 ; 
Lachlin  McPherson,  of  Ekfrid  and  Williams,  1846 ;  John  Scott,  Wm. 
Proudfoot,  James  Skinner ;  and  of  the  Scotch  congregation,  W. 
McKellican,  1833  ;  Daniel  Allen,  1838  ;  Duncan  McMillan,  of 
Williams,  and  Dugald  McKellar,  of  Lobo,  1839. 

Presbyterian  Marriages. — The  following  marriage  contracts  were 
recorded  by  William  Proudfoot,  a  Presbyterian  minister  of  the 
Associate  Secession  Church : — 

Aug.    6,  1833— Neil  Ross  to  Margaret  Ross,  of  London. 

Oct.      1,  "       William  Bell  to  Matilda  Smith,  of  Stanley. 

Nov.  12,  Charles  Grant  to  Eliza  McDonald,  of  London. 

Nov.  14,  "       Hugh  Fraser  to  Margaret  McGregor,  of  London. 

Nov.  27,  Charles  W.  White  to  Sarah  A.  Munro,  of  London. 

Dec.  11,  "       Alex.  Moince  (or  Mounts)  to  Christian  Clubb,  of  Westminster. 

Feb.    15,  1834— Edward  Dunn  to  Elizabeth  Grieve,  of  Lobo. 

Jan.  29,  E.  A.  Thompson  to  Salina  Chisholm,  of  London. 

Mar.  17,  John  Sinclair  to  Eliza  Donaldson,  of  London. 

May  13,  Archibald  Graham  to  Flora  Graham,  of  Lobo. 

May  27,  Andrew  Beattie  te  Isabella  Boston,  of  Lobo. 

July     7,  Andrew  Kernahan  to  Eleanor  Wilson,  of  London. 

July  11,  George  Laidlaw  to  Christian  Grieve,  of  Westminster. 

Aug.     1,  James  Jackson  to  Isabella  Nichol,  of  Westminster. 

Sept  30,  Donald  Fraser  to  Isabella  Ross,  of  Williams. 

Oct.    29,  William  Quinn  to  Jane  Weir,  of  Dorchester. 

Nov.  20,  James  McDonald  to  Janet  Anderson,  of  Williams. 

Nov.  27,  Edward  McDonald  to  Betsy  McDonald,  of  London. 

Mar.  17,  1835— John  Quite  to  Anne  Needham,  of  Nissouri. 

Mar.  27,  John  Hope  to  Nancy  Lynn,  of  Southwold. 

April    2,  Hugh  Barclay  to  Janet  McDonald,  of  London. 

April    3,  Jennetis  Nichol  to  Nancy  Laidlaw,  of  Westminster 

April  23,  John  McDonald  to  Hannah  McMillan,  of  London 

April  29,  John  Wilson  to  Eliza  A.  Clark,  of  London. 

He  made  record,  also,  of  the  following  marriages  solemnized  by  him 
in  18o5— 7  i — 

May     7,  1835— David  Jackson  to  Ann  Grieve,  of  Westminster 

Aug.  10,  Robert  Smith  to  Margaret  Lomie,  of  London 

bept.    1,  John  Norval  to  Eliza  A.  Proudfoot,  of  London 

8£    ?Q  A8?"1  Mralt°n  t0  Elizabeth  Thompson,  of  London. 

Oct.    19,  Adam  Murray  to  Jane  Beattie,  of  London 

Nov.  20,  Robert  Smith  to  Ann  Graham,  of  Tilburv  East 

SeT  15'     "  *°be*  Snmith  to  E1f"*  Graham,  of  Sry  East 

Tan      7'l«q«  Donald  Cameron  to  Janet  Ramsay,  of  London. 
Jan.     7,  1836-David  Hughes  to  Charlotte  Mathews,  of  London 

Hugh  Mclntyre  to  Sarah  McNeill,  of  Williams 

Jan'   $  Alexander  Campbell  to  Janet  Moore,  of  Williams. 

Feb      Q       '  STg-  WV0  Chri8tina  Brown>  °f  London. 

April  12'     '•  S         I*!  McK^  *°  Mar«ar<*  Cameron,  of  Williams. 

Mav  £     «  pamU!  J^  to  Nancv  Clark>  of  London. 

Ju/e  14  wm-     wT8?  p  ^  A"  McKe»zie,  of  Zorra. 

ulv    1      '<  TWl1!1™  Niagle  to  *ebe<*a  Hart,  of  Delaware. 

AuJ    9'     «  ^^^  to  Jane  Bailey,  of  Stephens. 

lSf '  10      -  H  rf  M£DonaJd  J°  C.hris^  Bain,  of  London. 

Sent     8      "  W-?ry     J™  t0  AT6  J'  McSpadden,  London. 

'    8      "  William  Grieve  to  Margaret  Beattie,  of  Westminster 




In  1837  he  recorded  the  following  contracts  : — 

Feb.    17,  1837— Charles  Lackey  to  Elizabeth  Middleton,  of  Westminster. 

Mar.  21,  "  John  Stillson  to  Elizabeth  Scott,  of  London. 

April  18,  "  John  Diamond  to  Janet  Bremner,  of  London. 

May  25,  "  Abner  Wilson  to  Margaret  Drummond,  of  Westminster. 

June  17,  "  Robert  Craig  to  Melissa  Hall,  of  Nissouri. 

June  29,  "  Joseph  Goodhand  to  Sarah  Craig,  of  London. 

Aug.    9,  "  Andrew  Allen  to  Isabella  Fraser,  of  London. 

Nov.  16,  "  John  Barclay  to  Mary  McBain,  of  London. 

Dec.     8,  "  John  Oliver  to  Isabella  Beattie,  of  Westminster. 

Eev.  James  Skinner,  of  the  United  Secession  Church  of  Scotland, 
recorded  the  following  marriages  in  1835 : — 

Jan.  22,  1835— John  Meek  to  Catherine  Campbell,  of  South  wold. 

Feb.     4,  "  Lot  Wyllie  to  Catherine  McPherson,  of  Westminster. 

Mar.  26,  "  Henry  Berry  to  Susan  Burwell,  of  South  wold. 

April  9,  "  Robert  G.  Eunson  to  Hannah  Cress,  of  St.  Thomas. 

May    7,  "  Wm.  Buchanan  to  Mary  Sinclair,  of  Westminster. 

May  18,  "  Kenneth  Juner  to  Ann  Frazer,  of  St.  Thomas. 

Dec.  24,  "  James  Ferguson  to  Janet  Jardine,  of  St.  Thomas. 

With  the  ahove  he  solemnized  four  other  marriages  at  South- 
wold  : — 

Feb.      2,  1836— John  Campbell  to  Catherine  Stewart,  of  Ekfrid. 

Aug.   18,     "       Robert  McClatchey,  of  Caradoc,  to  Mary  Storie. 

Aug.   18,     "       John  Law,  of  Adelaide,  to  Bridget  Holleseme. 

Feb.    15,  1837— John  B.  Olds,  of  Brock,  to  Elizabeth  Preston,  of  Adelaide. 

In  1835,  Eev.  Wm.  Eraser,  of  the  United  Associate  Secession* 
Presbyterian  Church,  certified  the  following  contracts : — 

June  22 — Julia  N.  Raman  to  Sarah  Manning,  of  Dorchester. 
July    9— Rupert  McDonald  to  Isabella  McDonald,  of  Stanley. 

Eev.  D.  McKenzie,  of  the  Scotch  Presbyterian  Church,  united 
the  following  in  marriage : — 

Sept.    3,  1834— Joseph  Pool  to  Bethia  Witt,  of  Westminster. 

Feb.  "        Donald  Fraser  to  Janet  Ross,  of  Williams. 

Feb.      4,     "       John  Mclntosh  to  Isabella  Munro,  both  of  Williams. 

Dec.    28,  1837— Robert  McDonald,  of  Oxford,  to  Kate  McKay,  of  Nissouri. 

He  also  joined  six  couples  in  matrimony  in  1835. 

Baptist  Church. — Eevs.  Joseph  Wiem,  Turner,  Wyner  and  Elder 
Holts  introduced  Baptist  services  into  Canada  about  1794. 

In  April,  1821,  a  number  of  families  emigrated  from  South  Wales, 
to  what  was  then  known  as  Upper  Canada.  They  crossed  the  channel 
from  Swansea  to  Bristol,  where  they  waited  for  the  sailing  of  the 
vessel  which  was  to  carry  them  across  the  Atlantic  to  such  a  home  as 
they  might  be  able  to  make  for  themselves  in  the  New  World.  A  six 
weeks'  voyage  landed  them  in  Quebec  about  the  middle  of  June  ;  but 
the  most  difficult,  tedious  and  toilsome  part  of  their  journey  was  yet 


before  them.  The  appliances  of  the  times  for  navigating  the  inland 
waters  of  Canada  were  meagre.  Steamboats  there  were,  but  they 
were  few  and  slow,  and  the  accommodation  they  furnished  was  of  a 
rude  description.  They  made  tedious  voyages  on  the  river  from 
Quebec  to  Montreal,  and  on  Lake  Ontario  as  far  as  Little  York  and 
Hamilton.  Engineers  had  not  taught  navigators  how  the  difficulties 
of  the  St.  Lawrence  rapids  could  be  surmounted  by  canals  and  locks. 
Hence  these  Welsh  families  came  from  Quebec  to  Montreal  by  steam- 
boat, from  Montreal  to  Prescott  by  Durham  boat,  and  from  Prescott  to 
Little  York  by  steamer ;  and  reached  St.  Thomas  about  the  end  of  the 
first  week  in  July.  After  a  brief  rest  in  St.  Thomas,  a  few  of  the 
men  travelled  through  the  woods  to  the  rear  of  the  Township  of 
London,  where  they  secured  land,  and  began  to  prepare  such  accom- 
modation for  their  families  as  circumstances  permitted,  and  to  which 
they  brought  them  shortly  afterward.  The  heads  of  some  of  these 
families  were  godly  people,  Calvanistic  Methodists,  or  followers  of 
Whitfield,  as  distinguished  from  followers  of  Wesley.  As  soon  as  their 
families  reached  their  new  home,,  on  the  very  first  Sabbath,  a  prayer 
meeting  and  Sabbath  School  were  arranged,  which,  without  any  pro- 
longed interruption,  have,  through  all  the  changes  of  sixty-seven  years, 
continued  to  the  present.  But  there  were  none  to  preach  to  them  the 
Word  of  Life,  or  take  pastoral  observation  of  these  few  sheep  in  the 
wilderness.  Still,  they  had  their  Welsh  Bibles,  of  which  they  were 
diligent  students,  and  the  Chief  Shepherd  himself  watched  over  and  fed 
them  in  the  green  pastures  of  His  grace.  Those  who  had  spiritual  life 
encouraged  and  helped  each  other,  and  used  all  the  means  at  their 
disposal  to  extend  it  to  those  who  had  none.  After  a  time  they  were 
visited  by  some  Wesleyan  ministers,  but  their  teaching  was  not  that 
to  which  they  had  been  accustomed  in  Wales ;  nor  did  it  agree  with 
their  conceptions  of  Bible  truth,  hence  their  visits,  though  welcome, 
made  little  impression. 

In  the  spring  of  1829  the  Rev.  Wm.  McDermond,  a  Baptist  minister, 
preached.  The  people  received  him  gladly.  His  teaching  called  the 
attention  of  both  the  older  Christians  and  young  converts  to  the  much- 
controverted  subject  of  baptism.  A  diligent  search  of  the  New 
Testament,  to  ascertain  what  Christ  commanded,  and  what  His 
Apostles  taught  and  practiced,  resulted  in  a  radical  change  of  their 
views  on  the  subject,  act  and  designs  of  that  ordinance.  Philip 
Kosser,  an  earnest,  devoted  Christian,  and,  from  the  early  days  of  the 
settlement,  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  devotions  of  the  people,  was  the 
first  person  baptized,  and  his  baptism  was  soon  followed  by  that 
of  others.  In  the  same  year,  1829,  a  Baptist  Church  was  formed 
m  the  Township  of  Lobo,  now  known  as  the  First  Lobo  Church,  of 
which  the  Baptists  in  the  Welsh  settlement  became  a  branch,  a 
connection  which  continued  nearly  five  years. 

During  this  time,  and  for  several  years  afterward,  a  number  of 
Baptist  ministers  visited  the  settlement,  and  preached  the  Word  as 


opportunity  offered.  Among  these  were  McDermond,  Vining,  Slaught,* 
Finch,  Gaul,  Mabee  and  Elliott.  The  occasional  visits  of  these 
servants  of  the  Lord  were  much  appreciated,  and,  through  the  Divine 
blessing,  resulted  in  a  considerable  increase  in  the  number  of  believers. 
But  the  inconvenience  of  being  a  part  of  a  church  so  far  distant  as 
Lobo  began  to  be  felt.  The  want  of  passable  roads,  joined  to  incon- 
venient facilities  for  travel,  made  it  difficult  for  them  to  attend 
with  sufficient  frequency ;  and  the  propriety  of  getting  a  dismissal 
from  Lobo  and  forming  a  church  in  the  settlement  was  seriously 
discussed,  and  the  church  at  Denfield  resulted.  From  the  beginning 
the  Baptist  Church  spread  out  through  the  country.  The  act  of  1831 
bestowed  certain  liberty  on  dissenters,  and  Baptists  were  not  slow  to 
avail  themselves  of  the  privileges  offered. 

Early  Ministers. — On  Jan.  12,  1830,  John  Harris'  application  for 
license  "  to  celebrate  matrimony  "  was  received.  Geo.  J.  Ryerson's 
application  was  made  two  days  later.  In  April  the  petitions  of  Geo. 
J.  Eyerson  and  others  was  considered.  The  magistrates  refused  to 
grant  license  to  celebrate  marriage  to  ministers  of  the  Calvinistic 
Baptist  Society,  believing  that  such  societies  did  not  come  within  the 
statutes.  On  Jan  12,  1831,  Geo.  J.  Ryerson  presented  another 
petition  asking  leave  to  celebrate  marriage,  and  setting  forth  the  names 
of  the  Calvinist  Baptist  Community  to  which  he  belonged,  as  follows  : 
Joseph  Kitchen,  Benj.  Palmerston,  Nelson  Vail,  Gabriel  Mabee,  Nelson 
Montross,  Robert  Young,  and  David  Shearer. 

The  regular  Baptist  Ministers  were : —  Francis  Pickle,  1837, 
Blenheim ;  Joseph  Merrill,  1838,  Bayham ;  Salmon  Vining,  1838, 
Nissouri;  Gilbert  Harris,  1838,  Oxford;  W.  H.  Landon,  1838, 
Blenheim ;  Samuel  Baker,  1838,  Malahide ;  Dugald  Campbell,  1838, 
Aldborough;  Abraham  Sloot,  1838,  Westminster;  Isaac  Elliott,  1839, 
Oxford;  Salmon  Vining,  1839,  Lobo;  Shook  McConnell,  1839, 
Townsend ;  Richard  Andrews,  1840,  Yarmouth ;  Dugald  Sinclair, 
1839,  Lobo;  Thomas  Mills,  1843,  Yarmouth;  Reuben  Crandell,  1843, 
Malahide ;  Wm.  Wilkinson,  1845,  Malahide ;  George  Wilson,  1846, 
Malahide  ;  N.  Eastwood,  1846,  London  ;  D.  W.Rowland,  1848,  South- 
wold  ;  Jonathan  Williams,  1 848,  Dorchester ;  John  Bray,  1847,  South- 
wold  ;  Mark  W.  Hopkins,  1849,  Goshen;  Israel  Marsh,  1849,  Dor- 
chester; Robert  Boyd,  1850,  London;  Simeon  Rouse,  1850,  Bayham, 
and  Alfred  Chute,  1851,  Lobo. 

Early  Baptist  Marriages. — The  marriages  celebrated  by  Rev. 
Abraham  Sloot,  in  1832-8,  are  recorded  as  follows,  the  parties  being 
of  the  Calvinist  Baptist  Church  : — 


Sept.  12,  1832— Joseph  Elliott  to  Sarah  Glynn,  T.  Glynn  and  P.  Campbell. 

Sept.  16,     "       Victor  Button  to  Mary  Norton,  G.  Norton  and  G.  Sloot. 

Sept  24,     "        Justus  M.  Videto  to  Amanda  Hart,  John  Hart  and  B.  Curtis. 

Oct.    10,     "        Daniel  Corson  to  Zelinda  Wells,  J.  Wells  and  T.  Olds. 

Oct.    16,     "        Wm.  Whitehead  to  Emiline  Curtis,  J.  M.  Videto  and  S.  L.  Sumner. 

*  This  may  be  intended  for  Abraham  Sloot,  as  the  name  is  spelled  differently  by  writers. 



Oct.    22,  1832— Wm.  Leeper,  to  Cynthia  Osborne, 

Oct.    25,  "  John  Grieve  to  Jane  Murray, 

Oct.    29,  "  Edmund  Burtch  to  Sarah  Smith, 

Nov.  27,  "  Andrew  Elson  to  Charlotte  Dyer, 

Dec.     9,  "  Isaac  Vansickle  to  Mary  A.  McClain, 

Jan.    24,  1833— Philo  Jackson  to  Sarah  Hill, 

Feb.  15,  "  Wm.  Wells  to  Elizabeth  Johnson, 

Feb.  28,  "  Cornelius  Willson  to  Suffrona  Cutler, 

Mar.    9,  "  Oliver  Strowback  to  Mary  Jackson, 

Mar.  23,  "  Peter  Sinclair  to  Nancy  Sinclair, 

April   2,  "  Philip  Brooks  to  Prudence  Warner, 

April  29,  "  Joseph  Lown  to  Sarah  Griffith, 

April  30,  "  John  Wells  to  Mary  Brown, 


D.  Stockton  and  T.  Huff. 

E.  Grieve  and  N.  Elliott. 

H.  T.  Shaver  and  John  Cort. 
W.  Blinn  and  Joseph  Elson. 
A.  Montross  and  J.  McClain. 
Tilly  Hubbard  and  N.  Griffith. 
Geo.  Sloot  and  Wm.  Libby. 
H.  Jones  and  D.  Browne. 
Eli  Griffith  and  Philo  Jackson. 
W.  Elliott  and  L  Gambo. 
Zachariah  and  L.  Warner. 

F.  and  Sam.  Lown. 
Alexander,  Mary  and  A.  Weir. 

The  above  named  were  residents,  in  the  order  of  entry  of  the  fol- 
lowing townships  : — Caradoc,  Westminster,  London,  Malahide,  London, 
Yarmouth,  Westminster,  Lobo,  London,  Yarmouth,  Westminster,  Lon- 
don, London,  Westminster,  Caradoc,  Dunwich,  Westminster,  and  Lon- 

July  28, 
Aug.  19, 
Aug.  19, 
Aug.  24, 
Aug.  2fi, 
Aug.  31, 
Sept.    3, 
Sept.  19, 
Oct.    15, 
Oct.    15, 
Oct.    17, 
Oct.   27, 
Oct.   28, 
Oct.   28, 
Oct.   29, 
Dec.  24, 
Jan.  13, 
Feb.  10, 
Feb.  14, 
Feb.  23, 
June   9, 
June  19, 
Augk    7, 
Sept.  30, 
Nov.    9, 
Nov.  12, 
Jan.     8, 
Jan.  15, 
Feb.  18, 
Feb.  23, 
Mar.    2, 
Mar.  17, 
Mar.  25, 
April  11, 
July    8, 
Aug.   9, 
Nov.  10, 
Dec.    9, 
Dec.  13, 
Dec.  25, 
Dec.  30. 

1833— Ensign  Hill  to  Diana  Carney,  of  Westminster. 

John  Kitchen  to  Nancy  King,  of  South  wold. 

James  King  to  Marietta  Bartlett,  of  Caradoc. 

James  Siddal  to  Violet  Young,  of  Dunwich. 

John  Whiting  to  Wealthy  Degraw,  of  Caradoc. 

Timothy  Simonds  to  Ruth  Webster,  of  Westminster. 

James  Montague  to  Lora  Hunger  ford,  of  Westminster. 

Joseph  Siddal  to  Eliza  Brooks,  of  Dunwich. 

Swain  Corliss  to  Eliza  Williams,  of  Lobo. 

Joseph  Lyon  to  Juliana  Moore,  of  Southwold. 

Wm.  Routledge  to  Jennet  Bailee,  of  Westminster. 

Zeras  Myric  to  Juliana  Odle,  of  London. 

Zerah  Gilbert  to  Mary  A.  Baker,  of  Southwold. 

Jonah  Clarke  to  Mary  Lumley,  of  Dunwich. 

Hiram  Perkins  to  Harriet  McNaraes,  of  Westminster. 
Duncan  McDugald  to  Mary  McKiller,  of  Lobo. 
1  *34— Jacob  Cooley  to  Dorka  Reynolds,  of  Dorchester. 
Malcolm  Smith  to  Mary  McFarlin,  of  Lobo. 
Angus  Graham  to  Cristy  Smith,  of  Lobo. 
Henry  Stringer  to  Derinaan  Elliott,  of  Westminster. 
Richard  Patrick  to  Hannah  Simmons,  of  Westminster. 
Andrew  Carl  to  Lucretia  Clarke,  of  Westminster. 
John  Patrick  to  Roxena  Thorp,  of  Westminster. 
Patrick  Walker  to  Mary  Beach,  of  London. 
John  H.  Campbell  to  Annie  Quick,  of  Caradoc. 
John  McKey  to  Isabella  McCormick,  of  Williams. 
5— Andrew  McClure  to  Samantha  A.  Crandle,  of  Southwold 
James  Mclntire  to  Jane  Mclntosh,  of  Ekfrid. 
Armon  Barrett  to  Susan  Little,  of  Southwold. 
Charles  Moice  to  Elissa  Burger,  of  Southwold. 
John  Kizier  to  Elmira  Dell,  of  Westminster. 
Henry  Cook  to  Nancy  Harrison,  of  London 
Jacob  Dale  to  Eliza  Hansel,  of  Westminster. 
George  Shaver  to  Rebecca  Hart,  of  Westminster. 
Hiram  B.  Mann  to  Margaret  Stringer,  of  Westminster, 
panels  Jarvis  to  Ounda  Perkins,  of  Westminster. 
Daniel  Squers  to  Lois  Burnam,  of  Westminster. 
Daniel  Whitehead  to  Lovina  Wilkins,  of  Westminster. 
George  Hollis  to  Harriett  Leahy,  of  Southwold. 
Kenedy  Creighton  to  Laura  S.  Hart,  of  London. 
Wm.  Foster  to  Sarah  Woodhull,  of  Lobo. 


Oct.  31,  1836 — Robert  Kilbourne  to  Susannah  Roberts,  of  Westminster. 

Nov.  24,     "        Robert  Patton  to  Emelia  Davis,  of  Westminster. 

May  14,  1837— Armon  Barrett  to  Nancy  McFall,  of  Ekfrid. 

June  24,     "        Alexander  Thomas  to  Juliana  Clark,  of  London. 

July    1,     "        Henry  Wilson  to  Eliza  A.  O'Neil,  of  Dorchester. 

Aug.    5,     "        John  Ellis  to  Rosilla  Fletcher,  of  London. 

Sept.  12,     "        Henry  Weller  to  Esther  A.  Jackson,  of  South  wold. 

Sept.  20,     "        Benj.  Doyle  to  Derindia  C.  Adair,  of  Westminster. 

Oct.    19,     "        Jacob  H.  Kyser  to  Margaret  McStay,  of  Delaware. 

Nov.    4,  Henry  Plank  to  Mary  A.  Salinton,  of  Westminster. 

Nov.    9,     "        Mahon  Boding  to  Roxeana  Wade,  of  South  wold. 

Dec.  14,     "        John  Elson  to  Mary  Bioito,  of  London. 

Dec.  18,     "        Samuel  L.  Sumner  to  Caziah  Sohns,  of  London. 

Dec.  18,     "        Benj.  Sumner  to  Mary  Piatt,  of  London. 

Jan.  18,  1838— Wm.  McKay  to  Sally  A.  Cutler,  of  Westminster. 

May  15,     "        Peter  Beach  to  Nancy  Seaton,  of  Delaware. 

June    5,     '•'        Benjamin  Schram  to  Jane  Tigner,  of  Delaware. 

July     3,     "        John  E.  Sloot  to  Esther  Hart,  of  London. 

The  marriages  by  Kev.  Dugald  Campbell,  of  the  Baptist  Church,  of 
Aldborough,  in  1833-7,  are  as  follows  : — 

Nov.  26,  1833— John  McCallum  to  Mary  McKellar,  of  Ekfrid. 
Dec.  24,     "       Angus  McLean  to  Sarah  McPhail,  of  Dunwich. 
Jan.  21,  1834— Lachlin  McLachlin  to  Mary  McCallum,  of  Ekfrid. 
Jan.  21,     "       Hugh  Leitch  to  Catherine  McLachlin,  of  Ektrid. 
Feb.  11,     "       John  McTavish  to  Flory  Stewart,  of  Oxford. 
Feb.  13,     "       John  Munro  to  Mary  Murray,  of  Ekfrid. 
April   1,     "       John  McCallum  to  Nancy  McKellar,  of  Mosa. 
July  22,     "       Arch.  Campbell  to  Margaret  Johnston,  of  Lobo. 
Feb.     3,  1835— Arch.  McLachlin  to  Catharine  McLellan,  of  Ekfrid. 
Feb.     3,     "       Arch.  McLellan  to  Elizabeth  Walker,  of  Mosa. 
Feb.  19,     '*       Duncan  Campbell  to  Mary  McAlpin,  of  Aldborough. 
Mar.    5,     "       Lachlin  Haggard  to  Catherine  Gidham,  of  Mosa. 
Mar.  17,     "       Duncan  Black  to  Sarah  McCallum,  of  Dunwich. 
Feb.     9,  1837— Alexander  McAlpine  to  Christy  Brown,  of  Aldborough. 
Mar.  14,     "       Edward  McCallum  to  Nancy  Mitchell,  of  Ekfrid. 
Mar.  30,     "       Wm.  Room  to  Catherine  McLean,  of  Dunwich. 
June    1,     "       Henry  Eirot  to  Letitia  Elliott,  of  Ekfrid. 
June  29,     "       Malcolm  McAlpine  to  Nancy  McAlpine,  of  Ekfrid. 

Solomon  Vining,  of  the  Regular  Baptist  Church,  of  Nissouri, 
solemnized  the  following  marriages : — 

Oct.    20,  1833 — Francis  German  to  Eliza  Gleason,  of  Nissouri. 

Nov.  14,     "        Charles  Harris  to  Abagail  Mabee,  of  Oxford. 

May   19,  1835 — John  McDiarmid  to  Mary  Burgess,  of  Nissouri. 

July     6,     "        Thomas  Morgan  to  Rachel  Rosser,  of  London. 

Oct.    29,     "        Varnum  German  to  Betsey  Murray,  of  Nissouri. 

Dec.   24,     "        William  Pickart  to  Mary  A.  Pickel,  of  Nissouri. 

Jan.   14,    1837 — Thomas  Rosser  to  Ann  Bell,  of  London. 

Jan.   21,     "        Josiah  D.  Burgess  to  Jemima  Near,  of  Nissouri. 

July     1,     "        Henry  Edwards  to  Eleanor  Simons,  of  Lobo. 

May     1,     "        John  C.  Holding  to  Esther  Markham,  of  Nissouri. 

Aug.  30,     "       John  Rohner  to  Mary  A.  Edwards,  of  Dorchester. 

Dec.     2,     "        Jeremiah  Dorman  to  Catherine  Matthews,  of  London. 

Dec.     6,     ' '        James  G.  Barnes  to  Sarah  J.  Withers,  of  Nissouri. 

Dec.  28,     "        Thomas  Badygood  to  Marilla  Finch. 

Jan.    18,  1838 — Casper  Near  to  Sarah  Garner,  of  Nissouri. 

Mar.  18,     "        Sylvester  Dupee  to  Susannah  Stanton,  of  Nissouri. 

At  this  time,  Rev.  Davis  Cross,  of  the  Free  Communion  Baptist 
Church  at  Zorra,  solemnized  eight  marriages,  among  them  being 
Joseph  Alwood  and  Christen  McKay,  of  Nissouri. 

5g  HISTORY   OF    THE 

Dugald  Sinclair,  a  Baptist  minister,  recorded  the  following  certifi- 
cates: — 

Mch    2  1835—  John  McKellar  to  Sarah  Livingstone,  of  Mosa. 

Apr    28  «  «        Colquhoun  Campbell  to  Catharine  Sinclair,  of  Adelaide. 

July    9  "        Alex.  Campbell  to  Jannet  McArthur,  of  Caradoc. 

Aug  25  "        John  McGugan  to  Sarah  McTaggart,  of  Williams. 

8£    3,'  "        Donald  McDonald  to  Mary  McTaggart  of  Lobo. 

Feb.     9,  1836-Adonvja  Degraw  to  Isabella  McNeil,  of  Caradoc. 

Kev.  Dugald  Sinclair,  of  the  Baptist  Society,  also  registered  the  fol- 
lowing marriages  :  — 

Jan    1  1,  1836—  Donald  Campbell  to  Margaret  Brown,  of  Williams. 

Nov  24      "        Alex.  Graham  to  Ann  Stuart,  of  Lobo. 

Dec.  11,     "       Duncan  McLean  to  Catherine  McKinley,  of  Lobo. 

Eev.  Samuel  Baker,  of  the  Eegular  Baptist  Church,  of  Malahide, 
registered  the  following  :  — 

Feb.     5,  1836—  John  McLachlin  to  Catherine  McKenzie,  of  Williamstown. 
Mar.  26,     "        George  Sloot  to  Sarah  Best,  of  Westminster. 
July  10,  1837—  William  F.  Curry  to  Susannah  Moses,  of  Mosa. 

Rev.  David  Wright,  of  the  W.  M.  Church,  united  in  matrimony, 

Jan.  17,  1838—  John  Frank  and  Hester  Walters,  of  Westminster. 

Rev.  Wm.  McDermond,  a  Calvinist  Baptist,  united, 

May  6,  1S35—  Phillip  Rosserand  Maria  Edwards,  of  London. 

Rev.  Joseph  Merrill,  of  the  Bayham  Baptist  Church,  united. 

Sept.  26,  1835  —  James  B.  Stephenson  to  Eliza  Dunmead,  of  Dorchester. 

Rev.  Nichols  French,  of  West  Oxford  Regular  Baptist   Church, 
united  :  — 

Sept.  30,  1834  —  Hiram  German  to  Sarah  Brigham,  of  Nissouri. 
Oct.    11,  1835—  Samuel  Herrin  to  Mary  Whiting,  of  Dorchester. 
June  17,  1837  —  Thomas  Squires,  of  Dorchester,  to  Catherine  Bentley. 

Rev.  J.  R.  Lavelle,  a  Universalist  minister,  made  the  first  marriage 
record  of  his  church  at  London,  as  follows  :  — 

April  25,  1850—  Bartholomew  Swartz  to  Sylvanie  Shotwell,  of  Westminster. 

The  marriages  solemnized  by  Rev.  Thomas  Huckins,  of  the  Free 
Will  Baptist  Church,  of  London,  are  as  follows  :  — 

Feb.      4,  1833—  Joseph  Miller  to  Susannah  Hampton,  of  London. 

April  15, 
July  16, 
Aug.  28, 
Oct.  10, 
Dec.  31, 

Hugh  Stevenson  to  Catherine  Donaldson,  of  London. 
Peter  Sarvis  to  Sarah  A.  Phroman,  of  London. 
Charles  Mann  to  Sarah  Jaynes,  of  London. 
David  Duke  to  Maria  Whitehead,  of  Biddulph. 
Wm.  Patterson  to  Jane  Marckel,  of  London. 

Jan.  13,  1834— John  W.  White  to  Elizabeth  Buchner,  of  London. 
Jan.  21,  '  Edward  P.  Godfrey  to  Mary  Moore,  of  Southwold. 
Mar.  16,  John  Frasier  to  Almeda  Gilbert,  of  Southwold. 

April    8,  Jacob  Eberly  to  Sarah  Mills,  of  Oxford. 



May  4,  1834— Daniel  Koot  to  Rhoda  Fuller,  of  Warwick. 

May  13,  "  Stephen  Griffin  to  Elizabeth  McPherson,  of  South  wold. 

June  26,  '  George  W.  Ross  to  Diadema  Paul,  of  Biddulph. 

Aug.  10,  '  John  Fralick  to  Annis  Pierce,  of  London. 

Nov.  11,  '  Albert  Ellice  to  Jane  A.  Reynolds,  of  London. 

Nov.  16,  Ralph  Little  to  Maranda  Purchase,  of  London. 

Dec.  24,  '  Levi  Vaughan  to  Mary  Scott,  of  London. 

Dec.  30,  '  Robert  Holmes  to  Margaret  Reckord,  of  Dunwich. 

Jan.  13,  1835 — Azarah  W.  Clark  to  Ann  Sarvis,  of  London. 

Jan.  16,  "  Archibald  Price  to  Ann  Monaghan,  of  London. 

Sept.  15,  "  Corneilus  Williams  to  Elizabeth  Defields,  of  Mosa. 

Jan.  26,  1836— Samuel  Munro  to  Eleanor  Banghart,  of  Westminster. 

-    Mar.  29,  "  Robert  Brown  to  Sarah  Attwood,  of  Dunwich. 

May  23,  "  Alexander  Wear  to  Jane  Hodgins,  of  London. 

May  24,  "  James  P.  Harris  to  Martha  Jackson,  of  Dereham. 

June  19,  "  William  Snelgrove  to  Eleanor  Adkins,  of  Caradoc. 

Aug.  8,  "  Caleb  Willcox  to  Jane  Bartlett,  of  Mosa. 

Aug.  9,  ' c  Horace  Cooley  to  Zelpha  Moses,  of  Mosa. 

Aug.  31,  "  Cornelius  Jones  to  Harriet  Abry,  of  London. 

Sept.  18,  "  Alonzo  Smith  to  Lucy  Hubbard,  of  Mosa. 

Nov.  12,  "  F.  Finley,  of  Plympton,  to  Ann  Sharp,  of  London. 

In  1847,  Rev.  D.  Stephenson  Star  was  preacher  in  this  district. 

Congregational  Church. — The  Congregational  Church  was  repre- 
sented in  the  London  District  in  1835,  for  on  Oct.  15  that  year  Rev. 
Wm.  Lyall  took  the  oath  and  was  authorized  to  celebrate  marriage. 
To  Rev.  William  Clarke,  however,  the  credit  is  given  of  establishing 
this  form  of  worship  in  1838.  The  ministers  who  succeeded  him  or 
filled  the  pulpit  within  the  old  county  during  the  following  years  are 
named  as  follows :— W.  P.  Wastell,  Southwold,  1843 ;  Joseph  Silcox, 
Southwold,  1845-50;  Edward  Ebbs,  London,  1846;  John  Durrant, 
London,  1847 ;  W.  H.  Alworth,  Port  Stanley,  1848 ;  W.  F.  Clarke, 
London,  1849. 

Early  Congregational  Marriages. — The  first  record  made  by  a 
Congregational  minister  was  that  made  by  Rev.  William  Clarke,  as 
follows : — 

Jan.  15,  1838 — John  Dent  to  Ellen  Delaney,  of  Zorra. 

May  25,  "  Edward  Watson  to  Elizabeth  Woods,  of  London. 

June  1,  "  John  Clegg  to  Letitia  Feret,  of  London. 

June  7,  "  Samuel  Stansfield  to  Mary  A.  James,  of  London. 

June  9,  "  Robert  Thompson  to  Martha  McCadden,  of  Adelaide. 

June  11,  Thomas  Warner  to  Jemima  Smith,  of  Amherstburg. 

July  23,  "  John  Marshall  to  Catherine  Atkinson,  of  London. 

Sept.  3,  "  Merrill  S.  Ayres  to  Martha  E.  Burch,  of  London. 

Dec.  18,  "  John  F.  O'Neill  to  Phebe  Sweet,  of  London. 

Jan.  10,  1839— Wm.  Jackson  to  Rhoda  Siddal,  of  Mosa. 

Jan.  30,  "  John  Henderson  to  Rachel  A.  O' Dell,  of  Westminster. 

Feb.  13,  '  John  L.  Swart  to  Martha  Manning,  of  Westminster. 

Mar.  6,  '  Robert  Kearns  to  Ann  Candless,  of  London. 

Mar.  6,  '  Elijah  Payne  to  Margaret  Wheaton,  of  London. 

Mar.  13,  '  Peter  Ross  to  Louisa  Elliott,  of  Ekfrid. 

Mar.  27,  John  Beattie  to  Elizabeth  Elliott,  of  Westminster. 

Apr.  28,  '  Thomas  Boston  to  Mary  A.  Jones,  of  Lobo. 

May  3,  Samuel  Bond  to  Mary  A.  Campbell,  of  London. 

May  8,  '  William  Young  to  Mary  Parker,  of  London. 

May  11,  '  John  Gubbins  to  Sophia  Reynolds,  of  London. 

May  13,  '  Porter  Stevens  to  Hannah  Eldridge,  of  Westminster. 

(5()  HISTORY   OF  THE 

Mav    23    1839— Caleb  Griffith  to  Caroline  Morris,  of  London. 

_       **  ~r    t          ITT        /?  _    _.       „    j.*     A,,«    T\r  **••»*      s\f  T.rk«rlrm 

June  12, 
June  13, 
Sept.  19, 
Oct.  18, 
Oct.  30, 
Oct.  31, 
Nov.  1, 
Nov.  4, 
Nov.  28, 
Dec.  7, 
Dec.  25, 

John  Woofington  to  Ann  Weir,  of  London. 
Eleazer  McCarthy  to  Mary  A.  Bevena,  of  Dorchester. 
Thomas  Dark  to  Grace  Rottenbury,  of  London. 
Nathaniel  Lawson  to  Ann  Thomas,  of  London. 
Ralph  Smith  to  Mary  Davison,  of  London. 
Wm.  Dickson  to  Margaret  Auld,  of  Warwick. 
John  Clarke  to  Prudence  Bailey,  of  Nissouri. 
Neil  Munroe  to  Flora  Hare,  of  Westminster. 
Joseph  Mowrey  to  Mary  A  Guffin,  of  London. 
Lorenzo  D.  Cook  to  Mary  Steinhoff,  of  London 
James  S.  Steinhoff  to  Mary  Cook,  of  London. 

Jan.    11,  1840— Henry  Palmer  to  Mahala  Carter,  of  London. 
Jan.    13,     "       John  Lodge  to  Eleanor  Foote,  of  Southwold. 

Methodist  Church— Wesley  an.  Methodism  in  Canada  dates  back  to 
•Oct.  7,  1786,  when  George  Neal,  an  Irishman,  who  settled  on  the 
Canadian  side  of  the  Niagara,  preached  the  doctrine  of  John  Wesley. 
During  the  Revolution  he  was  a  major  in  the  British  cavalry.  Prior  to 
this,  however,  Capt.  Webb  and  Commissary  Tuffey,  of  the  44th 
Infantry,  preached  the  same  doctrine  to  the  garrisons.  In  1788, 
Exhorter  Lyons  preached  at  Adolphustown,  and  James  McCarthy,  an 
Irishman,  at  Earnesttown.  In  1790,  Wm.  Lessee,  the  first  regular 
Methodist  preacher,  came.  He  was  a  U.  E.  Loyalist,  who  managed  to 
stay  in  the  States  until  that  year.  In  1791,  however,  he  appeared  in 
the  role  of  a  Methodist  Episcopalian.  'In  1805,  the  first  carnp  meeting 
was  held  on  the  south  shore  of  Hay  Bay.  Among  the  preachers  were 
Revs.  Henry  Ryan,  an  Irishman ;  Wm.  Case,  Madden,  Bangs,  Keeler 
and  Pickett.  Ryan  was  known  from  Montreal  to  Sandwich,  having 
travelled  the  entire  district  on  regular  circuit  work.  The  first  Methodist 
church  was  built  at  Adolphustown,  in  1792,  in  which  year  a  second 
house  was  erected  at  Earnesttown.  In  1816,  Westminster  was  set  off 
as  a  Methodist  circuit,  as  related  in  the  history  of  that  township,  and 
from  this  beginning  spread  out  the  many  Methodist  circuits  and  appoint- 
ments of  Middlesex,  the  history  of  which  is  told  in  the  sketches  of  the 

In  1826,  Henry  Ryan  raised  the  cry,  "Loyal  Methodism  vs. 
Republican  Methodism."  This  cry  was  countenanced  and  paid  for  by 
Dr.  Strachan,  of  the  English  Church,  on  behalf  of  his  government,  and 
carried  out  so  practically  by  Ryan,  that  the  Canadian  Wesleyan 
Methodist  Church  became  a  name  in  the  history  of  the  Dominion  in 
1827.  He  was  quick  at  repartee.  On  one  occasion  a  village  wag,  one 
of  a  crowd,  asked  him  if  he  had  heard  the  news  ?  "  What  news  T 
"Why,"  said  the  wag,  "that  the  devil  is  dead."  "Ah,  well,"  re- 
sponded Ryan,  looking  around  the  crowd,  "  he  has,  indeed,  left  a  great 
many  fatherless  children." 

In  1874,  the  Methodist  New  Connexion  Church,  and  some  other 
forms  of  Christianity,  entered  the  Canadian  Wesleyan  body,  and  all 
assumed  the  name,  Methodist  Church  of  Canada.  In  1884,  the 
Episcopal  Methodists  and  Bible  Christians  entered  the  Union,  so  it 
may  be  said  that  to-day  Henry  Ryan's  idea  of  1826  is  an  accomplished 



Early   Methodist  Marriages. — Eev.   John  Beatty,  a   Wesley  an 
Methodist  minister,  recorded  the  following  certificates  of  marriage : — 

Nov.  20,  1833 — John  Nixon  to  Jane  Jackson,  of  London. 

Dec.     1,     "        William  Wheeler  to  Melinda  Flanigan,  of  London. 

Dec.  18,     "        Ira  Allen  to  Jane  Gethy,  of  Lobo. 

Jan.    13,  1834 — Yunel  May  to  Mary  Browne,  of  Nissouri. 

Jan.   21,     "        Andrew  Yerex  to  Mary  Summer,  of  Westminster. 

Eev.  James  Jackson,  of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  Church,  of  the 
London  District,  solemnized  these  marriages  : — 

Nov.  18,  1834 — John  Lambert  to  Mary  Ann  Smith,  of  Lobo. 

Feb.  12,  1835 — James  C.  Smith,  of  London,  to  Lucy  McDougal,  of  South  wold. 

Eev.   Isaac  Newton  Dugan   West,  of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist 
Church,  performed  the  marriage  ceremony  in  the  following  instances : — 

Oct.    14,  1834 — John  Stanley  to  Eliza  Atkinson,  of  London. 
Dec.      3,     "       Warren  Young  to  Susan  Besstidds,  of  London. 
Dec.    31,     "       Hiram  Dell  to  Anne  Frank,  of  Westminster. 
Jan.      1,  1835— William  Wilson  to  Elizabeth  Bevans,  of  Nissouri. 
Jan.      1,     "      Joel  Moriarity  to  Lucy  A.  Bevans,  of  Nissouri. 
Jan.    28,     "       Roswell  Forbes  to  Eliza  Lamoure,  of  London. 
Jan.    29,  William  Stinoff  to  Eliza  Holt,  of  Yarmouth. 

April    3,  Henry  McKay  to  Rebecca  Patrick,  of  London. 

April  19,  Alexander  Bane  to  Mary  Lewis,  of  Zorra. 

April  28,     "      Augustus  Hicks  to  Alvira  Barnes,  of  London. 

Eev.  William  Griffis,  of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  Church,  joined 
the  following  named  persoDs  in  matrimony : — 

Sept.    4,  1834 — Daniel  Freeman  to  Isabella  Bailey,  of  Nissouri. 
Oct.    29,     "       Joseph  Barnes  to  Eleanor  Williams,  of  London. 
Jan.    13,  1835 — James  N.  Holmes  to  Margaret  Sutton,  of  Westminster. 
Mar.  18,     "       William  Patterson  to  Eliza  Brethwait,  of  London. 
April    7,     "       William  Ross  to  Amanda  Bentley,  of  London. 
April  11,     "       Jacob  Wilsie  to  Eleanor  Manning,  of  Westminster. 
May  19,     "       Wm.  McFadden  to  Lucinda  Walcot,  of  London. 
May  20,     "       James  Thompson  to  Catherine  Murphy,  of  London. 
May  21,     "       Wm.  Jackson  to  Margaret  Webster,  of  London. 
May  26,     "       Charles  G.  Bostwick  to  Evis  Manning,  of  Westminster. 
Nov.     4,  1835— John  Jones  to  Ann  Jane  Curry,  of  Mosa. 
Nov.     4,     "       George  Curry  to  Elizabeth  Jones,  of  Mosa. 
Feb.    24,  1836— James  Gardiner  to  Rebecca  Flemon,  of  Mosa. 

Eev.  John  S.  Atwood,  of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  Church,  married 
this  couple : — 

Oct.  4,  1835— Silas  R,  Ball  to  Jane  S.  Hyde,  both  of  Dorchester. 

Eev.  Dugald  Campbell,  of  the  Baptist  Church,   of  Aldborough, 
recorded  the  following  certificates  : — 








2,  1836— Robert  McAlpine  to  Betty  McLachlin,  of  Mosa. 







Duncan  McPhail  to  Mary  McCallum,  of  Zone. 
Archibald  Murray  to  Flora  McAlpine,  of  Ekfrid. 
Donald  Smith  to  Isabella  Mitchell,  of  Ekfrid. 
Duncan  McCall  to  Sarah  Haggart,  of  Lobo. 
John  McCall  to  Catherine  McCall,  of  Lobo. 
D.  McCallum  to  Mary  Black,  of  Dunwich. 


Kev.  C.  Vanderson,  of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  Church,  united  the 
following  couples : — 

Dec.  12,  1836— Nathan  Choat  to  Caroline  Gibbs,  of  St.  Thomas. 
Feb.,          "       Thomas  Allen  to  Melissa  Gregory,  of  St.  Thomas. 

Eev.  David  Wright,  of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  Church,  recorded 
the  following  marriages: — 

Dec.  10,  1835— Simeon  Morrell  to  Eleanor  Beach,  of  Oxford. 

Dec.  31,     "        Robert  Barrie  to  Maria  Vandeburgh,  of  London. 

Feb.  18,  1836— John  Taylor  to  Martha  Willis,  of  London. 

Feb.  18,     "        George  Menelly  to  Eliza  A.  Manning,  of  Westminster. 

Feb.  29,     "        George  Sweeten  to  Mary  Gardner,  of  Adelaide. 

April  11,     "       Alexander  Cameron  to  Mary  Westby,  of  Tuckersmith. 

April  24,     "        William  Jackson  to  Elizabeth  Chalmon,  of  London. 

June  29,     "        John  Armstrong  to  Sarah  Young,  of  Tuckersmith. 

Sep.  8, 
Oct.  9, 
Nov.  27, 
Dec.  15, 

Henry  H.  Cornstock  to  Lucretia  Strowbridge,  of  Westminster. 

Edward  Button  to  Ann  Reynolds,  of  London. 

James  Stewins  to  Ann  Swart,  of  London. 

Welsie  Manning  to  Amanda  Simson,  of  Westminster. 

Jan.  25,  1  37— Benjamin  Woodhull  to  Lucinda  Miner,  of  Delaware. 

Mar.  10,  Thomas  Guest  to  Mary  McRobert,  of  London. 

Feb.  24,  John  Kearns  to  Purlina  Schram,  of  London. 

April  5,  James  Mcllmurray  to  Ann  Johnston,  of  Adelaide. 

May    3,  James  Bryant  to  Elizabeth  Ayers,  of  Westminster. 

May  24,  Andrew  Yaks  to  Wealthy  Grouse,  of  Westminster. 

Aug.  16,  Rev.  J.  K.  Williston  to  Eleanor  Morden,  of  Westminster. 

Oct.     6,  George  McConnell  to  Eliza  Willis,  of  London. 

Nov.    9,  George  W.  Albee  to  Hannah  Vail,  of  London. 

Eev.  J.  Flanagan,  of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  Church,  solemnized 
marriages  as  follows : — 

1837— Ira  M.  Sumner  and  Elizabeth  Merrill,  of  London. 
"      Charles  Hoag  and  Hannah  J.  Day,  of  Hipun. 

Kev.  Edmund  Stoney,  a  Wesleyan  minister,  made   the   following 
record : — 

Sept.  17,  1837— William  H.  V.  Hill  to  Mary  Stevens,  of  London. 
Oct.      3,  Leonard  O'Dell  to  Rachel  Norton,  of  Dorchester. 

Mar.  27,  1838 — Simeon  Sanborn  to  Mahala  Hartshorn,  of  London. 
April  23,     "        John  Willis  to  Susan  Shaw,  of  London. 
May  30,      '        Geo.  Alway  to  Jane  Armstrong,  of  Lobo. 
Aug.  29,  Daniel  Morden  to  Eliza  J.  Robison,  of  London. 

Sept.  11,  Gabriel  Willcia  to  Catherine  O'Dell,  of  Westminster. 

Sept.  19,  Geo.  Oliver  to  Mary  A.  Percival,  of  London. 

Sept.  20,  Arthur  McGerry  to  Charlotte  Towe,  of  London. 

Thomas  Fawcett,  of  the  Wesleyan  Methodist  Church,  recorded  the 
following  marriage  certificate : — 

Feb.    28,  1838— Ezekial  Caldwell  to  Sarah  Sutton,  both  of  Westminster. 

Kev.  Caleb  Burdick,  of  the  B.  N.  A.  Methodist  Church,  united 
these  couples : — 

Aug.  15,  1833— Adoram  Frank  to  Eliza  Hodgson,  of  Westminster. 

Jan.    19,  1835— Wm.  Conly  to  Mary  Walker,  of  Dorchester. 

Jan.   21,  Truman  Burgess  to  Caroline  Furry. 

Aug.  17,  Amos  Ferrin  to  Anna  Cornwall,  of  Dorchester. 

Mar.   22,  1836— John  McLarity,  of  Yarmouth,  to  Anna  Me  Arthur,  of  Dorchester. 

June  29,  1837— Jacob  Stover,  of  Dorchester,  to  Ann  Froman,  of  Maladide 



Eev.  Eobert  Earl,  a  Wesleyan,  joined  in  matrimony  :  — 

Oct.     2,  1837  —  John  Morgan,  of  Warwick,  to  Elizabeth  Hughes,  of  London, 
Nov.     8,     "        Reuben  Adams,  of  Malahide,  to  Mary  Jane  Little,  of  Westminster. 

Eev.  John  Shilton,  of  the  Canadian  Wesleyan  Methodist  Church, 
made  the  following  record  :  — 

Jan.      6,  1837  —  Benjamin  Shilton  to  Hannah  Chapman,  of  Raleigh. 
Mar.     9,     "        John  Clandening  to  Sarah  Clement,  of  Mosa. 
Mar.  13,     "        Howard  Allen  to  Catherine  Drake  of  Mosa. 
Mar.  13,     "        Thomas  Drake  to  Mary  J.  Eveland,  of  Mosa. 
April  18,     "        William  Wilson  to  Elizabeth  Huff,  of  Zone. 

Eev.  James  Bell,  a  Canadian  Wesleyan  Methodist  preacher,  made 
the  following  record  :  — 

n.      2,  1838—  John  Little  to  Mary  A.  Patterson,  of  Westminster. 
ril  10,  Thomas  Orr  to  Abigail  Tyrrell,  of  Westminster. 



May  17,  "        James  Owry  to  Eliza  Orr,  of  Westminster. 

Sept.  26,  Abram  Lewis  to  Charlotte  Patterson,  of  Westminster. 

Oct.    17,  *'        Benjamin  Bentley  to  Christian  Stringer,  of  Bayham. 

Nov.  27,  "        Jared  El  wood  to  Rosanna  Talmon,  of  Westminster. 

Methodist  Church  continued.  —  The  Methodist  Episcopal  Church 
was  contemporary  with,  if  not  part  of,  the  Wesleyan  Society.  In 
1827-8  the  Henry  Eyan  religious  rebellion  closed  off  the  American 
form,  and  from  that  period  to  1884  Episcopal  Methodism  was  known 
here.  In  the  early  marriage  record  —  relating  to  dissenters  from  the 
English  Church  —  many  of  the  early  ministers  are  named  ;  while,  in 
the  history  of  the  circuits  of  Middlesex  from  1816  to  1828,  the  pioneer 
preachers  all  find  mention.  In  April,  1831,  Eev.  Samuel  Bolton,  of 
the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of  Yarmouth,  applied  for  permit  to 
perform  the  marriage  ceremony,  and  took  the  oath  of  allegiance. 
Thomas  Harmon,  of  Westminster,  and  Caleb  Burdick,  of  Malahide, 
also  took  the  oath,  with  Abner  Matthews,  Matthew  Whiting,  Thomas 
Whitehead  and  Asahel  Hulbert.  Eev.  John  Bailey,  of  Nissouri,  took 
the  oath  of  allegiance  in  October,  1835,  and  was  authorized  to  perform 
the  marriage  ceremony. 

Prior  to  and  immediately  after  the  troubles  of  1837-8,  Methodist 
Episcopal  preachers  were  looked  upon  with  some  political  suspicion  ; 
but  they  rushed  forward  in  numbers  to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance. 
Among  the  leading  ministers  from  1839  to  1851  were  :  —  John  H. 
Houston,  1839,  Norwich  ;  James  Mitchell,  1840,  London  ;  George 
Turner,  1839,  London  ;  Charles  Pettys,  1840,  London  ;  David  Griffin, 
1840,  Bayham;  Thomas  Webster,  1840,  London;  Bernard  Markle, 
1844,  Mosa;  Benson  Smith,  1843,  London;  W.  D.  Hughes,  1843, 
Westminster;  James  Nixon,  1843,  Malahide;  Nathan  Parke,  1845, 
Mosa  ;  Samuel  Dunnett,  1846,  Delaware  ;  Eansom  Dexter,  1845, 
Malahide;  Henry  Gilmore,  1846,  Malahide;  John  Gibson,  1846, 
London;  Abram  E.  Eoy,  1847,  Malahide;  Nathan  Parke,  1847,' 
Chatham  ;  Hiram  A.  Eraser,  1848,  Caradoc  ;  Matthew  McGill,  1849 
Caradoc;  Schuyler  Stewart,  1848,  Malahide;  Wm.  Cope,  1849' 


Caradoc;  George  P.  Harris,  1849,  Dorchester;  J    W.  Jacobs,  1851, 
Yarmouth;  Sylvester  L.  Kerr,  1851,  London;  Thomas  Davis,  1851, 

of  the  above-named,  such  as  Dr.  Webster,  have  served  the 
district  up  to  the  union  with  the  Canadian  Methodists  in  1884. 
London  District,  in  1880,  claimed  the  following  ministers  :—  Rev  E. 
Lounsburv,  Presiding  Elder;  London  City,  M.  Dimmick,  0.  G.  Colla- 
more-  London  Circuit,  John  Lay  cock;  St.  Mary's,  Nissoun,  J.  B. 
Cutler  J  Bloodsworth  ;  Thamesford,  C.  M.  Thompson  ;  St.  Thomas, 
R  C  '  Parsons;  Southwold,  S.  Knott,  C.  W.  Bristol;  Dorchester,  N. 
Dickie-  Springfield,  A.  Kennedy;  Parkhill.  M.  Griffin;  Thedford,  E. 
G  Pelley;  Goderich,  G.  A.  Francis;  Seaforth,  C.  W.  Vollick  ; 
Brussels  D.  Ecker  ;  Ingersoll,  W.  H.  Shaw  ;  Embro,  M.  H.  Bartram  ; 
Stanley,  R  A.  Howey  ;  Maitland,  W-  N.  Vallick  ;  Westminster,  J.  T. 
Davis,  T.  B.  Brown  ;  Aylmer,  J.  Ferguson  ;  Malahide,  W.  Fansher, 
W.  M.  Teeple;  Tilsonburg,  J.  Rose;  Norwich,  W.  Benson,  W.  E. 
Gifford  ;  Mt.  Elgin,  J.  Gardiner,  D.  C.  L.  ;  Vienna,  W.  A.  Shaw  ; 
Walsingham,  Thos.  Graham  ;  Sweaborg,  A.  Scratch. 

In  1881  the  following  named  presided  over  the  several  circuits  :  — 
London,  M.  Dimmick;  London  Circuit,  B.C.  Moore;  Ingersoll,  W. 
H.  Shaw,  B.  Laurence  (superannuated)  ;  St.  Mary's  and  Nissouri,  C. 
M.  Thompson,  J.  Mitchell;  Thamesford,  M.  H.  Bartram,  R.  Service 
(superannuated)  ;  Embro,  R.  J.  Warner,  B.  A.  ;  Sweaborg,  John  Wood  ; 
Dorchester,  M.  Griffin;  Westminster,  J.  T.  Davis,  J.  Bloodworth;  St. 
Thomas,  W.  G.'  Brown,  B.  B  Rogers,  A.  A.  C.  ;  Southwold,  W.  Fan- 
sher, T.  J.  Brown;  Parkhill,  J.  Lay  cock;  Goderich,  G.  A.  Francis; 
Bosanquet,  S.  Knott;  Seaforth,  C.  W.  Vollick;  Maitland,  W.  1ST.  Vol- 
lick ;  Stanley,  N.  Dickie,  F.  Ling  ;  Norwich,  0.  G.  Collamore,  C.  A. 
Moore;  Aylmer,  J.  Ferguson;  Springfield,  A.  Kennedy;  Malahide, 
J.  Rose,T.  J.  Smith;  Tilsonburg,  G.  A.  Filcher;  Mt.  Elgin,  J.  Gardiner; 
Vienna,  A.  Scratch,  D.  Griffin  ;  Walsingham,  W.  Scurr. 

In  1882,  Rev.  J.  Gardiner  presided  over  the  district  with  M.  H. 
Bartram  and  B.  C.  Moore,  of  London  ;  J.  Ferguson  and  C.  A.  Moore, 
of  Mt.  Elgin;  W.  N.  Vollick,  of  Nissouri;  A.  Scratch,  of  Embro; 
John  Wood,  of  Sweaborg;  M.  Griffin,  of  Dorchester  ;  W.H.Shaw 
and  T.  J.  Smith,  of  Westminster,  and  J.  Lay  cock,  Parkhill.  Strathroy 
and  other  circuits,  such  as  Newbury,  belonged  to  other  districts;  Dr. 
Webster,  of  the  latter  place,  being  a  resident  worker  of  the  church  in 
this  county  for  almost  half  a  century.  In  1884  the  union  of  this 
church  with  the  Methodist  Church  of  Canada  was  effected. 

Early  Methodist  Episcopal  Marriages.  —  The  earliest  record  of 
marriages  dates  back  to  1831,  when  Ephraim  Smith,  a  minister  of  the 
Gospel,  sent  to  the  Clerk  the  following  certificates  :  — 

April  24,  1831—  Lorenzo  D.  Bates  to  Mary  Earl. 
May     4,     "       John  Sharp  to  Martha  Smith. 
Oct.    30,     "       Samuel  Healy  to  Christiana  Howell. 
Jan.    26,  1832—  Eli  Cross  to  Anna  Smith. 



Feb.    16,  1832— John  Maher  to  Lodice  Smith. 
Mar.   16,     "        David  T.  Duncan  to  Mary  Gillett. 
Mar.   24,     "        Chris.  L.  Barnes  to  Amy  Otis. 

The  greater  number  of  above  resided  in  Norwich  Township. 

The  following  recorded  marriages  were  solemnized  by  Eev.  Thos. 
Whitehead,  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church : — 

Oct.  14,  1832— Jasper  H.  Gooding  to  Mary  Good,  of  Goderich. 
Nov.  5,  "  Thomas  B.  Hale  to  Jane  Willson,  of  Goderich. 
Nov.  14,  "  William  Holland  to  Eliza  Hicks,  of  Goderich. 
April  17,  1833— Thomas  Webster  to  Mary  Bailey,  of  Nissouri. 
July  10,  "  Arthur  Squires  to  Lydia  Carter,  of  Stanley. 

The  marriages  solemnized  by  Eev.  Ezra  Adams,  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church,  of  the  London  District,  are  recorded  as  follows : — 

July  5, 
Oct.  2, 
Oct.  25, 
Nov.  13, 
Nov.  20, 
Jan.  31, 
Feb.  20, 
Feb.  20, 
Dec.  3, 
Feb.  4, 

1832— Thomas  Hurlburt  to  Betsy  A.  Adams,  of  Caradoc. 

Jackson  Stafford  to  Isabella  Nickald,  of  Southwold. 

"        Carroll  to  Lydia  Kelly,  of  Mosa. 

"       John  Philips  to  Harriet  Caswell,  of  Westminster. 

"        James  Nash  to  Keziah  Lockwood,  of  Caradoc. 
1833— Seneca  Edwards  to  Mary  Curry,  of  Mosa. 
Wm.  Provost  to  Sally  Siddal,  of  Dunwich. 

' '        Horace  Kelly  to  Nancy  Provost,  of  Mosa. 
1834— Col vin  Davison  to  Jane  Nichols,  of  Ekfrid. 
1835— John  Coyne  to  Elizabeth  Neal. 

Rev.  Jesse  Owen,  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  performed 
the  ceremony  of  marriage  in  the  following  cases  : — 

Jan.      1,  1833 — William  Hodgman  to  Ann  McGogan,  of  Caradoc. 

Jan.      7,  "  James  Clarke  to  Harriet  Ramsay,  of  Caradoc. 

Jan.    28,  "  Allen  Fox  to  Jane  Hunt,  of  London. 

Feb.    10,  "  '  Belah  King  to  Maria  Dickison,  of  London. 

Apr.   15,  "  Charles  Dickison  to  Elizabeth  Neadham,  of  London. 

May     6,  "  Cyrus  Hawley  to  Eliza  Smith,  of  London. 

May     8,  "  John  Geary  to  Eliza  Hasket,  of  London. 

May     8,  "  Moses  Willson  to  Eliza  Bailey,  of  Nissouri. 

July  29,  "  John  Jackson  to  Nancy  Sawtle,  of  London. 

Aug.  28,  "  John  Wheaton  to  Jane  Clark,  of  London. 

Rev.  John  Bailey,  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  united  : — 

July     4,  1837— Charles  Pettys  to  Mary  Nixon,  of  Nissouri. 

Rev.  Charles  Pettys,  of  the  same  denomination,  married  the 
following : — 

Sept.  20,  1837— Cyrus  P.  Meriam  to  Margaret  McBean,  of  Ekfrid. 
Oct.    19,  1838 — Alonzo  Charles  to  Lucy  Blackmore,  of  Mosa. 

Daniel  Picket,  a  Methodist  Episcopal  preacher,  united : 
Oct.     8,  1834 — James  Nixon  to  Annie  Nichols,  of  London  Township.* 

Bible  Christians. — The  Bible  Christian  Church  may  be  said  to 
have  been  established  at  London  in  1869.  In  that  circuit  in  1871 
there  were  two  itinerant  and  nine  local  preachers,  four  places  of  wor- 

*  These  marriage  notices  are  copied  from  old  and  imperfect  records,  and,  doubtless, 
contain  errors,  for  which,  owing  to  the  care  employed  in  these  pages,  the  publishers  are  not 


ship,  and  179  members.  Rev.  W.  Jollifle  and  J.  Collins  were  pastors. 
In  1873  W.  Keener  was  at  London.  J.  J.  Eice  came  in  1875,  and  in 
1876  he,  with  F.  M.  Whitlock  were  ministers.  In  1877  S.  J.  Allin 
assisted  Mr.  Rice,  and  the  latter  in  1878  took  charge  of  the  two  cir- 
cuits, London  East  and  South ;  but  in  1 879  the  circuit  was  divided,  as 
shown  in  the  local  history  of  this  society.  The  12th  annual  meeting 
was  held  in  May,  1880,  within  their  church  at  London  South,  when 
the  following  named  ministers  and  laymen  were  present : — Revs.  W. 
Hooper  (Superintendent),  T.  R.  Hull,  W.  Ayers,  W.  Quance,  J.  Archer, 
G.  H.  Copeland,  R.  Mallett,  B.  A ,  T.  Mason,  W.  Rollins  and  S.  J. 
Cunnings ;  Messrs.  J.  Isaac,  J.  Cole,  W.  Gerry,  W.  Field,  J.  Small, 
W.  Jennings,  E.  Johnson  and  R.  Kennedy.  The  officers  appointed 
were  Rev.  W.  Rollins,  Secretary ;  Rev.  R.  Mallett,  Journal  Secretary ; 
Rev.  G.  H.  Copeland,  Reporter  for  the  Observer ;  and  the  ministers : — 
London  Centre,  Rev.  \V.  Quance ;  London  East,  Rev.  G.  H.  Copeland ; 
London  South,  Rev.  W.  Rollins ;  Lambeth,  Rev.  T.  Mason ;  Dereham, 
Rev.  T.  R.  Hull;  Ingersoll,  Rev.  J.  Archer;  St.  Thomas,  Rev.  W. 
Hooper.  Appointments  continued  to  be  made  annually  until  the 
union  of  1884,  when  the  Bible  Christians  lost  their  distinctive  title 
and  became  a  part  of  the  Methodist  Church  of  Canada.  In  the 
chapters  devoted  to  local  history  the  several  churches  of  this  society 
are  noticed. 

Lutherans. — The  Lutheran  Church  in  Canada  dates  back  to  1790, 
when  a  building,  known  as  Zion  Church,  was  erected  east  of  Kingston, 
and  Rev.  Schwerfeyer,  of  Albany,  K  Y.,  called  as  pastor.  About  this 
time  a  Mr.  Myers,  of  Philadelphia,  resided  in  Marysburgh  Township, 
where  a  large  number  of  Palatinates  and  other  German  loyalists  had 
sought  refuge.  His  mission  was  not  successful,  so  that  in  1807  he 
returned  to  Pennsylvania.  Rev.  Mr.  Weant,  who  preached  at  Ernest- 
town,  and  in  1808,  at  Matilda,  found  but  poor  support,  and  in  1811 
joined  the  English  Church  clandestinely  at  Quebec.  Returning,  he 
continued  to  preach  to  his  people,  who  found  him  using  the  Book  of 
Common  Prayer,  and  wearing  a  surplice — cause  sufficient  for  his 
dismissal.  In  1814,  Mr.  Myers  was  recalled,  but  finding  that  Weant 
had  possession  of  the  building,  had  to  resort  to  diplomacy  to  obtain  its 
use  for  worship.  In  1817,  Myers  also  joined  the  English  Church. 
Both  were  addicted  to  brandy-drinking  and  consequent  drunkenness, 
Myers  dying  from  the  effects  of  a  fall. 

Miscellaneous  Societies.— The  Quakers  or  Society  of  Friends, 
introduced  their  faith  in  1790,  when  David  Sand  and  Elijah  Hick  held 
services  at  James  Noxen's  house,  Adolphustown.  They  had  a  house 
of  worship  erected  there,  the  first  in  Canada;  the  second  being  at 
Sophiasburg.  Joseph  Leavens,  who  died  in  1844,  in  his  92nd  year 
was  one  of  the  leading  preachers  of  the  society. 

The  Mennonites  claim  to  be  direct  descendants  of  the  Vandois  or 
Waldenses,  who,  during  the  latter  part  of  the  twelfth  century  were 
driven  by  oppression  into  HoUand,  and  who  lived  there  a  scattered 


sect  until  the  sixteenth  century,  when  Menno  Simon,  a  reformed 
priest,  gathered  them  together  and  organized  them  into  a  compact 
religious  body,  to  which  he  gave  his  name.  Because  of  the  principles 
they  held  they  still  suffered  persecution,  even  to  the  extent  of  martyr- 
dom, and  finally  a  large  body  of  Mennonites  emigrated  from  Holland 
to  the  United  States  and  settled  in  and  around  Pennsylvania,  about 
the  close  of  the  seventeenth  century.  Here  they  found  the  freedom 
of  worship  from  which  they  had  been  so  long  debarred,  and  flourished, 
a  prosperous  community.  But  after  a  century  of  peace  the  war  of 
the  American  Independence  overshadowed  the  land,  and,  among  many 
others,  a  few  of  these  people,  preferring  to  remain  under  British  rule, 
left  their  pleasant  homesteads  to  travel  northward.  Over  the  extensive 
uncultivated  spaces  between  Pennsylvania  and  the  border  line  they 
journeyed,  nor  paused  until  they  settled  once  again  with  others  of  our 
old  Loyalist  forefathers  upon  Canadian  shores,  where  they  began  to 
form  new  homes  among  the  pathless  woods  of  Niagara  peninsula, 
bringing  with  them  a  loyalty  that  has  clung  to  creed  as  firmly  as  to 
crown  in  each  succeeding  generation. 

The  New  Jerusalem  Church  dates  back  to  1861  for  its  organization 
in  Canada.  In  June  of  every  year  conference  is  held,  and  executive 
and  ecclesiastical  committees  appointed,  One  of  the  great  meetings 
of  this  association  was  held  at  Strathroy  in  1876,  when  four  ministers 
and  an  average  number  of  delegates  and  visitors  were  present  from  the 
following  places: — Berlin,  Toronto,  Wellesley,  Stratford,  Caledonia, 
Chatham,  Conestoga,  Watford,  Waterloo,  and  Yorkville.  Letters  were 
received  from  members  in  London,  St.  Catharines,  Hamilton,  New 
Brunswick,  Ottawa,  Lisbon,  Mt.  Brydges,  Parkhill,  Ingersoll,  and 
other  places. 

Moravians. — The  history  of  the  Moravians  begins  in  1457,  nearly 
a  century  before  England  accepted  the  teachings  of  Luther.  Toward 
the  close  of  the  fifteenth  century  there  were  200  societies  in  Moravia 
and  Bohemia,  and  at  this  time  their  bible  was  issued.  During  the 
succeeding  300  years  the  new  church  died  out  in  its  cradle ;  but,  in 
1749,  the  British  Parliament  acknowledged  them  a  part  of  the  Protes- 
tant Episcopal  Church,  and  encouraged  their  settlement  in  North 
America.  In  1741,  a  few  Moravians  met  for  worship  in  New  York. 
During  1749,  a  number  of  Moravians  established  a  mission  in  Tuscar- 
awas  County,  Ohio,  and  here,  in  1781,  100  of  their  number  were  killed 
under  the  auspices  of  the  very  people  who  patronized  them  and  sent 
them  to  the  colonies.  The  survivors  of  the  massacre  moved  to  Detroit 
that  year,  and  settled  at  New  Gnadenhutten,  near  Mount  Clemens,  on 
the  Clinton  Eiver  of  Lake  St.  Clair.  During  their  term  there  fourteen 
members  died.  They  were  hated  by  the  Otchipwas  on  account  of  their 
newly  formed  friendships  for  the  Americans,  and  as  that  part  of 
Michigan  was  infested  by  Indians,  the  mission  dissolved  itself,  the 
greater  number  seeking  a  home  on  the  Thames  (La  Tranche),  near  the 
scene  of  Proctor's  defeat,  from  which  David  Zeisherger  wrote  July  20, 


1794  :  "  Captain  Pike  was  instructed  by  De  Peyster,  the  British  Com- 
mandant at  Detroit,  in  1781,  to  make  a  bouilli  of  the  Moravians,  but 
they  outlived  persecution." 

Monnonism,  which  carried  off  many  from  Larnbton,  Middlesex  and 
adjoining  counties  into  the  polygamous  arms  of  Utah  in  the  sixties,  is 
still  represented  in  the  county  and  city.  The  Mormon  temple  on 
Maitland  street  is  the  monument  which  this  Church  has  raised  to  the 
zeal  of  its  members.  In  1875  Mormonism  was  flourishing  at  London, 
under  the  administration  of  Elders  Leverton  and  Davis  In  Novem- 
ber, 1875,  a  cheeky  Gentile  stood  up  in  the  Maitland  Street  Church 
and  asked  Elder  Davis,  "  Did  he  really  believe  in  the  Mormon  Bible  ?"" 
Of  course,  the  answer  was  general,  and  a  challenge  to  discuss  the 
matter  came  from  a  dozen  of  throats. 

The  Salvation  Army — sometimes  called  General  Booth's  Church — 
is  one  of  the  latest  additions  to  religious  forms.  Only  a  few  years  ago 
the  members  were  buffetted  about  or  imprisoned,  but  their  perseverance 
won  for  them  tolerance,  and  to-day  the  Army  preach  and  sing  in  the 
market  place  as  well  as  in  their  barracks — the  members  pleased  with 
their  worship  and  the  people  amused  with  it. 




July  16,  1792,  Governor  Simcoe  declared  the  Province  to  be 
divided  into  nineteen  counties,  the  last  being  the  County  of  Kent,, 
comprising  all  the  country  outside  the  boundaries  of  the  first  named 
eighteen  counties,  as  well  as  of  the  Indian  lands,  extending  northward 
to  the  boundary  line  of  Hudson  Bay,  including  all  the  territory  west 
and  south  of  such  line  known  as  Canada.  Norfolk,  Suffolk  and  Essex 
were  the  neighboring  counties  bordering  on  the  river  La  Tranche,  or 
Thames.  The  act  of  1799,  to  which  royal  assent  was  given  Jan.  1, 
1800,  provided  for  the  establishment  of  eighteen  counties,  a  number 
of  townships  and  a  few  districts.  Among  the  counties  then  set  off 
was  Middlesex,  comprising  the  Townships  of  London,  Westminster, 
Dorchester,  Yarmouth,  South  wold,  Dunwich,  Aldborough  and  Delaware. 

London  District,  as  then  constituted,  comprised  the  counties  of  Nor- 
folk, Oxford  and  Middlesex,  with  the  country  westward  of  the  Home 
and  Niagara  districts,  southward  of  Lake  Huron,  and  between  them 
and  a  line  drawn  due  north  from  a  fixed  boundary  (where  the  easter- 
most  limit  of  Orford  Township  intersects  the  river  Thames),  until  it 
arrives  at  Lake  Huron. 

The  act  of  April  14,  1821,  provided  that  the  Townships  of  Lobo, 
Mosa,  Ekfrid  and  Caradoc  should  be  attached  to  Middlesex ;  that  a 
gore  of  land  on  the  east  side  of  Norwich  and  a  gore  on  the  east  side  of 
Dorchester  be  attached  to  the  respective  townships,  and  that  the 
Townships  of  Zorra  and  Nissouri  be  added  to  Oxford  County.  At  this 
time  the  new  Townships  of  Zone,  Dawn,  Sombra  and  St.  Clair  were 
attached  to  Kent  County. 

In  1835  James  Ingersoll  qualified  at  London  as  Kegistrar  of  the 
County  of  Oxford. 

The  act  of  1837,  setting  off  Oxford  County  as  the  District  of 
Brock,  required  the  Quarter  Sessions  of  London  to  declare  the  pro- 
portion of  district  expenses  to  be  apportioned  to  Oxford,  pending  the 
issue  of  proclamation. 

Brock  District  was  set  off  from  London  March  4,  1837.  The 
proportion  of  moneys  due  the  new  district  by  the  old  for  wild  land 
tax,  received  by  the  Treasurer  of  London  up  to  December,  1839,  when 
the  new  district  was  proclaimed,  amounted  to  £41  16s.  8d. ;  but  at  the 
settlement  of  July,  1841,  £37  12s.  Id.  were  deducted  as  the  proportion 
of  general  expenses  incurred  by  London  District. 

In  1837  the  magistrates  of  the  new  District  of  Talbot  were  author- 
ized  to  sell  the  brick  and  stone  in  the  old  jail  and  court  house  at  Vittoria, 
the  proceeds  to  be  used  in  building  their  new  court  house  and  jail. 

70  HISTORY   OF    THE 

In  April,  1839,  the  question  of  apportioning  the  expenses  of  the 
County  of  Huron  was  before  the  court. 

In  1854  the  town  of  London  was  incorporated  as  a  city  and 
•detached  from  the  county. 

The  townships  of  Bayham,  Malahide,  South  Dorchester,  South  wold, 
Aldborough  and  Yarmouth  were  detached  in  1852  from  Middlesex 
and  formed  into  the  County  of  Elgin.  In  1865  McGillivray  and 
Biddulph  were  detached  from  Huron  and  attached  to  Middlesex, 

As  related  in  the  history  of  Biddulph  and  McGillivray,  both  town- 
ships petitioned  for  annexation  to  Middlesex,  and  were  detached  from 
Huron.  With  the  exception  of  exemption  from  paying  any  part  of 
the  debenture  debt  of  the  county,  the  townships  became  at  once  part 
and  parcel  of  Middlesex,  and  were  first  represented  in  the  Council  of 

What  changes  future  years  may  bring  round  in  the  present 
boundaries  of  the  county  cannot  be  stated.  A  contributor  to  the  Age, 
Grand-Pa,  writing  in  September,  1871,  proposed  that  West  Middlesex 
be  set  off  as  a  new  county.  He  dealt  with  general  expenditures  back 
to  1854,  and  showed  very  plainly  that  the  western  township  paid 
much  more  than  a  just  share  of  expenses.  He  also  referred  to  the 
movement  of  1861-2  for  the  establishment  of  a  registry  office  at 
Glencoe,  and  the  revival  of  the  question  in  1870-1. 

Quarter  Sessions'  Court,  18%7-lfi.— The  first  Quarter  Sessions 
ever  held  at  London  was  that  of  Tuesday,  January  9,  in  the  seventh 
year  of  the  reign  of  George  IV.  Joseph  Eyerson  was  chairman. 

In  1828,  L.  P.  Sherwood  was  Circuit  Judge.  In  July  of  this  year 
a  resident  of  London  was  fined  £5  "  for  deceitfully  obtaining  from 
Eobert  Summers  one  silver  watch."  In  August,  1829,  J.  B.  Ma- 
caulay  was  Justice  of  the  King's  Bench.  In  January,  1839,  Mahlon 
Burwell  was  temporary  chairman,  with  Peter  Teeple,  John  Scatcherd, 
Charles  Ingersoll,  Ira  Scofield,  Leslie  Patterson,  Edward  Allen  Talbot, 
John  Bostwick,  and  other  justices  present.  Michael  McLaughlin,  of 
Westminster,  was  fined  25  shillings  for  beating  Catherine  Southerland. 
John  Matthews,  Jr.,  of  Lobo,  was  fined  £2  for  beating  Lawrence 
Lawrason,  of  London,  and  James  V.  Eyan,  of  London,  was  fined  10 
shillings  for  obtaining  deceitfully  from  Eobert  Caldwell  a  silver  watch. 

In  April,  1829,  George  Coleman,  of  Oxford  East,  was  fined  £1  for 
beating  constable  John  Phelan.  Samuel  Weir,  of  Burford,  was  fined 
£10  for  beating  Eapelje  Weir,  then  under  ten  years.  Joseph  Lyons, 
John  Davis,  Elijah  Davis,  Christopher  Williams,  Thomas  Fortner,  aU 
fanners,  and  Cadnueil  Moore,  blacksmith,  all  of  London,  were  fined  £9 
for  assaulting  James  Williams  in  July  1829.  In  October,  Isaac 
Waters,  of  Westminster,  paid  £1  4s.,  for  beating  John  Hunt. 

In  January,  1830,  Henry  Eeynolds,  of  Dorchester,  paid  £2  for 

ting  Jesse  Beverly.     About  this  time  the  names  of  Benj.  Willsoii 

and  John  G  Lessee,  appear  among  the  magistrates.     In  April,  1830, 

William  B.  Lee,  of  London,  an  innkeeper,  and  William  Haskett,  a 


painter,  were  bondsmen  for  Isaac  Waters.  John  Ward,  of  Mosa,  was 
indicted  for  assaulting  Michael  Hurder.  Joseph  Ward,  a  pensioner,  of 
Mosa,  and  Geo.  Lee,  of  Ekfrid,  were  his  bondsmen. 

The  Grand  Jury  in  April,  1830,  comprised  Walter  Chase,  Benj. 
Chadwick,  Samuel  Mason,  Hugh  O'Brien,  Jacob  Zavitz,  John  T. 
Doan,  Samuel  Minard,  Asa  Fordice,  Thomas  Sprague,  Thomas  Hardi- 
son,  John  Brazey,  Durcomb  Simons,  Ira  Whitcomb  and  Lawrence 
Doyle.  During  the  trial  of  James  Meek  vs.  Duncan  Campell,  Duncan 
McKenzie  was  sworn  as  interpreter  for  Malcolm  Mclntyre,  one  of  the 
witnesses.  At  this  time  the  serious  charge  against  Ira  Scofield, 
Duncan  McKenzie  and  James  Parkinson  for  conspiracy,  to  charge 
George  J.  Goodhue  with  forging  a  note  against  William  Fuller,  was 
made,  and  they  were  held  in  £200  bail.  John  O'Neil  was  appointed 
High  Constable. 

In  July,  1830,  Henry  •  Cook,  innkeeper,  of  Westminster,  paid 
twenty-five  shillings  for  assaulting  Thomas  Burns.  In  the  case 
against  Michael  Beach,  of  Oakland,  Justus  Willcox,  of  Mosa,  and 
Wm.  Paul,  of  Yarmouth,  were  his  bondsmen. 

The  charge  of  assault,  with  evil  intentions,  against  Esban  Gregory 
by  Mrs.  Mary  Graham,  and  a  similar  charge  against  Shadrack  Jones, 
were  entertained.  Phoebe  and  Abigail  McNeal  were  witnesses 
against  Jones,  who  was  found  guilty,  and  sentenced  to  prison  for 
three  months,  and  to  pay  costs. 

In  1831,  Levins  P.  Sherwood  presided  over  the  circuit,  while  the 
magistrates  hitherto  named,  with  J.  Parkinson,  James  Racey,  Andrew 
Dobie  and  Duncan  McKenzie,  were  active  in  Quarter  Sessions  work. 
In  the  fall  of  1830,  Whiting  Barnes,  of  London,  was  fined  five  shillings 
for  beating  Edward  Green.  In  January,  1831,  Wm.  Eldridge,  of 
Mosa,  was  fined  only  one  shilling  for  beating  two  of  the  Aldgeo 
women  of  that  township.  Henry  Cook  was  fined  for  assaulting  Thos. 
Orr,  of  Westminster.  Gregory  Allen,  of  Delaware,  who  assaulted 
Ben  Myers,  was  bailed  out  by  Peter  Schram,  a  farmer,  and  Charles 
Eeeves,  an  innkeeper,  both  of  Westminster.  In  1830,  A.  A.  Eapelje, 
was  still  Sheriff. 

In  October,  1830,  Henry  White  appears  as  a  magistrate.  At  that 
time  the  sum  of  £20  per  annum  was  granted  to  High  Constable 
O'Neil,  and  William  Putman  was  given  £25  on  account  of  labor  on  the 
North  Branch  of  the  Thames. 

In  January,  1831,  John  Bostwick  was  chosen  Chairman  of  Quarter 
Sessions.  The  other  magistrates  present  being  Duncan  McKenzie, 
Henry  Warren,  Solomon  Lossing,  Edward  A.  Talbot,  James  Mitchell, 
James  Parkinson  and  Ira  Scofield.  One  of  the  questions  before  the 
Court  was  the  expulsion  of  John  Armitage  from  a  lot  of  land  in  London. 
At  this  time  Stephen  and  James  Howell,  Jacob  Best,  Henry  Belts, 
Adam  Miller,  Reuben  Clark  and  Wm.  Smith  were  tried  for  assault  on 
Isaac  Hartwick,  but  acquitted.  Gideon  G.  Bostwick,  Crier  of  the 
Court  in  1831,  was  granted  an  annual  salary  of  £20. 


In  April,  1831,  one  Charles  Mclntosh,  a  servant,  sued  his  master, 
Duncan  McKenzie.  This  servant,  or  apprentice,  brought  no  witnesses, 
while  his  master  brought  forward  Betsy  Me  Adam,  Amy  and  Levi 
Blackman,  Allen  and  Thomas  Eoutledge,  Daniel  Barclay,  Sarah 
McLoughlin,  and  Freeman  Hull  as  witnesses.  The  Court  gave  judg- 
ment against  Mclntosh  for  £7  15s.  and  costs. 

In  January,  1832,  Hiram  D.  Lee,  of  London;  Nathan  Griffith,  of 
Westminster ;  Ira  Whitcomb,  of  Port  Stanley ;  Geo.  W.  Whitehead, 
of  Burford ;  James  Young  and  Philip  Henry,  of  Dunwich ;  Jacob 
McQueen,  of  South  wold;  Wm.  Putnam,  of  Dorchester,  and  Samuel 
Smith,  of  Orford,  paid  each  £3  and  were  granted  tavern  licenses. 

In  January,  1832,  Samuel  Park,  of  London,  was  appointed  Inspector 
of  Weights  and  Measures  for  the  district,  vice  John  Harris  resigned. 
At  this  time  the  name  of  Isaac  Draper  appears,  and  that  of  John 
Scatcherd  reappears  among  the  magistrates,  very  few  changes  being 
made  within  the  preceding  decade. 

During  the  year  1832,  a  large  number  of  males  and  a  few  female 
residents  took  the  oath  of  allegiance. 

In  October,  1833,  Eliakim  Malcolm's  name  appears  as  a  magistrate. 

In  January,  1834,  John  Lamb,  Alex.  Murray  and  F.  Shaunesson 
were  sentenced  to  terms  of  solitary  confinement,  with  bread  and  water, 
for  larceny. 

On  May  18,  1831,  the  commission  of  Coroner  was  issued  to 
Jonathan  Austin,  Elam  Stinson  and  David  Bowman.  The  great  seal 
is  four  inches  in  diameter  and  bears  the  British  arms  of  George  IV. 
In  1834  this  commission  was  reissued. 

In  July,  1832,  only  eleven  grand  jurors  remained  for  duty,  the 
others  having  fled  from  London  owing  to  the  prevalence  of  cholera. 
In  this  year  Dr.  Donnelly,  a  pioneer  physician,  was  stricken  by  the 

In  January,  1833,  the  first  seals  were  ordered,  one  for  the  Court  of 
Quarter  Sessions  and  one  for  the  District  Court. 

In  April,  1834,  Mahlon  Burwell  was  elected  Chairman  of  Quarter 
Sessions  by  the  following  named  magistrates  elect :— Joseph  B.  Clench, 
a  ^  i  7™ng'  James  InSersoll>  Peter  Carroll,  John  Scatcherd,  Ira 
bconeld  Thomas  Homer,  William  Eobertson,  Christopher  Beer,  John 
Bostwick,  Colin  McMilledge,  Eliakim  Malcolm,  John  G.  Lossee 
Edward  Ermatinger,  Thomas  Eadcliff,  John  Philpot  Curran,  Duncan 
McKenzie,  Philip  Graham,  Andrew  Dobie  and  John  Burwell.  John 
B.  Askm  was  still  Clerk  of  the  Peace,  while  A.  A.  Eapalje  was 
sheriff  and  V  A.  Eapalje  Deputy.  B.  B.  Brigham  was  appointed 
road  surveyor  for  Middlesex  County,  vice  Eoswell  Mount  deceased. 
George  Moore  was  then  coroner. 

In  October,  1834,  Wm.  Young  was  temporary  Chairman  of  Quar- 
ter Sessions.  The  names  of  Thomas  Eadcliffe  and  John  Boys  appear 
as  new  magistrates.  In  January,  1835,  Wm.  Young  was  elected 
Unairman,  James  Ingersoll  still  being  a  member  of  the  Court  like 


John  Bostwick,  and  the  name  of  James  C.  Crysler  appears.  Among 
the  magistrates  in  April,  1835,  the  new  names  of  James  Barwick, 
Colonel  Light,  Wm.  Gordon,  Capt.  Kobert  Johnson,  and  Edward 
Buller  appear.  At  this  time  it  was  resolved  to  elect  a  Chairman  who 
would  be  conversant  with  law,  and  pay  him  £10  for  each  session.  This  , 
order  was  repealed  in  1837.  In  April,  1835,  Dr.  James  Corbin  was 
fined  £10  for  practicing  medicine  illegally.  In  October,  1835,  the 
names  of  Henry  Warren,  Doyle  McKenney,  Benj.  Willson,  Geo.  W. 
Whitehead,  Phillip  Hodgkinson,  Wilson  Mills  and  Lawrence  Lawrason 
appear  among  the  magistrates.  In  January,  1836,  Hamilton  H. 
Killally,  John  Weir  and  Peter  Carroll  appear  on  the  Bench. 

The  Grand  Jury  of  January,  1836,  comprised  twenty  well-known 
names: — John  O'Neil,  Foreman;  Thomas  Gibbons,  Joshua  Putnam, 
Wm.  Niles,  Levi  Myrick,  Simeon  Morrill,  John  Jennings,  Eichard 
Smith,  Silas  E.  Curtiss,  F.  G.  Warren,  Dennis  O'Brien,  Edward  Mat- 
thews, Joseph  L.  O'Dell,  Albert  S.  O'Dell,  Kobert  Fennell,  Joseph  B. 
Flannagan,  Elisha  S.  Lyman,  Robert  Souter,  H.  Van  Buskirk  and  Wm. 

Edward  Grattan,  a  printer,  of  London,  in  1836,  was  held  on  bonds 
to  give  evidence  against  Thomas  Cronyn,  indicted  for  assault. 

The  celebrated  motion  presented  to  the  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions, 
July  12,  1836,  by  Edward  Allen  Talbot,  one  of  the  magistrates,  was 
as  follows : — "  I  protest  against  the  payment  of  any  sum  or  sums  of 
money  being  paid  to  any  magistrate  acting  as  Chairman  for  the 
District  of  London,  who  accepts  of  any  sum  or  sums  of  money  in  lieu 
of  such  services,  and  on  the  following  grounds : — First,  I  consider  it 
contrary  to  law;  and  secondly,  I  regard  it  as  derogatory  to  the' 
character  of  the  magistracy  of  the  district,  even  if  they  had  a  law  for 
so  doing,  to  pay  their  Chairman  the  paltry  sum  of  £40  per  annum ; 
and  thereby  I  regard  it  as  an  infringement  of  the  rights  of  the  people 
for  the  magistrates  to  appropriate  any  part  of  the  district  funds  for 
any  purpose  whatever,  unless  authorized  by  law  so  to  do." 

In  April,  1836,  the  action  which  gave  rise  to  this  motion  was  the 
re-election  of  Wm.  Young  as  Chairman  on  the  following  vote  : — John 
Burwell,  Harvey  Cook,  Capt.  Dunlop,  G.  W.  Whitehead,  Duncan 
McKenzie,  Robert  Riddle,  John  Philpot  Curran,  Alex.  W.  Light,  Wm. 
Hentiliny,  Henry  Hyndman,  Wm.  Dunlap,  Wm.  B.  Rich,  Philip 
Graham  and  R.  R.  Hunt  for  Young,  and  E.  A.  Talbot  voted  contrary. 
Mahlon  Burwell,  then  Chairman,  while  he  moved  the  re-election  of 
Young,  was  not  called  upon  to  vote. 

In  April,  1837,  Mahlon  Burwell  was  elected  Chairman  of  Ses- 
sions. Among  the  magistrates  present  were  Peter  Carroll,  John 
Carroll,  John  Kitson  Woodward,  John  Weir,  A.  Dobie,  J.  Bostwick, 
J.  Burwell,  J.  C.  Crysler,  Doyle  McKenny,  Geo.  W.  Whitehead,  John 
S.  Buchanan,  Duncan  McKenzie,  Thomas  Wade,  Andrew  Drew,  John 
Arnold,  Edmund  Deeds,  Samuel  Eccles,  Thomas  H.  Ball,  L.  Lawrason, 
Edward  Ermatinger,  J.  G.  Lossee,  B.  George  Ronviere,  John  Brown, 
James  Graham. 


On  July  12,  1837,  James  Hamilton,  of  Sterling,  qualified  as 
Sheriff  of  the  District  of  London,  Dr.  Joseph  Hamilton  and  Hon. 
John  Hamilton  being  his  bondsmen.  At  this  time  the  first  notice  of 
the  existence  of  an  insane  and  destitute  person  in  the  District  is  given. 
The  sum  of  £25  was  advanced  to  John  Barclay  for  the  maintenance 
of  Janet  McBean. 

The  magistrates  presiding  in  October,  1837,  were  John  Burwell, 
James  Mitchell,  Doyle  McKenny,  Wilson  Mills,  Ephraim  Tisdale, 
Purley,  Cyrenius  Hall,  John  Shore,  L.  Lawrason,  J.  S.  Buchanan  and 
J.  R  Brown.  In  January,  1838,  the  names  of  Thomas  H.  Ball, 
Harry  Cook,  Eobert  Johnston  and  Wm  Kobertson  appear. 

In  January,  1838,  the  following  licenses  were  issued  to  keep 
houses  of  entertainment,  the  fee  in  towns  being  £7  10s.  Od.,  and  in 
small  settlements  £3 :— John  O'Neil,  Geo.  T.  Glaus,  John  Talbot, 
Bemis  Pixley,  James  Jackson  (in  township),  Amy  Wood,  and  Henry 
Humphreys,  of  London ;  Geo.  Miller,  Atkins  &  Taylor,  Thomas 
Pettifer,  of  St.  Thomas  ;  Henry  Purdy,  of  Vienna  ;  George  Dingman, 
William  Sage,  of  Westminster;  John  Bolton  and  J.  Whitcornb,  of 
Port  Stanley ;  Mrs.  Westlake,  Patrick  Mee,  George  Ivor  and  Eichard 
Brenuan,  of  Adelaide ;  Alexander  Ward  and  John  Ward,  of  Mosa ; 
Abraham  Van  Norman,  of  Delaware ;  Amos  Wheeler,  of  Dorchester ; 
Archibald  Miller  and  Jonathan  Miller,  of  Ekfrid.  On  April  11,  1838, 
a  tavern  license  was  granted  to  William  Balkwill  on  payment  of 
£7  10s.  Od.  At  this  time  John  McDonald,  a  grocer,  of  London,  was 
before  the  Court.  Patrick  Deveney  was  licensed  to  keep  an  inn  at 
London  in  1839. 

In  January,  1839,  the  following  named  newly-elected  magistrates 
were  present : — John  Douglas,  John  G.  Bridges,  John  Jackson,  John 
Burne,  Kichard  Webb,  John  Arnold,  W.  F.  Gooding,  Peter  Carroll, 
Alex.  Sinclair,  Henry  Carroll,  Philip  Hodgkinson.  In  April,  1839, 
the  following  tavern  licenses  were  issued : — Gideon  Bostwick,  of 
Westminster ;  Wm.  Marvin,  of  Dorchester ;  Geo.  J.  Smith,  of  Ekfrid ; 
Sam.  Sewell,  of  Adelaide ;  James  Fisher,  of  Caradoc ;  Anson  Strong, 
of  London  Town.  In  April,  1839,  the  petition  of  John  Burwell  was 
reported  unfavorably  by  H.  Hyndman,  Chairman  of  Committee. 

In  October,  1840,  Charles  Prior  appears  among  the  magistrates;  J. 
B.  Clench  being  Chairman.  In  1841,  Thomas  Cronyn  was  a  magis- 
trate, and  Adam  Hope  in  1842.  In  1843,  Henry  Allen  was  Chairman 
(commonly  known  as  Judge),  while  Alexander  Strathy,  Geo.  J.  Good- 
hue,  Simeon  Morrill  and  Hugh  Carmichael,  are  among  the  magistrates. 
In  1845  the  name  of  Alexander  Anderson  appears. 

County  Council,  18J$-S8.— -The  Councillors  of  London  District  in 
1842  are  named  as  follows : — Lawrence  Lawrason  and  John  Geary,  of 
London ;  Andrew  Moore  and  John  Burwell,  of  Bayham  ;  Daniel  Abel 
and  James  Brown,  of  Malahide  ;  Thomas  Hutchison  and  John  Oil,  of 
Yarmouth ;  George  Elliot  and  Levi  Fowler,  of  Southwold ;  Thomas 
Coyne,  ofDunwich;  Thomas  Duncan,  of  Aldborough;  William  Niles, 



of  Dorchester ;  John  D.  Anderson,  of  Mosa  ;  John  Parker,  of  Caradoc ; 
Francis  King  Carey,  of  Delaware ;  Archibald  Miller,  of  Ekfrid ;  Isaac 
Campbell  and  Hiram  Crawford,  of  Westminster;  John  Edwards,  of 
Lobo ;  and  John  S.  Buchanan,  of  Adelaide. 

A  statement  presented  to  this  Council  for  January  1,  1842,  shows 
the  liabilities  of  the  district  to  be  £1,405  3s.  6d.,  and  the  assets  to  be 
£322  12s.  6d.  W.  W.  Street  and  Daniel  Harvey  being  auditors. 
Daniel  Abel,  Chairman  of  a  committee  on  law  books  and  jail  and  court 
house  property,  reported  twenty  volumes  in  the  library,  with  the  jail, 
debtors'  room  and  county  offices  plainly  but  fully  furnished.  The 
return  of  lands,  under  patent,  in  the  District  show  638,914J  acres 
valued  at  £2,662  2s.  lOid. 

On  Feb.  11,  1842,  John  Wilson,  then  Warden,  signed  a  petition, 
"To  the  Queen's  Most  Excellent  Majesty,"  congratulating  her  "on  the 
birth  of  a  prince  and  heir  apparent  to  the  throne  of  that  mighty 

On  August  9, 1842,  Wm.  Niles,  Chairman  of  a  Committee  to  enquire 
into  receipts  and  expenditures  of  the  office  of  Clerk  of  the  Peace  for 
the  years  1838  to  1841,  reported  a  draft  of  a  communication  from  the 
Council  to  the  magistrates  in  session  for  their  consideration.  This  com- 
munication was  brought  before  the  magistrates,  who  declined  to  con- 
sider it,  and  this  refusal  was  followed  by  other  petitions  for  redress  to 
the  Governor- General.  The  petition  to  Governor- General  Bagot,  of 
August  10,  1842,  set  forth  that,  the  right  of  the  Council  to  audit  and 
pay  accounts  was  denied  by  the  Justices  of  Quarter  Sessions,  and  this 
denial  was  sustained  by  the  Court  of  Queen's  Bench  in  the  order  of 
that  Court  to  the  Justices  to  audit  and  pay.  The  petition  asked  that 
the  salaries  of  all  officers  should  be  regulated  by  the  Legislature,  and  a 
table  of  fees  established  for  unknown  or  uncertain  services.  The 
petition  further  asked  that  powers  be  conferred  on  the  Council  to 
compel  the  attendance  of  witnesses  in  road  cases.  The  act  of  October 
12,  1842,  provided  for  the  transfer  of  the  Registry  office  from  Dun- 
wich  township  to  the  town  of  London,  such  transfer  to  be  made  May 
1,  1843. 

In  1843,  Thomas  Graham  replaced  Moore  as  Councillor,  of 
Bayham ;  James  Murray  replaced  Buchanan,  of  Adelaide,  and  Samuel 
Kirkpatrick  replaced  Thomas  Duncan,  of  Aldborough,  and  Daniel  Abel 
took  the  place  of  James  Brown.  These  were  the  only  changes  from 
the  Board  of  1842. 

In  May,  1843,  there  were  £800  in  the  District  treasury  above  all 
expenditures.  At  this  time  John  Burwell  presided  over  the  committee 
which  reported  in  favor  of  distributing  this  surplus  among  the  town- 
ships. The  District  Councillors  for  1844  were  Alex.  Love  and  Benj. 
Willson,  of  Yarmouth;  Samuel  Eccles  took  the  place  of  Levi  Fowler, 
in  Southwold;  Samuel  Kirkpatrick  took  the  place  of  Duncan,  of 
Aldborough.  Otherwise  the  Council  of  1843  was  unchanged. 


76  HISTOKY   OF    THE 

The  Council  of  1845  comprised  the  following  new  members  :— 
Richard  Webb,  of  Delaware,  vice  Carey;  Andrew  McGregor,  of 
Dorchester,  being  the  first  Second  Councillor  from  the  township  ;  Robert 
A  damson,  of  Lobo,  vice  John  Edwards  ;  Thomas  Baty,  of  Westminster, 
vice  H.  Crawford  ;  Wilson  Mills,  of  Caradoc,  vice  John  Parker,  with 
R.  W.  Brennon,  of  the  new  Township  of  Metcalfe,  and  Donald 
Mclntosh,  of  the  new  Township  of  Williams. 

In  December,  1845,  tavern  licenses  were  issued  to  William  Smith. 
John  Nellis,  William  McBean,  William  Franks  and  William  Gain,  of 
London  Township  ;  Schubal  Nicol,  Isaac  Mott,  Peter  McGregor,  Henry 
Palmer  and  William  Hood,  of  Westminster;  W.  F.  Bullen,  of 
Delaware;  Thomas  and  George  Putnam,  and  Jonathan  Hale,  of 
Dorchester  South;  Duncan  Brown,  of  Lobo;  Samuel  Fleming  and 
Peter  Fields,  of  Mosa  ;  James  Adair,  of  Caradoc 

The  only  changes  in  the  Council  of  184G,  from  that  of  1845,  were  : 
Benjamin  Cutler,  the  first  Second  Councillor,  from  Lobo  ;  Andrew 
McCausland  replaced  Brown,  of  Malahide  ;  Leonidas  Burwell  replaced 
Graham,  of  Bayham  ;  Thomas  Duncan,  of  Aldborough,  took  Kirk- 
patrick's  place,  and  Joseph  Sifton,  of  London,  occupied  the  chair  so 
long  held  by  L.  Lawrason. 

In  December,  1846,  licenses  were  issued  as  follows,  exclusive  of 
the  renewals  of  those  issued  in  1845  :  —  John  Stone,  Lobo  ;  W.  A. 
Warren,  Delaware  ;  Wm.  Robinson,  John  H.  Young,  Roland  Robinson, 
John  Scott,  Jonas  W.  Garrison,  John  McDowall,  Finlay  McFee,  Wm. 
Harris,  Thomas  Hiscox,  John  Smith,  Alex.  Forbes,  Martin  Rickard, 
John  Matthews,  Peter  Burke,  Charles  Lindsay,  Robert  Carfrae,  Richard 
Grover,  John  Walsh,  Sol  Schenick,  Wm.  Burne,  Paul  &  Bennett,  John 
O'Neil,  Thomas  Beckett,  Peter  McCann,  of  London  ;  James  Fisher,  of 
<Daradoc  ;  Henry  Rawlins,  of  Delaware  ;  Charles  Patton,  of  Adelaide  ; 
Leonard  Bisbee,  at  plank  road  junction,  toward  St.  Thomas;  John 
O'Dell,  Westminster;  Arch.  Miller,  Ekfrid. 

The  changes  in  the  Council  of  1847  from  1846  were  Jacob  Cline, 
vice  McGregor,  of  Dorchester  ;  Win.  Neal,  vice  Anderson,  of  Mosa  ; 
L.  Lawrason,  vice  Geary,  of  London;  Randolph  Johnstone,  vice 
Wilson,  of  Yarmouth;  Levi  Fowler,  vice  Eccles,  of  Southwold,  and 
James  McKirdy,  first  second  councillor  from  Caradoc. 

The  Council  of  1848  was  made  up  of  the  following  members,  the 
Reeves  being  named  in  the  first  column  :  — 

Aldborough    D.  McDiarmid    ...........  London  ....  Joseph  Sifton.  .  L.  Lawrason 

Adelaide.      Jas.  Murray  ...........  Malahide..  A.  McCausland  Daniel  Abel 

Loon.  Burwell.    Jno.  Burwell  Metcalfe...  R.  W.  Brennan 

Jas.  McKirdy  .    John  Parker  Mosa  ......  Wm.  Neal  ....  A.  D.  Ward 

Richard  Webb  ............  Southwold.  Colin  Munroe..  Levi  Fowler 

Wm.  Niles...    Jacob  Cline  Westmins'r  Isaac  Campbell  Cal'n  Burch 

w                 T  °^^-Ci0yne    ...........  Williams..  Don.  Mclntosh  ........... 

Ekfrid...      Arch   Miller..        ........  Yarmouth..  Alex.  Love...  R.Johnstone 

Lobo  ......    Robt.Adamson    Ben.  Cutler 

Caradoc  ... 



The  changes  in  1849  were,  Patrick  Mee  and  J.  A.  Scoone  elected 
for  Adelaide;  Dr.  E.  Dancey  vice  McCausland,  for  Malahide ;  John 
McBride,  for  Aldborough ;  St.  John  Skinner  vice  L.  Bur  well,  for  Bay- 
ham,  and  Malcolm  McAlpin  vice  Miller,  for  Ekfrid. 

In  December,  1847,  tavern  licenses  were  granted  to  Tunis  S warts, 
John  Matthews,  Jerry  H.  Joyce,  Edward  Stanley,  M.  S.  Smith,  James 
Dagg,  Wm.  Black  well,  Hopkins  &  Abell,  Ben.  Higgins,  Charles  B. 
Rudd,  Thomas  O'Mara,  James  Mason,  Alex.  Forbes,  Maurice  Keley, 
Robert  Wyatt  or  WyalL 

On  February  9,  1849,  Chairman  Munro,  of  the  Committee  on 
Schools,  presented  a  lengthy  report  suggesting  changes  in  old  districts, 
and  recommending  the  establishment  of  new  ones  throughout  the 

Wm.  W.  Street  and  John  McKay,  auditors  of  the  District,  reported 
October  9,  1849,  that  Col.  Talbot,  Thos.  C.  Street  and  a  few  others, 
refused  to  pay  tax  on  their  wild  lands,  and  suggested  an  amicable  suit 
at  law  to  test  the  legality  of  the  by-law  imposing  such  tax. 

In  March,  1849,  John  B.  Askin,  Clerk  of  the  District  Court,  wrote 
to  J.  Leslie,  Secretary  to  the  Governor,  stating  that  in  consequence  of  * 
the  position  assumed  by  John  Harris  and  John  S.  Buchanan,  each 
claiming  to  be  legally  elected  Treasurer  of  the  District  by  the  District 
Council  in  October,  1846,  "  the  offices  are  painfully  situated."      At 
the  date  of  writing  John  Harris  held  the  office,  but  the  claims  of 
Buchanan  were  then  being  presented  to  the  Court  of  Queen's  Bench. 
It  appears  that  Harris  was  appointed  by  the  Government ;  but,  under 
the  new  municipal  law,  the  magistrates  thought  they  had  the  right  of  ' 

The  Council  of  1850  presents  eleven  new  names  : — Sylvester  Cook 
and  L.  Burwell,  vice  Skinner  and  J.  Burwell,  for  Bayham ;  Col. 
Dixon,  for  Caradoc ;  John  Clark,  for  Dunwich ;  Donald  McFarlane, 
for  Ekfrid  ;  Freeman  Talbot  and  Wm.  McMillan,  for  London  Township ; 
Murray  Anderson  and  Benj.  Nash,  for  the  new  town  of  London ;  F.  H. 
Wright,  vice  Abel,  for  Malahide ;  Richard  Frank,  vice  Burch,  for 
Westminster;  Donald  Fraser,  for  Williams.  In  1851  Messrs.  Adam- 
son,  Anderson,  AJlworth,  Burwell,  Clark,  Craig,  Dixon,  Douglas,  R. 
Johnston,  Locker,  Mee,  McMillan,  McBride,  Moyle,  Rae,  Robson, 
Shipley,  Geo.  Smith  (Ekfrid),  Thomson,  WTilks,  Willey,  Willson,  Frank, 
Barker  and  H.  Jolmstone  formed  the  Council,  William  Niles  being 
re-elected  Warden.  In  May,  1851,  R.  Frank,  Chairman  of  the  Com- 
mittee on  Clergy  Reserves,  recommended  that  in  view  of  the  sale  of 
such  reserves  by  the  Province,  the  Legislature  be  petitioned  to  appro- 
priate proceeds  for  the  uses  of  general  education. 

During  the  years  just  preceding  and  in  this  year  the  question  of 
constructing  gravel  or  toll  roads  throughout  the  county  occupied  much 
attention  ;  but  as  the  subject  is  transferred  to  the  chapter  on  roads  and 
bridges,  the  doings  of  the  Council  in  the  matter  bear  only  this 
reference  here. 

78  HISTORY   OF    THE 

A  committee,  of  which  Freeman  Talbot  was  chairman,  reported 
May  16,  1850,  in  favor  of  amending  the  municipal  and  other  acts,  so 
far  as  they  affect  the  liberties  or  interests  of  the  county.  Among  the 
recommendations  was  one  relating  to  Coroner,  as  follows  : — "  Your 
committee  think  proper  to  draw  your  attention  to  the  impropriety  of 
holding  a  Coroner's  inquest  in  all  cases  of  sudden  death,  and  would 
therefore  suggest  the  necessity  of  an  immediate  alteration  of  the 
system,  it  being  unnecessarily  expensive  and  revolting  to  the  better 
feelings  of  humanity." 

L.  Burwell,  chairman  of  a  committee  on  the  division  of  the 
county,  reported  as  follows,  May  7,  1851 : — "  Understanding  that  the 
Government  intend,  during  the  ensuing  session,  to  introduce  a  bill  for 
the  purpose  of  dividing  the  larger  counties,  your  committee  have  given 
attention  to  that  portion  referring  to  Middlesex.  Your  committee  are 
of  the  opinion  that  the  division  line  proposed,  running  east  and  west, 
embracing  the  six  frontier  townships,  and  portions  of  Delaware,  West- 
minster and  Dorchester,  will  be  opposed  by  a  majority  of  the  inhabitants 
of  this  county,  and  that  a  division  for  other  than  electoral  purposes  is 
unnecessary ;  and  that  for  electoral  purposes  the  line  should  run  north 
and  south,  embracing  Dunwich,  Aldborough,  Mosa,  Ekfrid,  Caradoc, 
Metcalfe,  Lobo,  Adelaide  and  Williams,  as  the  new  county,  and  that 
the  same  be  called  the  County  of  Elgin.  This  committee  further 
reported  in  favor  of  giving  Bayharn  to  Oxford  County  in  lieu  of  a 
portion  of  Nissouri  to  be  attached  to  Middlesex. 

The  Council  of  1852  was  composed  as  follows : — 

London  Town  M.  Anderson,  Wm.  Barker..  Adelaide  ....  Hiram  Dell 

London Wm.    Moore,  Hy.  Collins. .  Metcalfe Thos.  Moyle.   ...!....!!" 

Lobo .  R.  Adamson,    Delaware H.  Johnstone 

Carodoc H.  Clinch Nissouri J.  Scatcherd.   . 

Ekfrid G.  J.  Smith Dorchester N.  Wm.  Niles.. 

Mosa Neil  Munro »          S.  Jacob  Cline 

Williams ....  Geo.  Shipley Westminster.  Rich.  Frank,  P.  McClary. 

This  list  does  not  include  the  names  of  representatives  from  the 
County  of  Elgin. 

The  members  of  the  Council  of  the  united.  Counties  of  Middlesex 
and  Elgin  in  1853  are  named  as  follows  : — Wm.  Barker  and  Thomas 
Holmes,  of  the  Town  of  London ;  W.  Moore  and  Henry  Collins 
London;  Garner  Ellwood  and  Peter  McClary,  Westminster;  Wm' 
Niles,  Dorchester;  Thomas  Kirkpatrick,  Mosa;  Donald  Eraser 
Williams;  Kobert  Pegley,  Adelaide;  Ambrose  Willson  and  Weaver 
Bay  ham;  David  Hanvey  and  Hugh  Mclntyre,  Yarmouth;  Levi 
Fowler  and  Nichol  McCall,  Southwold;  Moses  Willey  and  John 
Clark  Dunwich,  John  Me  Bride,  Aldborough ;  Edmund  McCready 
Dorchester  South,  and  John  Elliott,  of  the  new  town  of  Vienna  In 
1854  the  changes  were  :— Murray  Anderson  replaced  Holmes  for  the 

hSL  VD  2ni,,Wm'  E1H0tt  rePlaced  Collins  for  London;  Eli 
Griffith  replaced  Ellwood  for  Westminster  in  June,  1853 ;  Eobert 
Craik,  with  W.  H.  Niles,  represented  Dorchester  N. ;  John  McKellar 



Lobo ;  S.  M.  Fowle,  Delaware ;  J.  Sparling,  Mosa ;  Louis  Mott  was 
the  first  Second  Councillor  from  Williams ;  Hiram  Dell  replaced 
Pegley,  of  Adelaide,  while  John  Scatcherd,  then  Warden,  represented 
Nissouri  W.  This  Council  of  1854  represented  Middlesex  ex- 

In  September,  1853,  Councillors  Clinch  and  McClary  moved  that 
the  Warden  call  a  general  meeting  to  consider  the  by-law  granting  aid 
to  the  Port  Stanley  Eailroad. 

In  November,  1853,  Councillor  Kirkpatrick  moved  to  appropriate 
£100  to  carry  out  the  ceremony  of  opening  the  G.  W.  Eailroad. 

On  September  23, 1853,  By-law  22,  authorizing  the  issue  of  £20,000 
debentures  for  the  improvement  of  roads,  was  passed.  Thomas 
Moyle,  Chairman  of  the  Finance  Committee,  in  his  report  of  January 
27,  1854,  suggested  the  advertisement  of  a  by-law  for  raising  £25,000* 
for  stock  in  the  London  and  Port  Stanley  Eailroad. 

The  Eailroad  Committee  of  the  Council,  reporting  in  May,  1854, 
through  Holcroft  Church,  favored  the  purchase  of  the  Ontario  and! 
Erie  Eailroad  and  of  two  steamers,  so  as  to  prevent  the  building  of  a 
southern  line,  and  thus  build  up  the  stock  of  the  Great  Western  Eailroad, 
in  which  the  county  was  interested.  The  question  of  consolidating 
this  Great  Western  road  with  the  Grand  Trunk  road  was  decried,  the 
Committee  stating  plainly  that  such  a  deal  would  create  a  monopoly 
and  should  not  be  entertained.  In  December,  1854,  a  memorial  to 
Samuel  Laing,  of  the  English  stockholders  in  the  G.  W.  Eailroad,  set 
forth  the  pleasure  which  the  completion  of  the  road,  nearly  twelve 
months  before,  gave  the  people  of  Middlesex,  and  the  pain  which 
numerous  accidents,  delays  in  shipment  of  freight,  and  other  failures, 
caused  since  the  opening  of  the  road ;  asked  the  co-operation  of  the 
British  stockholders  in  obtaining  a  new  management.  The  accident 
at  Baptiste  Creek  in  1854  caused  the  death  of  more  than  fifty  per- 
sons, and  many  more  maimed  for  life. 

In  December,  1855,  the  city  and  county  arbitration  meeting  was 
held,  Thomas  Moyle  representing  the  county,  Wm.  Barker  the  city, 
with  Thomas  Shenston,  of  Woodstock,  the  third  arbitrator.  The  result 
of  this  method  of  settling  disagreements  is  given  in  the  history  of 
London  City. 

The  Council  of  1855  comprised  William  Fitzgerald  and  William 
Shoebottom,  of  London ;  Eichard  Frank  and  Benjamin  Cook,  of  West- 
minster ;  Geo.  S.  Eogers,  of  Delaware ;  Hugh  Carmichael,  of  Lobo  ; 
H.  Clinch  and  Arch.  Campbell,  of  Caradoc ;  John  Mclntyre,  of  Ekfrid ; 
Donald  Waters  and  Hugh  Fraser,  of  Williams ;  Henry  E.  Archer,  of 
Mosa;  William  Miller,  of  Adelaide;  William  Moore,  of  Nissouri 
West;  Thomas  Moyle,  of  Metcalfe;  Eobert  Craik  and  Donald 
McFarlane,  of  Dorchester  North. 

In  January,  1856,  Councilmen  Keefer,  Bateman,  Hunter,  Eogers, 
Craik,  Cartwright,  Mclntyre,  Fitzgerald,  O'Neil,  Moyle,  Archer, 
Edwards,  Woodward,  Burch,  Cook,  Waters,  Fraser,  and  Moore  qualified. 


The  Council  of  1857,  was  made  up  as  follows  :  Robert  Adamson, 
John  Bateman,  Robert  Craik,  Benjamin  Cook,  Thomas  Cuddy,  Hugh 
Fraser,  James  Gardiner,  David  Hunter,  William  Moore,  Thomas 
Moyle,  William  McKinley,  William  McMillan,  John  Mclntyre.  Wm. 
Shoebottom,  R.  M.  Varnam,  Donald  Waters  and  Jacob  Weylor.  Robt. 
Craik  was  elected  Warden. 

The  Reeves  and  Deputy-Reeves  of  1858  is  given  by  Townships  :— 

Adelaide.   .  Thomas  Cuddy,  Jas.    Keefer,  Caradoc Arch.  Campbell,  I.  B.  Burwell 

Delaware-  .  Jacob  Weylor Dorchester..  R.  M.  Varnum,  B.V.Demaray 

Ekfrid John  Mclntyre Lobo Robt.  Adamson,  John  Edwards 

London W.  Shoebottom,  R.H.  O'Neil.  Metcalfe Thomas  Moyle 

Mosa Charles  Rolls. . .  T.  Robinson.  Nissouri W.  R.  Vining 

Westm'str..  Benj.  Cook John  Nixon.  Williams.. . .  John  Topping.  .  A.  Elliot 

The  municipal  election  for  1859  returned  to  the  Council  R.  P. 
Tooth,  Reeve,  and  William  Thorpe,  Deputy,  from  Adelaide;  John 
McDougal  vice  Edwards,  of  Lobo ;  John  Marshall  vice  Varnum,  of 
Dorchester;  Thomas  Hughes  vice  Moyle,  of  Metcalfe;  R.  H.  O'Neil 
and  C.  Coombs,  of  'London ;  Charles  Scott,  Deputy,  of  Nissouri ; 
Malcolm  Campbell  vice  Mclntyre,  of  Ekfrid  ;  Alex.  Levie,  of  Wil- 
liams, vice  Topping ;  Neil  Munro.  of  Mosa,  vice  Rolls,  with  Charles 
Armstrong  vice  Robinson.  In  the  other  cases,  the  old  members  were 

The  members  of  the  Council  of  1860  were  M.  S.  Ayers,  Alex. 
Levie,  John  H.  Munroe,  W.  R.  Vining,  Robert  Dreaney,  John  Irvine, 
R.  H.  O'Neil,  Thomas  Hughes,  J.  Weylor,  M.  Campbell,  Wm.  Wells, 
of  Williams  E.,  Arch.  Campbell,  R.  P.  Tooth  with  James  Keefer, 
Reeve  of  Strathroy,  Reeves,  and  Alex.  Kerr,  James  Gardiner,  Charles 
Scott,  John  McArthur,  W.  R.  Thorpe,  Wm.  McPee,  Arthur  Seabrook 
and  C.  Coombs,  Deputy-Reeves.  Archibald  Campbell  was  elected 
Warden  and  re-elected  in  1861  and  also  in  1862. 

On  Jan.  26,  1861,  a  letter  from  the  Clerk  of  Biddulph,  relating  to 
running  trains  on  the  Sabbath,  was  read,  and  immediately  Councillors 
D.  Waters  and  J.  Levie  moved  and  seconded  a  resolution  that  the 
Council  petition  the  Dominion  Parliament  to  amend  Chapter  104  of 
the  Consolidated  Statutes  of  Upper  Canada,  so  as  to  prevent  the 
running  of  trains  on  Sunday. 

The  Council  of  1861  comprised  Neil  Munro,  Reeve,  and  John  H. 
Munroe,  Deputy,  of  Mosa  ;  A.  Campbell  and  I.  B.  Burwell,  of 
•Caradoc ;  Wm.  Rapley,  of  Strathroy ;  Alexander  Levie,  of  Williams 
W. ;  William  Wells,  of  Williams  E. ;  Thomas  Hughes,  of  Metcalfe ; 
Robert  Dreaney  and  James  Craig,  of  Dorchester ;  Thomas  Curdy,  of 
Adelaide;  M.  S.  Ayers  and  A.  Kerr,  of  Westminster;  M.  Campbell, 
of  Ekfrid  ;  W.  R.  Vining  and  Charles  Scott,  of  North  Nissouri ;  John 
McDougal  and  L.  E.  Shipley,  of  Lobo. 

The  Council  of  1862  was  made  up  as  follows :— Adelaide,  Wm. 
Murdock;  Caradoc,  A.  Campbell  and  John  Thompson;  Delaware, 
Thomas  Beveridge  ;  Dorchester,  Wm.  McKee  and  R.  Dreaney  ;  Ekfrid, 



Malcolm  Campbell ;  Lobo,  John  Me  Arthur  and  R.  Adamson  ;  London, 
Hamilton  Dunlap  and  C.  C.  Coombs ;  Metcalfe,  Thomas  Hughes ; 
Mosa,  J.  H.  Munroe  and  Nathaniel  Currie ;  Nissouri,  James  Evans 
and  Moses  Wilson;  Williams  W.,  Alex.  Levie ;  Williams  E.,  A.  C. 
Stewart ;  Westminster,  Merrill  S.  Ayers  and  John  Nixon,  and  Strath- 
roy,  Wm.  Rapley. 

In  1863  the  members  of  the  Council  were  Messrs.  Ayers,  Bate- 
man,  Dreaney,  Dunlap,  Hughes,  Levie,  Moore,  N.  Munro,  Mclntyre, 
McArthur,  O'Neil,  Rapley,  Smith,  Stewart  and  Weylor,  Reeves  ;  with 
James  Banning,  Coombs,  Dobie,  Evans,  Faulds,  Hodgins,  McDougal, 
McKee,  Nixon  and  Robinson,  Deputies.  C.  C.  Coombs  was  elected 
Warden.  At  this  session  Biddulph  and  McGillivray  were  represented, 
the  first  by  Smith  and  Robinson,  the  second  by  O'Neil  and  Hodgins. 

The  act  relating  to  the  admission  of  the  Townships  of  Biddulph 
and  McGillivray  contains  the  following  paragraph  : — "  Neither  of  the 
said  townships  shall  be  liable  for  any  debt  contracted  by  the  County  of 
Middlesex  for  the  constructing  or  gravelling  of  roads  outside  of  the 
said  townships,  or  which  may  at  any  time  within  the  next  twenty-one 
years  be  constructed  by  such  county  for  the  purpose  aforesaid." 

The  Council  of  1864  comprised  the  following  members  : — 

Adelaide . . 
Biddulph  . 
Caradoc  . . 



London . . 

T.  Cuddy  

R.  H.  O'Neil.  Tim.  Toohey. 
T.  Northcott  J.  Thompson 

J.  Weylor 

R.  Dreaney . .  W.  Thompson 
J.  Mclntyre..  J.  D.  Cornell 
J.  McArthur.  L.  Shipley. . . 
H.  Dunlap..  T.  Routledge. 

Metcalfe  . . .  T.  Moyle 

Mosa J.  H.  Munroe  A.  Armstrong 

McGillivray.  not  recorded 

Nissouri ....  J.  Evans. . . .  M.  Wilson. . . 

Strathroy..    W.  Rapley 

Westminster  M.  S.  Ayers..  Abel  Cooper.. 

Williams  E..  not  recorded 

Williams  W.  R.  Mclntyre 

The  Council  of  1865  comprised  the  following  members: — Wm. 
Miller,  Reeve,  and  John  Tver,  Deputy,  of  Adelaide ;  R.  H.  O'Neil  and 
John  McFalls,  of  Biddulph ;  John  Bateman  and  Alex.  Campbell,  of 
Caradoc;  Colin  Campbell,  of  Delaware;  Robert  Dreaney  and  Wm. 
Thompson,  of  Dorchester ;  John  Mclntyre  and  D.  Taylor,  of  Ekfrid ; 
John  McArthur  and  John  Scott,  of  Lobo;  Thomas  Routledge  and  W. 
H.  Ryan,  of  London ;  Thomas  Moyle,  of  Metcalfe ;  John  H.  Munroe 
and  Nathaniel  Currie,  of  Mosa;  James  S.  Smith  and  Andrew 
Robinson,  of  McGillivray;  James  Evans  and  Moses  Wilson,  of 
Nissouri;  Wm.  Rapley,  of  Strathroy;  M.  S.  Ayers  and  John  Nixon, 
of  Westminster;  John  Levie  and  Alex.  Stewart,  of  Williams  E.,  and 
E.  R.  Dobie,  of  Williams  W.  John  H.  Munroe  was  elected  Warden. 
The  report  of  the  Finance  Committee  made  in  December,  1865, 
points  out  an  item  of  $2,970.10  paid  during  the  year,  for  building  and 
furnishing  the  County  Clerk's  and  other  offices,  and  the  Council 

TOWNSHIPS.     REEVES — 1866.     DEPUTIES — 1866.     REEVES — 1867.     DEPUTIES— 1867 

Adelaide W*  Murdock  . .     Wm.  Miller John  Iver L.  Cleverdon. 

Biddulph R.  H.  O'Neil..     Chas.  Gowan R.  H.  O'Neil..     Thos.  Hodgins. 

Caradoc John  Bateman.     J.  Thompson J.  Thompson..     J.  B.  Burwell. 



TOWNSHIPS.     REEVES— 1868.    DEPUTIES— 1866.     REEVES— 1867.     DEPUTIES— 1867. 

H.  Johnson  .  .  . 


Delaware  .... 

R  Tooley 

R.  Dreaney  

R.  Toolev. 

Dorchester  N. 

M.  Campbell.  .. 

D.  Dobie  

M.  Campbell  .  . 

A.  Campbell. 


L.  E.  Shipley.. 

M.  McArthur.... 

D.  McArthur.. 

M.  McArthur. 

T    Routledge  .  . 

James  Bell  

T.  Routledge   .  - 

(  James  Bell  . 
|  W.  Shoebottom. 
\  TT    "Robinson 


AT  n«a 

Thoa.  Movie  .  . 
N   Currie 

A.  Armstrong  .  .  . 

Thos.  Moyle.  .  . 
N.  Currie  

l/r.  Langford. 
M.  G.  Munroe. 

McGillivray  .. 
Nissouri  W.. 

J.  S.  Smith..  .  . 
J.  Henderson  .  . 
Alex    Robbs 

Robert  Fisher..  .  . 
W.  Bell  

John  Corbett.. 
Jas.  Evans   .  .  . 
R.  Nicholson  . 

A.  Robinson. 
A.  W.  Browne, 

Williftmfl  V 

John  Levie  

John  Levie  .... 

Alex.  C.  Stewart. 

Williams  W.. 


S.  McLeod.... 
M    8.  Avfirs.  . 

David  Brock  
John  Nixon.  .  , 

S.  McLeod.... 
John  Nixon  .... 

Richard  Peck. 
\  D.  B.  Burch. 

The  county  officials  in  1866  were  J.  E.  Small,  Judge ;  Wm.  Glass, 
Sheriff;  John  McBeth,  Clerk  of  County  Court;  James  Ferguson, 
Registrar ;  M.  S.  Ay  era,  Warden ;  Adarn  Murray,  Treasurer ;  C.  W. 
Connor,  Engineer;  James  Keefer,  Clerk,  and  Sam.  Stansfield,  Janitor. 

In  June,  1867,  the  Council  was  asked  to  petition  the  Government 
for  a  prohibitory  duty  on  hops  imported  from  the  United  States ;  but 
the  committee  reported  in  favor  of  deferring  such  petition.  Sub- 
sequently a  motion  to  forward  such  petition  was  lost. 

In  December,  1867,  the  Council  petitioned  the  Legislature  to  em- 
power a  tax  of  six  cents  per  acre  on  all  unoccupied  wild  lands,  for  the 
special  purpose  of  being  applied  on  the  improvement  of  roads  and 
bridges  in  the  vicinity  of  such  lands. 

In  1868,  Roger  Hedley  was  Reeve  of  Lobo;  Thomas  Northcott, 
Deputy  of  Caradoc.  Geo.  Robson  and  John  Kearns  replaced  Bell  and 
Shoebottom,  of  London.  John  Water  worth,  Reeve  of  Mosa,  with  D. 
Mclntyre,  Deputy ;  Wm.  Wright,  Deputy  Reeve  of  McGillivray ;  W. 
R.  Vining,  Reeve  of  Nissouri,  with  A.  W.  Browne,  Deputy ;  James  D. 
Dewan  was  Reeve  of  Strathroy ;  John  Waters,  of  Williams  E.,  with 
John  Levie,  Deputy;  while  William  Neal  was  Reeve  of  the  new 
Town  of  Wardsville. 

The  Treasurer's  office  was  robbed  on  the  night  of  Feb.  8, 1868.  On 
March  31  the  Council  exonerated  Treasurer  Murray,  as  the  loss, 
$1,203.75,  had  been  trebly  saved  to  the  county  previously  by  his  ex- 
cellent silver  deal. 

The  Council  of  1869  was  made  up  as  follows— the  Reeve  and 
Deputy  Reeve  being  named  in  the  above  order  of  townships : — 
Lawrence  Cleverdon  and  John  Wyley ;  R.  H.  O'Neil  and  John 
Hodgins ;  Thomas  Northcott  and  Thomas  Faulds  :  Henrv  Johnson,  no 
deputy  ;  Richard  Tooley  and  James  B.  Lane;  Hector  McFarlane  and 
George  E.  Elliott ;  Malcolm  McArthur  and  Alex  McKellar  ;  Thomas 
Routledge  with  Deputy  Reeves  Thomas  Langford,  Edward  Robinson, 
John  Kearns  and  William  H.  Ryan ;  Robert  Brown  and  George 
Lamon ;  John  Watterworth  and  Alex.  Armstrong ;  John  Corbett  and 



William  Wright;  Alex.  W.  Browne  and  R  W.  Giffin ;  James  D. 
Dewan  and  John  Frank ;  John  Waters  and  John  Levie ;  Simon 
McLeod  and  John  Dawson;  John  Nixon  with  William  McKerlie  and 
Henry  Anderson,  Deputies  of  Westminster,  and  William  Veal,  of 

The  Council  of  1870  comprised  17  Reeves  and  19  Deputy-Reeves. 
The  roll  in  the  order  of  townships  is  as  follows: — William  Murdock 
and  John  Wyley ;  R.  H.  O'Neil  and  John  Hodgins  ;  Thomas  Northcott 
and  Godfrey  McGugan ;  Thomas  H.  Brettle,  no  deputy ;  Richard 
Tooley  and  James  B.  Lane  ;  H.  McFarlane  and  G.  J.  Coulthard  ;  A. 
McKellar  and  Alex.  Gray ;  W.  H.  Ryan  with  Deputies  James  Bell, 
John  Kearns,  John  Jackson  and  F.  Lewis  ;  Robert  Brown,  of  Metcalfe, 
and  Arch.  Munroe ;  John  Watterworth  and  David  'Gibb ;  William 
Wright  and  John  Rosser ;  A.  W.  Browne  and  R.  W.  Giffin  ;  James  D. 
Dewan  and  J.  Wilson  ;  John  Waters  and  John  Levie  ;  Simon  McLeod 
and  John  Dawson ;  John  Nixon  with  John  S.  Little  and  Eli  S.  Jarvis  ; 
Henry  Henderson,  of  Wardsville. 

The  changes  in  the  County  Council  of  1871  were  as  follows : — 
Arthur  Seabrook,  qualified  as  Reeve  of  Delaware ;  Robert  Dreaney, 
of  Dorchester  N. ;  A.  Mclntyre,  as  Deputy  of  Ekfrid,  vice  Coulthard ; 
L.  E.  Shipley,  vice  Gray,  of  Lobo ;  Wm.  Kernohan  and  Wm.  Shoe- 
bottom,  Deputies  of  London,  vice  Jackson  and  Lewis  ;  A.  Armstrong, 
vice  D.  Gibb;  John  Corbett  and  Andrew  Erskine,  of  McGillivray; 
A.  W.  Browne  and  Wm.  Moore ;  Joseph  Wilson  and  C.  G.  Scott, 
representing  Strathroy ;  Thomas  Elliott,  vice  John  Dawson,  Deputy  of 
Williams  West,  and  Malcolm  G.  Munroe,  Reeve  of  Wardsville.  The 
other  townships  holding  their  representatives  of  1870. 

The  changes  in  the  Council  of  1871  for  1872  show  John  Hodgins, 
Reeve,  and  John  Dagg,  Deputy  of  Biddulph ;  W.  H.  Niles,  Deputy  of 
Dorchester ;  C.  J.  Campbell,  of  Ekfrid ;  Wm.  Shoebottom,  Reeve,  with 
S.  T.  Shoebottom,  jr.,  Wm.  Patrick,  Wm.  Kernohan  and  Thomas 
Greene,  Deputies  of  London;  R  H.  O'Neil,  Reeve  of  Lucan;  R. 
Brown,  Reeve,  and  R.  Moyle,  Deputy  of  Metcalfe ;  J.  S.  Walker  and 
James  Banning,  of  Mosa ;  J.  B.  Fram,  Deputy  of  Nissouri  W. ;  Alex. 
Robb,  Reeve  of  Strathroy;  Thomas  Elliott,  Reeve,  and  D.  Brock, 
Deputy  of  West  Williams ;  James  Armstrong,  Reeve  of  Westminster, 
and  S.  McLeod,  of  Parkhill.  Messrs.  Murdock,  Northcott,  Seabrooke, 
Dreaney,  McFarlane,  McKellar,  Corbett,  Brown,  Waters  and  Munroe, 
Reeves,  with  Wyley,  McGugan,  Shipley,  Erskine,  Scott,  Levie,  Little 
and  Jarvis,  Deputies,  holding  over. 

The  County  Council  of  1873  and  1874  comprised  the  following 
representatives : — 



Adelaide John  Morgan John  Wyley. 

Biddulph John  Hodgins John  Dagg. 

Caradoc  G.  McGugan Andrew  McEvoy. 

Delaware T.  C.  Rodgers 

g4  HISTORY   OF    THE 


'—  N g£S  Sane".  . ! ! ! ! !  [JMSSI* 

'W.  Shoebottor 
W.  Shoebottom,  sr -<  T.  Greene,  J.  M.  "O'Neil, 

! '.      '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.  Andrew  Erskine  '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.  J.  Marr,  J.  Robinson. 

Metcalfe    '      Same  as  1872 

.B.  Watterworth A.  Armstrong. 

Nissouri,'  W  I!'.'.'.'.. A.  W.  Browne     James  McLeod. 

New  bury Thomas  Robinson 

Parkhill.. Win.  Shoults 

Strathroy Alex.  Robb Thomas  Fawcett. 

Williams  E John  Waters 13.  C.  Mclntyre. 

Williams,   W Andrew  Elliott David  Brock. 

Wardsville M.  G.  Munroe m 

Westminster James  Armstrong E.  S.  Jarvis,  J.  McGregor. 


Adelaide John  Morgan John  Wyley. 

Biddulph John  Hodgins John  Dagg. 

Caradoc Andrew  McEvoy Eli  Griffith. 

Delaware F.  C.  Rogers 

Dorchester,  N James  B.  Lane W.  H.  Niles. 

Kkfrid  .  .Geo.  J.  Coulthard J.  W.  Campbell. 

IWm.    Kernohan,    J.    O'Neil, 
London Thomas  Routledge j  j   Peters>  c   w  Sifton 

Lucan Thomas  Dight 

Lobo Alex.  McKellar L.  E.  Shipley. 

Metcalfe Robert  Brown Thomas  Lightfoot. 

Mosa. Ben.  Watterworth Alex.  Armstrong. 

McGillivray .Andrew  Erskine James  Marr,  J.  Robinson. 

Nissouri,  W A.  W.  Browne James  McLeod. 

Newbury  Wm.  Clements 

Parkhill     Simon  McLeod 

Strathroy Charles  Murray Alex.  Robb. 

Williams,  E     John  Waters  John  Levie. 

Williams,  W  Andrew  Elliott 

Wardsville W.  D.  Hammond 

Westminster James  Armstrong E.  S.  Jarvis,  J.  McGregor. 

Lionel  E.  Shipley  was  elected  Warden,  succeeded  in  1875  by  John 

In  1875  Gilbert  Harris  was  elected  Keeve  of  Delaware ;  Geo.  C. 
Elliot,  of  Ekfrid ;  John  M.  O'Neil,  of  London;  John  Corbett,  of  Mc- 
Gillivray ;  William  Rapley,  of  Strathroy ;  E.  E.  Dobie,  of  Williams 
W.,  Thomas  English,  of  Wardsville ;  John  W.  Campbell,  of  the  new 
town  of  Glencoe ;  A.  M.  Eoss,  of  the  new  town  of  London  East ;  J. 
D.  Saunby,  of  the  new  town  of  Petersville,  and  Skackelton  Hay,  of 
the  new  town  of  Ailsa  Craig. 

The  Deputies  were  James  Gilmour,  of  Dorchester ;  H.  Stevenson, 
Ekfrid;  A.  D.  Osborne,  C.  Guest,  C.  W.  Sifton  and  John  Peters, 
London;  J.  W.  Eosser  and  Wm.  Dixon,  of  McGillivray;  G.  W. 
Keast,  of  Nissouri;  Chester  G.  Scott,  of  Strathroy;  J.  Mathers,  with 
McGregor,  of  Westminster,  and  Peter  Allister,  of  London  East.  In 
the  other  townships  the  Eeeves  and  Deputies  of  1874  were  returned. 


The  Reeves  of  the  Council  of  1876  were  :  —  John  Morgan,  John 
Hodgins,  A.  M.  McEvoy,  Andrew  Sharpe,  J.  B.  Lane,  Geo.  C.  Elliott, 
J.  M.  O'Neil,  A.  McKellar,  R  Brown,  B.  Watterworth,  John  Corbett, 
J.  B.  Fram,  of  Westminster;  John  Levie,  East  Williams;  Thomas 
Elliott,  West  Williams;  Wm.  Ripley,  Strathroy;  Thomas  English, 
Wardsville  ;  Thomas  Robinson,  Newbury  ;  Thomas  Dight,  Lucan  ;  W. 
Shoiilts,  Parkhill  ;  J.  W.  Campbell,  Glencoe  ;  Murray  Anderson, 
London  East  ;  J.  D.  Saunby,  Petersville,  and  J.  H.  Priestly,  Ailsa 
Craig.  The  Deputy  of  Strathroy  was  :  —  F.  J.  Craig,  and  of  London 
East,  Thomas  Muir.  Wm.  Brock,  John  Dagg  and  Eli  Griffith,  were 
Deputies  of  Adelaide,  Biddulph,  and  Caradoc,  respectively  ;  James 
Gilmour,  of  Dorchester  ;  A.  Stevens,  of  Ekfrid,  A.  D.  Osborne,  C.  W. 
Sifton,  C.  Guest,  and  W.  Elliott,  of  London;  while  C.  M.  Simmons, 
T.  Lightfoot,  A.  Armstrong,  J.  W.  Rosser,  Wm.  Dixon,  John  H. 
Haynes,  James  Mathers,  John  Nixon,  George  Routledge,  and  Peter 
Gordon,  representing  the  other  townships  as  Deputy-Reeves.  James 
Armstrong  was  elected  Warden. 

The  changes  in  the  Board  of  1876  were  :  —  Wm.  Murdock  vice 
Morgan  ;  W.  H.  Ryan  vice  John  Hodgins,  with  W.  S.  Stanley  vice 
Deputy  Dagg  ;  T.  Northcott  vice  A.  M.  McEvoy,  with  Jarnes  Gamble 
and  Thomas  Nagle,  Deputies  ;  C.  J.  Campbell  vice  Elliott,  of  Ekfrid, 
with  James  Pole,  Deputy  ;  A.  D.  Osborne,  of  London,  with  J.  M. 
O'Neil,  Charles  Guest,  R.  Geary,  and  D.  McMillan,  Deputies  ;  Michael 
Beckett  vice  Deputy  Lightfoot,  of  Metcalfe  ;  J.  Robinson  vice  John 
Corbett,  with  James  Marr,  Deputy  of  McGillivray.  James  Armstrong 
was  still  Reeve  of  London,  with  J.  Nixon,  John  M  cGregor,  and  G. 
Routledge,  Deputies.  Trafford  Campbell  replaced  Peter  Gordon  as 
Deputy  of  Williams  East  ;  W.  H.  Hutchins  represented  Parkhill  ; 
Nathaniel  Currie,  Glencoe  ;  T.  G.  S.  Nevilles,  Ailsa  Craig,  and  Isaac 
Waterman,  of  London  East,  with  William  Stanfield,  Deputy.  The 
other  townships  and  villages  were  represented  as  in  1876. 

TOWNSHIP.  REEVES—  1878.  DEPUTIES  —  1878. 

Adelaide  ................  John  Wyley  .............  James  Thompson. 

Biddulph  ................  W.  H.  Ryan  ............  W.  D.  Stanley. 

Caradoc  ..................  Eli  Griffith  _____  ..........  D.  Leitch  and  M.  McGugaii. 

Delaware  ................  Bruin  Cornell  ............ 

Dorchester  North  .........  J.  B.  Lane         ...........  James  Gilmour. 

Ekfrid  ...................  C.  J.  Campbell  ..........   Daniel  McDougal. 

Lobo  ...................  Alex.  McKellar  ...........  C.  M.  Simmons. 

A.D.Osbo»rne  ........... 

Metcalfe  .................  Thomas  Hughes  .........  Michael  Beckett. 

Mosa  ........  ............  B.  Watterworth  ..........  Alex.  Armstrong. 

McGillivray  ..............  John  Robinson  ..........  J.  Marr,  W.  H.  Taylor. 

Nissouri  West  ............  J.  B.  Fram  ...............  J.  H.  Haynes. 

Westminster  .............  James  Armstrong  .........  {£  &/g 

East  Williams  ............  John  Levie  .....  .........  Trafford  Campbell. 

West  Williams  ...........  Thomas  Elliott  ...........  John  Barrett. 

Strathroy  ................  Wm.  Rapley  ..............  D.  M.  Cameron. 




REEVES— 1878. 

DEPUTIES — 1878. 

London  East Isaac  Waterman T.  W.  Bartlett. 

Petersville A.  J.  B.  Macdonald 

Wardsville Thomas  English 

Newbury Alex.  Graham 

Glencoe N.  Currie 

Parkhill W.  Shoults 

Ailsa  Craig T.  G.  S.  Nevilles 

Lucan W.  H.  Hutchins 

The  Reeves  of  the  Council  of  1879  were,  in  the  alphabetical  order 
of  townships: — John  Morgan,  W.  H.  Ryan,  Malcolm  McGugan, 
Andrew  Sharpe,  James  Gilmour,  Allen  Stevenson,  L.  E.  Shipley, 
Donald  McMillan,  succeeded  by  Thomas  Routledge,  B.  Watterworth, 
Mosa ;  Thomas  Hughes,  Metcalfe ;  John  Robinson,  McGillivray ;  J. 
B.  Fram,  Nissouri;  James  Armstrong,  Thomas  Shipley  and  Peter 
Stewart.  The  village  Reeves  were  F.  J.  Craig,  Strathroy;  I.  Water- 
man, London  E. ;  Thomas  English,  Wardsville,  succeeded  by  William 
Shepherd,  N.  Currie,  Glencoe;  Wm.  Shoults,  Parkhill;  W.  K 
Atkinson,  Ailsa  Craig;  W.  S.  Hutchinson,  Lucan,  succeeded  by  W. 
Stanley,  A.  J.  B.  McDonald,  Petersville,  and  Thomas  Robinson, 
Newbury.  The  Deputy- Reeves,  in  alphabetical  order  of  townships, 
were  T.  0.  Curry,  Wm.  D.  Stanley,  Dugald  Leitch,  Henry  Sutherland, 
not  represented,  John  Durand,  John  A.  Dobie,  Robert  Boston,  of 
Lobo  ;  Edward  Robinson,  Thomas  Langford,  R.  W.  Jackson  and  Joseph 
Marshall,  of  London ;  H.  Gough,  Metcalfe ;  A.  Armstrong,  Mosa ; 
James  Marr  and  W.  H.  Taylor,  McGillivray;  Charles  Fitzgerald, 
Nissouri;  Geo.  Routledge,  John  Nixon  and  John  McGregor,  West- 
minster; Arch.  Campbell,  Williams  E.,  and  John  Barrett,  Williams 
W.  D.  M.  Cameron  was  Deputy  from  Strathroy;  J.  W.  Bartlett 
and  J.  Wright  from  London  East.  The  latter  was  succeeded  by  S.  A. 
Adams.  James  Gilmour  was  elected  Warden. 

The  Council  of  1880  was  made  up  as  follows  :— 


.  J.  Morgan  
.  W.  H.  Ryan.  .  . 

T.  0.  Curry. 
W.  D.  Stanley. 

Strathroy  .  .  . 


.  M.  McGugan.  .  . 

/D.  Leitch. 
\R.  Cade. 

London  E.  . 


.  A.  Sharpe  


Dorchester  . 

.  J.  Durand  
James  Pole 

R.  Venning. 

J  •   .A..  JJOulC. 



C.  M.  Simmons 

Robert  Boston. 

Newbury  .  . 

fE    Robinson. 


London.  .  .  . 

.  T.  Routledge  .  . 

I  T.  Langford. 
1  R.  W.  Jackson. 

Ailsa  Craig..  . 

U.  Marshall. 

Petersville  .  .  . 


B.  Watterworth 

GM  oTntvrp 


Robert  Brown  .  . 

•    JxlUlLl  Ljr  To* 

Henry  Gough. 


J.  Robinson  

/J.  Marr.  " 
\W.  H.  Taylor. 

Nissouri  .  .  . 

J.  B.  Fram  

G.  W.  Keast. 


F.  J.  Craig. 

D.  M.  Cameron,  dep. 

Isaac  Waterman. 

Chas.  Lilley,  dep. 

Wm.  Belton,  dep. 
.   W.  Shepherd. 

Dr.  Graham. 

Nathaniel  Currie. 

W.  Shoults. 

J.  Rosser. 
.  W.  Stanley. 

W.  H.  Bartram. 





Westminster  J.  Armstrong  . . 

Williams  E..  T.  G.  Shipley. 
Williams  W.  Peter  Stewart. 


{J.  Nixon. 
G.  Routledge. 
J.  McGregor. 
J.  Mills. 
A.  Campbell. 
John  Barrett. 

John  Morgan  was  elected  Warden,  his  vote  being  25,  against  19 
for  Watterworth  and  5  for  Craig. 

The  changes  in  the  Council  for  1881  are  thus  given: — Wm.  D. 
Stanley,  Eeeve,  with  Samuel  R.  Hodgins,  Deputy,  of  Biddulph; 
Malcolm  McGregor,  Henry  Sutherland  and  Thomas  Nagle,  of  Cara- 
doc;  James  H.  Rouse,  Deputy  of  Dorchester;  John  Mclntyre, 
Deputy  of  Ekfrid ;  Alex.  McKeller,  Reeve  of  Lobo ;  Duncan  Camp- 
bell, Deputy  of  Mosa ;  James  Bennett,  Deputy  of  Metcalfe ;  Andrew 
Robinson,  Deputy  of  W.  McGillivray ;  A.  W.  Browne,  Reeve,  and 
Alex.  McMartin,  Deputy  of  JSTissouri;  John  McEwen,  Deputy  of 
Williams  E. ;  John  Barrett,  Reeve,  and  Angus  McLachlin,  Deputy  of 
Williams  W. ;  D.  M.  Cameron,  Reeve,  and  James  H.  English,  Deputy 
of  Strathroy ;  Charles  Lilley  and  Peter  Toll,  of  London  East ;  Henry 
Henderson,  of  Wardsville;  John  B.  Anderson,  of  Newbury;  Isaac 
Rathburn,  of  Glencoe ;  and  Deputy  John  Platt,  of  Petersville.  With 
the  above  exceptions,  the  municipalities  were  represented  as  in  1880. 
James  Armstrong  was  elected  Warden  by  a  vote  of  27,  to  23  for 
Routledge.  In  September,  Daniel  Black  was  elected  Deputy  of  Lon- 
don, vice  Belton,  deceased,  and  Kenneth  Goodman,  Reeve  of  Parkhill, 
vice  Shoults,  resigned. 

The  Council  of  1882  was  composed  of  the  following-named 
Reeves  and  Deputy-Reeves : — 


Strathroy .   ...  D.  M.  Cameron. 
"        .     ...  J.  H.  English,  dep. 

.  W.  Rapley,  dep. 
London  E.        .  J.  W.  Bartlett 

"  .  Daniel  Black,  dep. 

.  James  Legg,  dep. 
London  W .      .  John  Platt. 

.  W.  Spencer,  dep. 
Wardsville .    .  .   Thomas  English. 

Newbury J.  B.  Anderson. 

Glencoe Nathaniel  Currie. 

Parkhill Kenneth  Goodman. 

Ailsa  Craig. . . .  Joseph  Rosser. 
Lucan Wm.  Stanley. 


Biddulph..  . 

Delaware.  .  ,  . 
Dorchester  .  . 
Ekfrid  .  .  . 


T.  0.  Curry.... 
W.  D.  Stanley. 

M.  McGugan  .  . 
A.  Sharpe 
John  Durand.  . 

James  Pole  .  .  . 
A.  McKellar  .  .  . 

Jos.  Marshall... 

B.  Watterworth 
Robert  Brown  .  . 

W.  H.  Taylor.. 
E.  Fitzgerald  .  . 

J.  Armstrong  .  . 

T.  G.  Shipley.  .  . 
Peter  Stewart  .  . 


Henry  Dale. 
S.  R.  Hodgins. 
/D.  Leitch. 
\.T.  Nagle. 

/J.  H.  Rouse 
\W.  Watcher. 
J.  A.  Dobie. 
R.  Boston. 
{Peter  Elson. 
E.  Robinson. 
T.  A.  Langford. 
R   W.  Jackson. 
D.  Campbell. 
James  Bennett. 
fH.  Darling. 
\A.  Robinson. 
A.  McMartin. 
{J.  McGregor. 
J.  Nixon. 
G.  Routledge. 
J.  Mills. 
J.  S.  McEwen. 
A.  McLachlin. 

Mosa    ..... 

Metcalfe..  .  . 
Nissouri  — 


Williams  E. 


The  Council  of  1883  presents  26  new  names  and  24  names  of  the 
Councillors  of  1882.  The  new  Eeeves  are  named  as  follows  :  —  James 
Gilmour,  Dorchester  ;  Kobert  Boston,  Lobo  ;  Richard  Moyle,  Metcalfe  ; 
Duncan  Campbell,  Mosa  ;  James  Marr,  McGillivray  ;  John  T. 
Coughlin,  Westminster  ;  John  S.  McEwen,  Williams  E.  ;  Simon 
McLeod,  Williams  W.  ;  W.  H.  Bartram,  London  West  ;  J.  H. 
McRoberts,  Lucan  ;  and  Isaac  Rathburn,  Glencoe.  The  new  Deputy 
Reeves  were  William  Turner,  of  Biddulph;  Dugald  Campbell,  of 
Caradoc,  vice  T.  Nagle  ;  Wm.  Turnbull,  of  Dorchester  ;  Zachariah 
McCallum,  of  Ekfrid  ;  B.  B.  Harris,  of  Lobo  ;  Edward  K.  Sale,  Robert 
Dreaney  and  Thomas  Robson,  of  London,  Peter  Elson  being  re  elected  ; 
Singleton  Gibb,  of  Mosa  ;  John  Patching,  of  McGillivray,  vice  Darling  ; 
Robert  Summers  and  Wm.  H.  Odell,  of  Westminster,  vice  McGregor 
and  Routledge  ;  D.  A.  Gillies,  of  Williams  E.  ;  N.  D.  Wyley,  of 
Williams  W.  D.  M.  Cameron  was  elected  Warden  by  a  vote  of  25, 
against  23  recorded  for  Stanley. 

The  roll  of  the  Council  of  1884  by  townships  and  villages,  presents 
the  following  names  :  — 


Adelaide  ...............  Duncan  A.  Campbell  ......  Patrick  Murray. 

Biddulph  .................  W.  D.  Stanley  ............  Thomas  E.  Hodgins. 

Caradoc  ..................  Malcolm  McGugan  ........  (?Uffp   L!itch' 

\.S.  McCracken. 
Delaware  ................  Andrew  Sharpe  ......... 

Dorchester  ...............  James  Gilmour  ............  John  McFarlane 

Ekfrid  ...................  John  Mclntyre  ............  J.  A.  Dobie. 

Lobo  ....................  Robert  Boston  ..........  B.  B.  Harris. 

London  ..................  Peter  Elson  .............  /*•  Sngney?lTi  R°b*on' 

\R.  E.  Powell,  J.  Bell. 
JJosa  ..........    .........  Duncan  Campbell  .........  Singleton  Gibb. 

JJetcafe  .................  James  Bennett  ...........  T.  F.  Hawken. 

Mcbilhyray  ..............  James  Marr  .............  A.  Robinson,  J.  Patchen. 

Missouri  ..................  J-  B.  Fram  ...............  Thomas  Chalmers. 

Westminster  ..............  John  T.  Coughlin  ........  (  J'  N-^°°  '/;,  MTjlls'1 

............  D.  A.  Gillies  ..............  &&2?" 

Simon  McLeod  ............  Angus  McLeish. 


Ailsa  Craig  ...............  D.  F.  Stewart.. 

Lucan  ...................  Wm.  Elwood.  .  . 

Glencoe  ..................  I.  Rathburn 

g?"J«yi  ................  J-  B.  Anderson 

Wardsville  ............  E.  Lilley 

In  the  Council  of  1885  were  fourteen  Eeeves  and  sixteen  Deputv- 
Reeves  who  served  the  previous  year.     The   Reeves  elected  in   1885 
were  James  Pole,  of  Ekfrid;  B.  Watterworth,  of  Mosa;  Henry  Gouoh 
of  Metcalfe;    Andrew  Robinson,  of  McGiUivray  ;  W.  H.   Odell,  V 
Westminster;  Dr.  J.  H.  Gardiner,  of  London  E.;  W.   W.  Fitzgerald 


of  London  W. ;  Joseph  Eosser,  of  Ailsa  Craig ;  Nathaniel  Currie,  of 
Glencoe,  and  William  Shephard,  of  Wardsville.  Of  the  new  Deputy- 
Eeeves,  C.  C.  Hodgins  represented  Biddulph ;  T.  B.  Warren,  Metcalfe ; 
John  Bradley,  vice  A.  Kobinson,  McGillivray ;  James  Henderson, 
Nissouri;  Francis  Elliott,  vice  Odell,  Westminster;  D.  McKenzie, 
Williams  E. ;  Wm.  Eapley  and  James  Bowley,  Strathroy ;  Peter  Toll 
and  Geo.  Heaman,  London  E.,  and  Wm.  Spence,  London  West. 

The  Council  of  1886  comprised  Duncan  A.  Campbell,  Win.  D. 
Stanley,  Malcolm  McGugan,  Andrew  Sharpe,  James  Gilmour,  James 
Pole,  Eobert  Boston.  Peter  Elson,  Benjamin  Watterworth,  Henry 
Gough,  Wm.  H.  Taylor,  J.  B.  Fram,  Wm.  H.  Odell,  Trafford  Campbell, 
Simon  McLeod,  L.  Cleverdon,  W.  W.  Fitzgerald,  Eichard  Shoults, 
Joseph  Eosser,  Wm.  El  wood,  Nathaniel  Currie,  Dr.  Graham,  John  Heath, 
Eeeves ;  and  Patrick  Murray,  C.  C.  Hodgins,  Dugald  Leitch,  Samuel 
McCracken,  Duncan  McLaughlin.  Bray  Willey,  Charles  Simmons, 
Eobert  Dreaney,  Thomas  E.  Eobson,  Eichard  A.  Powell,  James  Bell, 
William  Webster,  William  S.  Calvert,  John  Patchen,  John  Bradley, 
James  Henderson,  John  Nixon,  James  Mills,  Francis  Elliott,  Barnabas 
Skuse,  David  McKenzie,  John  G.  James,  Wm.  Eapley,  James  Bowley, 
E.  F.  Lacey,  Deputy-Eeeves. 

The  Council  of  1887  comprised  Duncan  A.  Campbell,  C.  C.  Hodgins, 
Samuel  McCracken,  John  Johnston,  James  Gilmour,  John  A.  Dobie, 
Peter  Elson,  Eobert  Boston,  Henry  Gough,  Benjamin  Watterworth, 
W7m.  H.  Taylor,  Edward  Fitzgerald,  John  T.  Coughlin,  Trafford  Camp- 
bell,  Simon  McLeod,  Lawrence  Cleverdon,  James  Campbell,  Eobert 
White,  Nathaniel  Currie,  Joseph  Eosser,  Alex.  Graham,  M  D.,  Wm. 
Elwood,  John  Heath,  Eeeves ;  with  Duncan  Eobertson,  P.  J.  Dewan, 
James  Gamble,  Henry  Hardy,  James  H.  Eouse,  Bray  Willey,  Eobert 
Dieaney,  Thomas  E.  Eobson,  Eichard  A.  Powell,  Eichard  Ardiel,  C.  M. 
Simmons,  Wm.  S.  Calvert,  Singleton  Gibb,  John  Patchen,  John  Bradley, 
Thomas  Duffin,  John  Nixon,  John  Mills,  Francis  Elliott,  Wm.  Gerry, 
Daniel  A.  Gillies,  A.  W.  Augustine,  Hector  Urquhart,  F.  L.  Harrison, 
Thomas  McGoey,  Deputy-Eeeves. 

The  members  of  the  Council  of  1888  are  named  in  the  sketches  of 
the  several  municipalities. 

In  January,  1887,  B.  Watterworth,  seconded  by  D.  A.  Campbell, 
moved  that  the  Petitioning  Committee  draft  a  petition  to  the 
Legislature  praying  them  to  so  amend  the  act  relating  to  the  franchise 
and  representation  of  the  people,  namely,  chapter  2  of  48  Victoria, 
section  7,  so  as  to  extend  the  privilege  to  wage  earners  of  voting  at 
municipal  elections  as  well  as  parliamentary. 

On  June  9,  1887,  E.  Boston,  seconded  by  C.  M.  Simmons,  moved 
that  the  following  members  of  this  Council  be  a  committee  to  draft  an 
address  to  Mr.  Murray  on  his  retirement  from  the  Treasurership  of  this 
County,  and  to  report  to  this  Council  the  best  means  of  showing  our 
good  will  to  Mr.  Murray  in  some  tangible  form  for  his  long  and  faith- 
ful services,  viz. : — Messrs.  S.  McLeod,  James  Gilmour,  B.  Watter- 


worth,  John  T.  Coughlin,  Peter  Elson,  Trafford  Campbell  and  the 

On  the  same  date  the  following  applications  for  the  situation  of 
County  Treasurer  were  read : — James  Grant,  Lionel  E.  Shipley,  Wm. 
H.  Odell,  Alex.  McKellar,  Wm.  D.  Stanley,  A.  M.  McEvoy,  D.  L. 
Leitch,  Francis  Parker,  and  W.  King  Dixon. 

A  special  meeting  was  held  September  8,  1887,  in  answer  to  a 
notice  sent  to  each  member  by  the  Clerk,  informing  them  that  the 
vacancy  in  the  Municipal  Council  of  Strathroy,  by  the  continued 
absence  of  Mr.  Cleverdon,  had  been  filled  by  the  election  of  D.  W. 
Vary  as  Reeve,  which  caused  a  vacancy  in  the  Wardenship  of  the 
County,  necessitating  a  meeting  of  the  Council  to  elect  a  Warden.  D. 
A.  Campbell,  seconded  by  John  Nixon,  proposed  that  Simon  McLeod, 
Reeve  of  the  Township  of  West  Williams,  be  Warden  of  the  County 
for  the  remainder  of  the  year  in  the  room  and  stead  of  L.  Cleverdon, 
whose  seat  has  been  declared  vacant  by  the  Council  of  the  local 
municipality  of  Strathroy.  In  1888  Warden  McLeod  was  re-elected. 

The  salaries  of  the  county  officials,  appointed  by  Council,  as  fixed 
in  1887,  are  as  follows :— Warden,  $300;  Jail  Physician,  $250 ; 
Manager  House  of  Refuge,  $350;  Matron,  $150;  Engineer,  $400; 
Janitor  Court  House  and  County  Buildings,  $450;  County  Treasurer, 
$1,600;  County  Clerk,  $700;  Inspector  House  of  Refuge,  $200; 
Physician  House  of  Refuge,  $200.  The  County  Commissioner,  for 
actual  service,  $3.50  per  day,  and  members  of  Council  and  auditors  of 
criminal  justice  accounts,  $2  per  day  and  mileage. 

Early  Items.— In  1842,  John  Wilson,  Q.  C ,  was  elected  first 
Warden.  John  S.  Buchanan  succeeded  him  in  1845,  and  he  was 
succeeded  by  Wm.  Niles,  who  held  the  position  from  1847  until 
1853,  when  John  Scatcherd  was  chosen.  Halcroft  Church  was 
Warden  in  1855 ;  Thos.  Moyle,  in  1856 ;  Robert  Craik,  1857 ;  Benj. 
Cook,  1858-9 ;  Arch.  Campbell,  1860-2 ;  Christopher  Coombs,  1863 ; 
M.  S.  Ayers,  1864;  John  H.  Munro,  1865.  M.  S.  Ayers  was 
elected  Warden  in  January,  1866 ;  R.  Dreaney,  in  1867 ;  Thomas 
Moyle,  1868;  Thos.  Routledge,  1869;  Richard  Tooley,  1870;  John 
Watterworth,  1871;  Malcolm  G.  Munroe,  1872  (re-elected  in  1873); 
Lionel  E.  Shipley,  1874  ;  John  Waters,  1875  ;  James  Armstrong,  1876  ; 
JohnLevie,  1877;  James  Gilmour,  1879;  John  Morgan,  1880;  Jas. 
Armstrong,  188 L;  Joseph  Marshall,  1882;  D.  M.  Cameron,  1883; 
W.  D.  Stanley,  1884;  Malcolm  McGugan,  1885,  B.  Watterworth, 
1886;  Lawrence  Cleverdon,  1887.  In  September,  1887,  Simon 
McLeod  was  elected,  vice  Cleverdon. 

County  Buildings.— On  October  15,  1792,  an  act  for  building  a 
jail  and  court-house  in  every  district  of  Upper  Canada,  and  for  alter- 
ing the  name  of  such  districts  was  passed.  Later,  when  the  District  of 
London  was  organized,  a  building  was  erected  in  Charlettetown,  and  in 
October,  1316,  Thomas  Talbot,  Robert  Nichol,  and  John  Backhouse, 
were  authorized  to  enclose  and  paint  this  building,  known  as  the 


"  Jail  and  Court-house,"  and  to  procure  funds  to  pay  for  same.  On 
March  19,  1823,  the  magistrates  of  the  district  were  authorized  to 
raise  £1,000  to  aid  in  finishing  this  jail  and  court-house,  which  was 
used  until  partially  destroyed  by  fire.  Contemporary  with  the  District 
Court-house,  there  were  several  Magistrates'  Courts  scattered  through- 
out the  district,  and  among  the  number  was  the  Westminster  Court- 
house— a  log  building  at  Springbank,  where  Squires  Springer  and 
Ingersoll  dispensed  justice  in  1825. 

Under  a  special  act  of  January  30,  1826,  a  town  was  ordered  to  be 
surveyed  at  the  forks  of  the  Thames,  of  which  four  acres  were  to  be 
reserved  for  a  jail  and  court-house.  Thomas  Talbot,  Mahlon  Bur- 
well,  James  Hamilton,  Charles  Ingersoll,  and  John  Matthews,  of  Lobo, 
were  appointed  Commissioners  to  erect  a  jail  and  court  house ;  to 
raise  funds  by  taxation,  and  to  borrow  £4,000.  The  Commissioners 
were  ordered  to  meet  at  St.  Thomas  and  organize  in  March,  1826. 
St.  Thomas  was  then  a  pretentious  settlement,  and  made  a  determined 
effort  to  secure  the  seat  of  justice ;  but  O'Brien's  settlement  won,  and 
the  work  of  building  commenced  in  1826-7.  The  first  court-house 
stood  upon  the  same  square  whereon  the  present  one  stands,  but  was 
located  closer  to  the  street ;  and  after  the  construction  of  the  new 
building  the  old  one  was  moved  to  the  bank  of  the  hill  by  the  con- 
tractor. It  was  a  two-story  frame  building,  and  in  one  end  were  placed 
two  cells,  these  being  rendered  more  secure  by  placing  logs  around  the 
cells,  from  which  the  building  acquired  the  distinctive  title  of  the 
"  Old  Log  Court-house." 

On  January  14,  1830,  bills  aggregating  £1,114  15s.  Od,  were 
approved  for  work  done  on  the  court-house  at  London.  An  order  was 
issued  to  the  Treasurer  to  insure  both  jail  and  court-house  for  £4,000. 
John  Evart  agreed  to  complete  furnishing  the  court-house. 

In  January,  1830,  the  magistrates  issued  the  following  order  to 
the  Jailor  : — "  That  the  Jailor  do  furnish  to  the  prisoners  confined  in 
the  London  District  Jail  the  following  quantity  and  quality  of  pro- 
visions, namely,  of  meat  one  pound  each  person  per  day,  of  bread  one 
and  a-half  pounds  to  each,  with  potatoes  and  other  vegetables  in 
season,  and  in  such  quantities  as  may  be  judged  wholesome  by  the 
Jailor  of  said  District." 

In  April,  1830,  the  Court  ordered  "  that  the  jail  limits  do  extend 
to  Dundas  street,  and  include  the  lots  on  each  side  of  said  street  from 
Lots  16  to  24  inclusive,  the  whole  of  the  public  square,  the  street 
between  the  public  square  and  McGregor's  westward  to  the  end  of  the 
square,  Eidout  street  from  Dundas  to  southern  boundary  of  McGregor's 
lot,  and  the  lots  on  each  side  of  Bidout  street  as  far  as  McGregor's  lot 
extends — containing  16  acres." 

John  Harris,  Treasurer  of  the  District,  was  granted  £50  for  his 
services  in  procuring  moneys  for  building  jail  and  court-house,  and 
purchasing  books  for  accounts  against  the  lands  of  absentees. 


In  this  month  also  a  painter,  named  Craig,  was  allowed  £11  15s.  Od. 
for  painting  the  coat-of-arms  for  the  court  room.  In  July,  a  short 
time  before  the  opening  of  the  assizes,  two  pine  tables,  three  octagon 
tables  and  thirty  common  chairs  were  ordered  for  the  the  court-room. 
James  Hamilton,  one  of  the  Commissioners  to  York  in  1830  to  negotiate 
a  loan,  asked  remuneration,  but  the  magistrates  denied  the  request. 
In  April,  1831,  John  Ewart  was  allowed  £237  for  re-building  the 
house  hitherto  erected  as  the  temporary  jail  on  the  town  plot  of 

In  1835,  it  was  ordered  that  the  two  rooms  in  the  basement  story 
of  the  Court-house  be  cleaned,  one  to  be  occupied  by  the  Sheriff',  and 
that  the  Sheriff's  room  adjoining  the  Clerk's  office,  formerly  occupied 
by  the  Treasurer,  be  set  off  as  the  office  of  the  District  Court  Clerk. 
On  July  13,  1838,  a  survey  of  the  site  for  the  proposed  new  jail  on 
the  John  Kent  grounds  was  ordered.  In  April,  1839,  the  Government 
was  petitioned  to  grant  a  site.  In  April,  1839,  a  Committee  of  the 
€ourt  reported  in  favor  of  locating  the  new  jail  on  lots  1,  2,  3,  4  and 
5,  on  the  north  side  of  East  North  street,  and  on  lots  2,  3,  4  and  5,  on 
the  south  side  of  Duke  street,  comprising  the  elevated  grounds  south 
•of  the  artillery  barracks.  The  acquisition  of  this  property  was  ordered 
by  purchase  or  otherwise,  but  never  carried  out. 

On  November,  1843,  the  Jail  Committee  reported  £2,024  7s.  Od. 
paid  out  on  account  of  the  new  jail,  leaving  £1,009  2s.  7d.  due  on 
estimates.  In  February,  1844,  Chairman  Lawrason  presented  a  report 
from  his  Committee,  showing  that  the  total  expenditure  was  £5,504- 
lls.  4d.  for  giving  to  the  District  an  odd  feudal  structure  resembling 
the  Castle  of  Malahide,  near  Dublin.  The  idea  was  to  please  Col. 
Talbot,  and  it  had  plenty  of  followers,  for  notwithstanding  the  lessons 
of  the  Rebellion,  class  idolatry  still  existed.  In  November,  1847,  Dr. 
McKenzie  was  appointed  Surgeon  of  the  jail,  vice  Dr.  Lee,  deceased. 
Dr.  Phillips,  his  opponent,  received  twelve  of  the  thirty  votes  cast. 
From  1861  to  1867  the  Government  paid  into  the  Treasury  of  Middle- 
sex $3,663.53  for  court-house  and  jail  purposes,  out  of  the  Building- 
Fund.  In  June,  1868,  a  petition  from  the  City  of  London  asking  per- 
mission to  ornament  the  court-house  grounds  was  granted,  and  the 
fence  and  other  incumbrances  ordered  to  be  removed  before  November 
1,  that  year.  To  this  date  the  people  look  back  for  the  limited,  but 
neat  grounds,  which  lay  before  the  court-house.  From  January  1,  to 
November  25,  1868,  there  were  372  city  prisoners,  and  154  county 
prisoners.  The  various  improvements  made  in  the  County  buildings, 
such  as  that  made  under  the  Broadbent  and  Overell  contract,  of 
January  25,  1878,  are  noted  in  the  history  of  London, 

The  House  of  Refuge.—  In  the  earlier  years  of  this  District  public 
charity  existed  in  a  very  rude  form.  Even  poor  widows  were  publicly 
sold  to  the  highest  bidder,  the  proceeds  of  the  sale  entering  the  District 
Treasury,  while  the  unfortunate  white  slaves  had  to  work  for  their 
white  masters  without  hope  of  pay.  The  imbecile  or  others  unable  to 




support  themselves  were  placed  in  charge  of  some  person  who  would 
be  willing  to  give  them  food  and  clothes  for  a  nominal  sum ;  but  as 
civilization  advanced  a  methodical  system  of  relief  was  provided  ;  and 
later  still  a  better  system  was  instituted.  On  Oct.  5,  1847,  a  com- 
mittee, of  which  John  Burwell  was  Chairman,  reported  in  favor  of 
building  a  House  of  Industry  under  the  power  by  Statute  of  Seventh 
William  IV.,  Chap.  24.  Many  looked  upon  this  proposition  favorably ; 
but  remembering  the  old  immigrant  hospitals  on  the  Hamilton  Road 
and  at  Wardsville,  the  majority  voted  contra. 

On  Jan.  25,  1867,  another  report  on  the  expediency  of  erecting  a 
House  of  Kefuge  was  presented ;  but  treated  with  a  coldness  that 
•destroyed  the  hopes  of  its  supporters.  In  1875  the  cost  of  maintaining 
the  indigent  was  $1,177.52;  in  1876,  $1,127.75,  and  in  1877-8, 
when  there  were  110  resident  indigents  and  a  number  of  stragglers, 
$5,249.22.  In  June,  1878,  a  committee  of  the  Council  was  appointed 
to  examine  the  question  of  supporting  the  poor,  and  this  one,  like  its 
predecessors,  reported  in  favor  of  building  and  maintaining  a  Poor 
House.  The  Council  ultimately  decided  on  building,  with  the  result 
of  giving  to  the  county  the  excellent  institution  just  west  of  Strathroy. 
The  expenditures,  too,  have  grown,  for  in  1886  there  were  128 
inmates,  including  the  keeper,  matron  and  family,  who  cost  the  county 
$31,775;  and  in  1887,  133  inmates,  costing  $32,104.  The  house  may 
be  said  to  be  governed  by  a  board  of  visitors,  one  of  whom,  County 
Clerk  McKenzie,  gives  the  Institution  much  time  and  attention. 

In  December,  1871,  the  question  of  establishing  a  hospital  in 
•connection  with  the  House  of  Refuge,  according  to  the  will  of  the 
deceased  William  Lambert,  was  before  the  Council. 

In  June,  1880,  the  new  building  at  Strathroy,  known  as  the 
House  of  Refuge,  was  reported  almost  complete,  according  to  the  plans 
made  by  T.  H.  Tracy.  The  committee  recommended  that  Arch. 
Ballantyne  and  his  wife  Agnes  be  appointed  keeper  and  matron 
respectively,  the  former  at  $200  and  the  latter  at  $100  per  annum ; 
that  Dr.  Robert  A.  Stevenson,  of  Strathroy,  be  physician,  at  a  salary  of 
$110,  and  Dr.  D.  G.  McKenzie  inspector,  at  $100.  J.  Baskerville  was 
-appointed  engineer.  The  cost  of  the  46  J  acres  purchased  from  James 
Holden  was  $3,300  ;  to  W.  J.  Fawcett,  for  main  building,  $17,562  ;  to 
L.  G.  Joliffe,  for  steam  heating,  $3,300,  and  to  Isaiah  Ellis,  C.  J. 
Frank,  John  Newton,  James  D.  Bowlby,  for  sundry  work,  $1,041 ;  or 
A  total,  exclusive  of  furniture,  amounting  to  $25,203. 

In  December,  1880,  John  Morgan,  Warden,  and  D.  G.  McKenzie, 
County  Clerk,  signed  By-law  No.  341,  for  governing  the  House. 

The  construction  and  operating  expenses  up  to  November  18, 1881, 
amounted  to  $34,413.96.  There  were  108  admissions,  including  13 
from  Lambton  County.  The  value  of  farm  products  was  $1,007.65, 
of  which  $18.38  worth  was  sold. 

During  the  year  1882  there  were  94  inmates  in  the  House  of 
Refuge  from  this  county,  and  20  from  Lambton  County,  of  whom  15 


died,  19  absconded,  15  were  discharged  and  65  remained.  The 
maintenance  account  was  $7,529.74,  of  which,  products  of  farm  yielded 

Asylum  for  the  Insane.  —  This  institution  was  taken  possession 
of  and  occupied  on  the  18th  November,  1870.  The  transfer  of  the 
patients  from  the  Orillia  Asylum,  comprising  46  men  and  73  women, 
was  safely  accomplished  on  that  day  by  steamer  to  Belle  Ewart, 
Northern  Railway  to  Toronto,  and  Grand  Trunk  Railway  to  London. 
On  the  23rd  November,  the  Maiden  patients,  consisting  of  120  men 
and  123  women,  arrived  per  steam  transport  to  Windsor,  and  thence 
by  Great  Western  Railway  to  London.  The  total  number  of  patients 
transferred  from  Maiden  and  Orillia  to  the  London  Asylum  was 
therefore  363,  viz.  :  —  166  men  and  197  women.  The  officers  in 
charge  were  Dr.  Henry  Landor,  Superintendent;  Dr.  Stephen  Lett, 
Assistant,  and  Miss  Warren,  Matron.  At  this  time,  J.  W.  Laugmuir 
was  Government  Inspector.  In  1871  the  refuge  for  adult  idiots  was 
established,  the  Government  appropriating  $10,000  for  buildings.  The 
original  house  was  begun  in  June,  1869.  The  location  is  admirable  in 
every  respect.  A  little  over  two  miles  distant  from  the  city  post  office, 
with  a  street  railroad  reaching  within  easy  walking  distance,  it  is  con- 
venient. The  site  is  11  7  feet  above  the  river,  sloping  to  the  east  and  to 
the  west.  Toward  both  points  the  rainwater  flows,  and  toward  both, 
portions  of  the  sewage  are  directed.  The  southern  slope  is,  at  the 
Lodge  1,200  feet  distant,  seven  feet  lower  than  at  the  building  ;  sew- 
age, however,  cannot  be  applied  by  gravitation  to  the  land,  as  the 
inclination  of  the  land  is  not  sufficient  for  that  purpose.  There  are  no 
nuisances  of  any  description  near  the  site,  nor  is  it  offensively  over- 
looked by  roads  or  footpaths,  so  that  the  privacy  essential  to  the 
comfort  of  the  insane  can  be  maintained. 

Dr.  Landor,  who  for  three  years  had  charge  of  the  Asylum  at 
Maiden  and  for  nine  years  of  that  at  London,  died  in  1877,  when  Dr. 
Lett  was  appointed  temporary  Superintendent.  Dr.  R.  M.  Bucke  was 
installed  in  that  position  Feb.  15,  that  year,  and  for  over  a  decade  has 
managed  the  institution  with  rare  ability.  When  he  took  charge 
there  were  598  patients  actually  in  the  house.  W.  G.  Metcalfe  was 
Assistant  Superintendent;  T.  J.  W.  Burgess,  Assistant  Physician; 
R.  Mathison,  Bursar  ;  R.  Hardy,  Steward,  and  Mrs.  Pope,  Matron  In 
1878,  Dr.  N.  H.  Beemer  was  appointed  second  Physician,  and  T.  Short, 
Bursar.  In  1879,  Dr.  Burgess  was  Assistant  Superintendent,  with  Dr' 
Beemer  first  and  Dr.  T.  Millman  second  Physician  The  important 
changes  m  the  staff  since  that  date  include  the  appointment  of  Dr 
Sippi,  Bursar;  Dr.  Robinson,  first,  Dr.  Beemer,  second,  and  Dr.  Foster 
third  Assistant;  Mr.  Wanless,  Storekeeper,  Dr.  O'Rielly  beiu*  In- 
spector of  Asylums. 

total  admissions  to  Provincial  Asylums,  since  the  institution  of 
the   nrst  one  in  1841,  including  the  admissions  of  1885,  numbered 


12,055.      Of  this  total,  the  following  table  gives  the    social   state, 
nationality,  and  of  religious  profession : — 

Of  total  admissions, 
including  transfers. 


Married 5, 998 

Unmarried , 6,057 



Canadian 5,062 

English 1 , 694 

Irish , .  2,986 

Scotch 1,280 

United  States 386- 

Other  countries  and  unknown 647 



Church  of  England 2,997 

Roman  Catholic 2,669' 

Presbyterian 2,506 

Methodist 2,223 

Other  denominations  or  unknown 1, 660 


The  total  number  of  inmates  at  London,  in  this  year,  was  1,031,. 
although  the  statistics  for  September  give  907.  This  last  number  may 
be  considered  the  average  annual  insane  population  of  the  London 
District,  down  to  the  close  of  1888. 

The  present  system,  which  generally  ignores  the  use  of  mechani- 
cal restraints  and  banishes  alcohol,  was  introduced  by  Dr.  Bucke, 
eight  years  ago.  Its  results  are  shown  by  figures.  During  the  five 
years  succeeding  the  establishment  of  the  asylum  here,  only  37  per 
cent,  of  the  patients  were  discharged  as  cured;  the  following  five 
years  the  percentage  reached  41,  and  under  the  salutary  system  of  the 
present  superintendency,  the  percentage  is  45.  For  the  same  periods, 
the  death  rate  was  5.50  per  cent.,  4.50  per  cent.,  and  4.35  per  cent, 
respectively.  A  portion  of  the  asylum  buildings  was  destroyed  by 
fire,  December  2,  1887,  entailing  a  loss  of  about  $60,000.  In  1888, 
the  work  of  re -building  was  carried  out,  and  the  erection  of  the  Bursar's 
residence  completed. 

Scott  Act. — The  petition  that  the  Scott  Act  be  submitted  to  the 
voters  of  Middlesex  was  signed  by  5,671  persons,  and  presented  to 
Sheriff  Glass  by  D.  H.  Williams  and  Kev.  G.  H.  Henderson,  Novem- 
ber 5,  1884.  The  Council  lost  little  time  in  granting  this  petition, 
and  in  appointing  James  Grant  Eeturning  Officer  for  the  election, 
which  was  ordered  to  be  held  in  June,  1885.  This  election  was  held. 
A  summarized  table  of  the  voting  in  the  county  is  subjoined,  giving 
the  number  of  votes  polled  for  and  against,  and  the  number  of 
votes  rejected : — 


For  Against.  Rejected. 

Adelaide  ........................................   238  62                  0 

Biddulph  .....................................   171  206                  1 

Caradoc  .......................................  ||7 

North  Dorchester  ................................  J24  168                  8 

::::::::::     239  86 

n                          .........  350  74  4 

...  718  353  16 

::::::•;::::.:..  205  29  2 


McGillivray  .....................................  398 

WestNissouri  ...................................  348  101 

Westminster  ....................................  JJJ 

East  Williams  ................................  204  21 

West  Williams  ..................................  150  29                  0 

Strathroy  Town  ..................................  232  109                  2 

London  East  .................................  264  1/5 

London  West  ......  ,  .............................  124  73                  4 

AilsaCraig  .....................................  84  24 

Parkhill  .......................................  H7  56 

Wardsville  .....................................  42  16 

Newbury  .....................................  43 

Glencoe  ........................................  64  45 

Lucan  ..........................................  52  51                J> 

Total  .................................  5,755  2,370  57 


West  Middlesex  .........................................................   1,041 

North  Middlesex  .........................................................      922 

East  Middlesex  .......................................  .  ................   1,388 

Total  majority  .........................................  3,351 

London  city  had  nothing  whatever  to  do  in  this  transaction,  and  it 
'is  remarkable  that  a  greater  number  of  staggering  libels  on  humanity 
may  be  seen  in  any  of  the  incorporated  towns  of  the  county  where  the 
act  is  in  force,  than  in  the  city  where  the  old  law  is  well  observed. 

Under  the  former  Tavern  and  Shop  License  Act,  the  amount 
received  for  licenses,  transfers,  removals  and  fines  in  the  City  of  Lon- 
don from  May  1st  to  December  31st,  1881,  was  $8,541.68  ;  London 
Township,  $1,500;  North  Dorchester,  $420;  London  West,  $540; 
Westminster,  $1,320;  London  East,  $1,375;  West  Nissouri,  $300; 
East  Williams,  $180  ;  McGillivray,  $105.81  ;  Adelaide,  $180  ;  Bid- 
dulph, $300;  Ailsa  Craig,  $423.75;  Lobo,  $240;  Parkhill,  $780; 
Lucan,  $480  ;  West  Williams,  $120  ;  Ekfrid,  $240  ;  Strathroy,  $1,400  ; 
Wardsville,  $225  ;  Metcalfe,  $240  ;  Delaware,  $180  ;  Caradoc,  $300  ; 
Olencoe,  $360  ;  Mosa,  $60  ;  Newbury,  $255. 

Of  these  amounts  the  following  sums  were  paid  to  municipalities  : 
London  city,  $5,266.68  ;  London  Township,  $817.21  ;  North  Dorchester, 
$225.19;  London  West,  $403.43;  Westminster,  $719.14;  London 
East,  $1,019.93;  West  Nissouri,  $163.43;  East  Williams,  $86.16; 
McGillivray,  $88.55;  Adelaide,  $86.16;  Biddulph;  $143.60;  Ailsa 
Craig,  $259.53  ;  Lobo,  $114.88;  Parkhill,  $558.44;  Lucan,  $292.32; 
West  Williams,  $57.44;  Ekfrid,  $118.40  ;  Strathroy,  $954.13  ;  Wards- 


ville,  $133.80  ;  Metcalfe,  $118.40  ;  Delaware,  $88.80  ;  Caradoc,  $148  ; 
Glencoe,  $238.40;  Mosa,  $29.60;  Newbury,  $163.80. 

The  fines  collected  for  breaches  of  the  law  for  1880-81  were: — 
London  city,  $1,010,  against  $538.25  in  1879-80  ;  East  Middlesex, 
$520,  against  $340  in  1879-80  ;  North  Middlesex,  S60  against  $220  in 
1879-80  ;  West  Middlesex,  $140,  against  $20  in  1879-80. 

The  number  of  persons  committed  to  the  county  jail  for  drunken- 
ness were  :— In  1876.  155  ;  1877,  106;  1878,211;  1879,193;  1880, 
335;  1881,210. 

For  the  year  1880-81,  the  London  Inspector  received  $800  salary. 
The  amounts  paid  in  respect  of  Commissioner's  expenses  and  salaries  of 
Inspectors  in  the  three  license  districts  of  the  county  were: — East 
Middlesex,  $734.49 ;  North  Middlesex,  $520.68  ;  West  Middlesex, 


98  HISTORY   OF    THE 


POLITICS  FROM   1788   TO   1888. 

On  July  24,  1788,  Upper  Canada  was  set  off  into  four  Districts,  by 
order  of  Lord  Dorchester,  issued  at  St.  Louis  Castle,  Quebec  :— -Lunen- 
burg,  the  first,  extended  from  the  Ottawa  to  the  Gananoque,  later  known 
as  the  Thames;  Mecklinburg  comprised  the  territory  between  the 
Gananoque  and  the  Trent  rivers;  Nassau  embraced  the  country 
between  the  Trent  and  Long  Point,  on  Lake  Erie,  while  Hesse  was  the 
name  extended  over  the  remainder  of  Western  Canada,  and  the  country 
around  Detroit.  Richard  Duncan  was  Judge  of  the  first ;  Richard 
Cartwright,  vice  Stewart,  of  the  second ;  Robert  Hamilton  of  the  third, 
and,  it  is  alleged,  William  Robertson,  of  Detroit,  was  commissioned 
Judge  of  Hesse.  In  naming  these  Districts,  it  was  Dorchester's 
intention  to  place  the  Palatines  (who  were  refugees  in  Limerick 
County,  Ireland,)  in  all  judicial  and  executive  offices ;  but  wiser 
counsel  prevailed,  and  the'  men  named  were  given  the  positions  of 
District  Judges. 

Governor  John  Graves  Simcoe,  the  first  Lieutenant-Governor  of 
Ontario,  was  installed  July  8,  1792,  at  Kingston,  when  James  Baby, 
William  Osgood,  William  Robertson,  Alex.  Grant  and  Peter  Russell 
were  named  as  the  first  Executive  Council.  On  July  17,  that  year, 
Robert  Hamilton  and  Richard  Cartwright,  jr.,  one  of  them  a  former 
District  Judge,  with  Richard  Duncan,  also  a  Judge,  John  Munroe  and 
Thomas  Fraser,  were  summoned,  in  addition  to  the  Executive  Council, 
to  form  the  Legislative  Council.  About  this  time  Duncan  was  guilty 
of  some  fraudulent  transaction,  and  fleeing  to  Schenectady,  N.  Y., 
never  returned  to  share  legislative  honors.  About  this  time,  also, 
Robertson  moved  out  of  Detroit,  and  started  his  store  at  Sandwich ; 
and  the  honor  of  making  money  at  that  point  he  esteemed  higher  than 
any  legislative  favor.  Four  days  after  the  opening  of  the  Council  the 
first  Governor  set  out  toward  Niagara ;  but  prior  to  leaving  Kingston, 
in  fact,  before  he  convened  the  Legislative  Council,  he  divided  the 
new  Province  into  counties,  for  legislative  purposes  or  representation. 
At  Newark,  the  new  capital  at  the  mouth  of  the  Niagara,  he  pre- 
sided over  the  Executive  Council,  September  29,  1792.  At  this  time 
Major  Littlehales  was  his  Military  Secretary ;  Lieut.  Thomas  Talbot, 
Provincial  Aide-de-Camp ;  Gray,  Solicitor-General;  Small,  Clerk  of 
the  Executive  Council;  Wm.  Jarvil,  Civil  Secretary;  Peter  Russell, 
Receiver-General;  D.  W.  Smith,  Surveyor-General,  with  Thomas 
Ridout  and  Wm.  Chewitt,  Assistant  Surveyors. 

The  Legislative  Council  was  convened  Oct.  9,  1792,  and  continued 
the  meeting  until  the  15th  in  the  building  used  at  periods  by 
Catholics  and  Protestants  as  a  place  of  worship,  with  Peter  Clark, 


Secretary  ;  John  G.  Law,  Usher  of  the  Black  Kod ;  Col.  John  Butler, 
of  the  Rangers,  Superintendent  of  the  Indian  Department ;  and  John 
White,  Attorney-General.  This  Parliament  was  a  strange  mixture  of 
pure,  unadulturated  democracy  and  aristocracy.  The  people,  at  the 
August  elections,  refused  to  select  half-pay  officers,  choosing  men 
instead  who  dined  at  the  same  table  with  their  employes.  The  names 
of  the  first  elected  members  of  this  Niagara  Parliament  are  as  follows : 
—John  McDonnell,  of  Glengary,  Speaker;  James  Baby,  Joshua 
Booth,  Alexander  Campbell,  Jerry  French,  Ephraim  Jones,  Hugh 
McDonnell,  Wm.  Macomb,  Ben.  Pawling,  Nathaniel  Pettit,  David 
William  Smith,  Hazleton  Spencer,  John  Young,  Isaac  Swazy,  John 
White  and  Philip  Dorland.  The  last  named  being  a  Quaker,  refused 
to  take  the  oath.  His  seat  was  declared  vacant,  when  Peter  Van 
Alstine  was  elected.  Angus  McDonnell  was  Clerk  and  Eev.  Eobert 
Addison,  Chaplain. 

The  members  above  named '  represented  the  following  nineteen 
counties  established  by  Governor  Simcoe's  proclamation  of  July  16, 
1792 : — Glengary,  Stormont,  Dundas,  Greenville,  Leeds,  Frontenac, 
Ontario,  Addington,  Lenox,  Prince  Edward,  Hastings,  Northumberland, 
Durham,  York,  Lincoln,  Norfolk,  Suffolk,  Essex  and  Kent.  Glengary 
was  entitled  to  two  members ;  Kent,  which  comprised  all  the  country 
to  the  Hudson  Bay,  two  members ;  Suffolk  and  Essex  one  member, 
and  so  on,  all  claiming  sixteen  members,  only  a  few  of  whom  attended. 

This  democratic  assembly  made  short  work  of  Dorchester's  Dutch 
nomenclature.  The  last  of  the  eight  acts  passed  and  approved  pro- 
vided for  building  a  jail  in  each  of  the  four  Districts,  and  for  changing 
the  names  of  such  Districts — Lunenburg  to  be  known  as  the  Eastern 
District,  Mecklenburg  as  the  Midland,  Nassau  as  the  Home,  and  Hesse 
as  the  Western.  The  five  sessions  of  this  Parliament  were  held  at 
Newark,  or  Niagara. 

The  second  Parliament  opened  at  York  (Toronto),  May  16th,  1797, 
with  Peter  Russell  presiding.  During  the  second  session,  opened  in 
July,  1798,  the  re-districting  of  the  Province  was  effected.  Eight 
Districts  of  23  counties  and  158  townships  were  set  off.  The  Districts 
were  named  Eastern,  Johnson,  Midland,  Newcastle,  Home,  Niagara, 
London,  and  Western. 

In  the  days  of  Pitt  and  Castlereagh  the  home  Government  looked 
westward  across  the  Atlantic  and  formed  up  in  imagination  a  Canada 
with  hereditary  dukes,  marquises,  lords,  earls,  knights,  merchants, 
traders,  peasants  and  paupers.  Dorchester  had  tried  a  German 
nomenclature  in  Upper  Canada  before  this,  with  the  object  of  giving  a 
•ducal  house  to  each  of  the  four  Districts.  Simcoe  anglicized  the  plan 
so  as  to  enlarge  the  number  of  ducal  houses  and  create  a  number  of 
counts,  or  baronial  lords,  but  each  disappeared.  Rochefaucault,  the 
French  economist,  visited  Niagara  during  the  days  of  Simcoe's  legis- 
lature, and,  while  amused  at  many  things,  could  not  fail  to  express  his 
approval  of  the  Governor's  ideas  of  government.  He  says : — "  The 

100  AlSTORY   OF   THE 

maxims  of  government  professed  by  General  Simcoe  are  very  liberal 
and  fair ;  he  detests  all  arbitrary  and  military  government  without  the 
walls  of  the  fort,  and  desires  liberty  in  its  utmost  latitude,  so  far  as  is 
consistent  with  the  constitution  and  law  of  the  land.  He  is,  therefore, 
by  no  means  ambitious  of  investing  all  power  and  authority  in  his 
own  hands,  but  consents  to  the  Lieutenants,  whom  he  nominates  for 
each  county  the  right  of  appointing  the  justices  of  the  peace  and 
officers  of  the  militia." 

The  Lieutenant  Governors,  Presidents  or  Administrators  of  Upper 
Canada,  from  its  establishment  as  a  Province  in  1792  to  the  Union 
with  Lower  Canada  in  1841,  are  named  as  follows: — Lord  John 
Graves  Simcoe,  1792 ;  Lieutenant  Governor  Peter  Russell,  President 
of  Council,  1796 ;  Gen.  Peter  Hunter,  L.  G.,  1799  ;  Alexander  Grant, 
P.  C.,  1805  ;  Lord  Francis  Gore,  L.  G,  1806;  Sir  Isaac  Brock,  P.  C., 
1811;  Sir  R  Halesheaf,  P.  C.,  1812;  Baron  de  Rottenburg,  P.  C., 
1813;  Sir  G.  Drummond,  L.  G.  1813;  Sir  George  Murray,  L  G., 
1815;  Sir  F.  P.  Robinson,  L.  G,  1815;  Lord  Gore,  L  G.,  1815; 
Samuel  Smith,  Administrator,  1817  ;  Sir  Peregrine  Maitland.  L.  G., 
1818  ;  Samuel  Smith,  Administrator,  1820 ;  Sir  Peregrine  Maitland, 
L.  G.,  1820 ;  Sir  John  Colborne,  L.  G.,  1828  ;  Sir  F.  B.  Head,  L.  G., 
1836;  Sir  John  Colborne,  Administrator,  1838;  Sir  George  Arthur,, 
L.  G.,  1838 ;  and  Baron  Sydenham  and  Toronto,  Oct.  1839.  The 
latter  was  appointed  Governor  of  the  United  Provinces,  Feb.  10,  1841. 

During  all  the  years  from  1792  to  1841,  the  political  history  of 
Canada  does  not  show  one  act  of  the  governing  classes  which  resulted 
in  public  good,  if  such  special  legislation  as  that  of  1831  be  excepted. 
Many  of  the  men  sent  here  to  govern  came  to  gratify  a  craving  for 
travel,  or  to  serve  some  private  end.  Simcoe  appears  to  be 
enthusiastic  and  earnest  in  his  intentions,  until  he  learned  how  im- 
practicable they  were.  The  others  were  baby  statesmen,  having  but 
one  idea,  that  of  sustaining  the  few  in  luxury  at  the  expense  of  the 
many  in  want.  The  act  abolishing  slavery  in  1793-4  was  a  senti- 
mental one,  as  there  were  not  fifty  slaves  in  Upper  Canada  to  be  set 
free,  and  they  had  to  remain  with  their  masters  under  specified  condi- 
tions. The  land  grants  were  gigantic  swindles,  from  which  the 
country  took  many  years  to  recover.  In  military  affairs  the  capture 
of  Detroit  and  other  posts,  referred  to  in  the  military  chapter,  brought 
glory  to  the  British  Governor ;  but  this  glory  disappeared  in  smoke  in 
1813,  near  Moravian  Town,  on  the  Thames. 

Concessions  or  Land  Grants  — The  term  concession  dates  back  to 
1665,  when  the  2,200  French  residents  along  the  St.  Lawrence  were 
supplemented  by  800  troops  or  De  Carignan's  famous  infantry.  After 
the  defeat  of  the  Iroquois  was  accomplished  by  this  commander,  per- 
mits were  issued  to  them  to  retire  from  service,  on  condition  that  they 
would  settle  in  New  France,  and  to  both  men  and  officers  lands  were 
granted,  and  sums  of  money  bestowed  to  assist  in  clearing  and  culti- 
vating their  grants.  In  addition  to  this  paternal  act  of  the  French 



King,  a  number  of  intelligent  girls,  with  some  of  their  male  relatives, 
were  induced  to  visit  Canada  with  the  object  of  marriage  and  house- 
keeping. From  the  original  population  of  2,200  or  2,500,  the  military, 
and  the  immigrants,  the  great  race  known  to-day  as  French  Canadians 
sprung,  and  from  the  grants  of  1667-9,  the  title  "concession"  came 
into  general  use. 

The  first  grant  of  land  in  Upper  Canada  was  granted  on  petition  to 
Eobert  Chevalier  de  La  Salle,  in  1674.  The  grant  included  all  the 
country  round  Fort  Frontenac,  of  Kingston  or  Cataraqui ;  one  of  the 
conditions  being  that  he  should  build  a  church  at  any  time  the  popu- 
lation will  reach  100  persons,  and  then  entertain  one  or  two  Eecollet 
priests  to  perform  Divine  service  and  administer  the  sacraments. 
This  condition  was  suggested  by  La  Salle  himself  and  carried  out 
religiously,  even  before  he  built  Fort  Niagara.  This  grant  was  four 
leagues  square,  and  included  the  islands  along  its  whole  front.  The 
last  concession  or  seigniory  in  Quebec  was  made  to  Chevalier  de 
Longeuil,  at  New  Longeuil,  near  the  western  boundary  of  that  province 
in  April,  1734. 

In  1817  the  legislative  body  of  Upper  Canada  entered  on  an 
investigation  of  the  relation  of  Crown  and  clergy  reserves  to  the 
welfare  of  the  Province ;  but,  at  the  moment  when  this  investigation 
had  reached  the  point  of  usefulness,  the  Governor's  order  proroguing 
Parliament  took  effect.  There  were  several  land  deals  too  patent, 
however,  to  be  hidden  from  the  people,  and  the  question  whether  the 
authorities  intended  to  benefit  the  people  or  a  few  favorites  held 
possession  of  the  public  mind  until  most  of  the  unjust  discriminations 
against  the  great  majority  of  inhabitants  in  land  matters  were  removed. 

In  1791  Sir  William  Pulleney  purchased  1,500,000  acres  at  one 
shilling,  or  about  25  cents  per  acre,  the  cash  payment  being  nominal. 
Before  Governor  Simeoe's  administration  ended  he  sold  about  one-half 
of  this  immense  estate  at  eight  shillings,  or  $2,  per  acre,  but  the  grant 
was  not  made  during  Simcoe's  time.  At  this  time  the  surveyed  lands 
of  Upper  Canada  approximated  17,000,000  acres,  and  of  this  great 
area  there  were  scarcely  1,600,000  acres  open  to  actual  settlers  and 
for  roads.  Of  this  small  remainder  1,150,000  for  450,000  acres  were 
for  roads.  Acting  Surveyor-General  Radenhurst  solemnly  declared 
that  650,000  acres  were  inferior  in  quality  of  soil  or  in  situation,  and 
that  other  Government  grants  would  swallow  up  the  remaining  half 
million  of  acres. 

How  were  the  17,000,000  of  acres  disposed  of?  In  1791  the 
Constitutional  Act  created  the  "  Clergy  Reserves."  This  granted  to 
the  Established  Church  over  3,000,000  acres  of  selected  land  in  200- 
acre  tracts,  or  about  one-seventh  of  all  Crown  grants,  or,  to  make  it 
clearer,  one-eighth  of  every  township.  This  act  in  practice  gave 
one-sixth  of  all  the  lands  to  the  clergy,  or  300,000  acres  more  than 
the  legal  quantity,  which  yielded  £317,000  sterling,  or  £45,000  over 
the  value  of  the  legal  allotment.  All  this  was  done  under  the  rules  of 
the  Land  Office  Department,  dated  February  17,  1789. 

102  HISTORY   OF   THE 

To  discharged  soldiers  and  sailors  450,000  acres  were  granted  ;  to 
militia,  730,000  acres  ;  to  magistrates  and  barristers,  225,000  acres  ;  to 
executive  councillors,  their  wives  and  children,  136,000  acres  ;  to  five 
legislative  councillors,  their  wives  and  children,  50,000  acres;  to 
clergymen,  36,900  acres  for  private  use  ;  to  survey  contractors,  264,000 
acres  ;  to  army  and  navy  officers,  92,526  acres  ;  to  Col.  Talbot,  48,520 
acres  (ultimately  swelled  to  700,000  acres)  :  to  the  heirs  of  General 
Brock  (who  fell  at  Queenstown  Heights,  Oct.  12,  1812),  12  acres  ;*  to 
Dr.  Mountain,  late  English  Church  Bishop  at  Quebec,  12,000  acres. 
The  Canada  Company,  owners  of  a  large  area  in  Middlesex  in  1831, 
comprised  Charles  Bosanquet,  Governor;  Edward  Ellice,  M.  P., 
Deputy-Governor;  Robert  Biddulph,  Robert  Downie,  M.P.,  John 
Easthope,  M.P.,  John  Fullerton,  Win.  T.  Hibbert,  John  Hullett,  Hart 
Logan,  James  McKillop,  M.P.,  Martin  T.  Smith,  M.P.,  Henry  Usborne 
and  Charles  Franks.  Their  agent  at  Aldborough  was  T.  G.  Bethune. 
In  this  manner  the  grants  were  made,  the  greater  part  falling  into  the 
hands  of  speculators  by  transfer  of  certificate,  or  held  by  men  who 
would  neither  cultivate  nor  sell.  Indeed,  it  was  one  of  Pitt's  wild 
schemes  to  establish  a  nobility  and  landed  aristocracy  in  a  land 
destined  for  a  pure  democracy. 

To  the  United  Empire  Loyalists,  who  made  their  homes  in 
Ontario  prior  to  1787,  and  to  their  children,  3,200,000  acres  were 
granted.  This  was  done  under  the  resolution  of  1783.  These  forests 
were  surveyed,  but  the  lots  were  not  numbered,  and  in  the  summer 
and  fall  of  1784  the  whole  lake  front  was  alive  with  refugees  and 
others,  each  waiting  to  fill  his  location  ticket  or  tickets. 

Even  Arnold,  known  as  "The  Traitor,"  received  a  grant  of  18,000 
acres  and  £10,000,  and  in  1804  the  whole  Township  of  Tyendinaga 
was  purchased  from  the  Mississaugas,  and  in  1804  deeded  to  John 
Deserontyon,  Chief,  for  the  use  of  the  Mohawks,  or  Six  Nations. 

The  first  surveys  in  Upper  Canada  were  begun  by  Deputy  Sur- 
veyor John  Collins  in  1783  along  the  St.  Lawrence,  in  the  Cataraqui 
neighborhood.  The  lots  in  general  were  twenty  chains  in  width,  but  a 
few  were  only  19,  so  that  some  lots  had  to  be  given  a  greater  depth,  thus 
necessitating  a  greater  width  for  concessions.  At  that  time,  Samuel 
Holland  was  Survey  or-  General.  Collins  and  others  held  responsible 
positions,  while  under  the  deputies  were  other  deputies,  who  would 
survey  a  township  with  as  little  physical  or  mental  labor  as  it  was 
possible  for  him  to  expend  without  the  risk  of  losing  his  position. 

In  1793,  large  grants  were  made  to  Squire  Ingersoll  in  Oxford,  to 
Wm.  Reynolds  in  Dorchester,  and  to  Ebenezer  Allen  in  Delaware, 
references  to  which  are  made  in  the  chapter  on  pioneers  and  in  the 
sketches  of  Dorchester  and  Delaware. 

Rebellion  1837-8.  —  Of  the  men  who  first  came  here  in  adventurous 
youth,  but  few  remain  to  tell  the  tales  of  living  in  a  cabin  or  lying 

*This  Is  no  doubt  a  mistake,  but  the  number  of  acres  granted  to  Gen.  Brock's  heirs  is 
not  known  to  the  writer. 


down  to  sleep  with  Heaven's  canopy  for  a  covering,  and  the  howls  of 
wolves  for  a  lullaby.  All  the  past  seems  but  a  phantom  of  the  mind 
— a  creation  of  some  idle  moment — when  compared  with  the  realities 
of  to-day ;  yet  such  is  the  history  of  this  progress,  and  of  this  civiliza- 
tion. The  scenes  of  the  past  eight  decades  are  but  a  repetition  in  the 
main,  of  the  vast  work  of  development  that  has  been  going  on  for 
hundreds  of  years,  and  which,  during  the  last  century  turned  its  course 
toward  the  mighty  West.  The  French,  of  course,  led  civilization's 
warfare ;  then  came  the  United  Empire  Loyalists — a  branch  of  the 
Yankee  people — who  are  forever  fond  of  change  and  new  scenes,  and 
for  whom  a  pioneer  life  was  replete  in  a  certain  wild  enjoyment ; 
next  came  the  Irish  and  Scotch  Celts,  followed  by  the  Norman  and 
Anglo-Saxon.  The  Celts  were  driven  hither  by  the  legalized  restraints 
and  incumbrances  which  obstructed  progress  at  home,  and  came  with 
the  object  of  perpetuating  the  Celtic  idea  of  liberty,  as  their  friends 
did  in  the  old  Dominion  ;  but  they  were  followed  by  the  Teutons,  who 
were  not  slow  to  establish  the  Teutonic  method  of  Government.  Soon 
the  French  and  Yankee  elements  of  this  part  of  Canada  were  merged 
into  the  Celtic,  and  with  that  element  fought  Liberty's  battle  up  to 
1838,  when  it  was  forced  to  succumb  in  the  field  to  the  superior  organi- 
zation and  power  of  the  Teuton ;  only  to  succeed  a  few  years  later  by 
the  power  of  moral  force,  and  win  for  Canada  the  laws  in  which 
Canadians  take  such  pride. 

.  In  the  fall  of  1837  a  political  meeting  was  held  across  the  river, 
at  Nathan  Griffith's,  in  Westminster,  to  protest  against  the  action  of 
the  Tories  and  Orangemen  in  breaking  up  the  Reform  meeting  at 
Bay  ham,  on  September  28th,  that  year.  The  Radicals  came  prepared 
to  resist  any  such  procedure,  for,  when  the  Orange  legions,  led  by 
John  Jennings,  swept  down  toward  the  head  meeting,  about  seventy 
of  this  crowd  held  a  meeting  first ;  but  as  the  Reformers  appeared  the 
Tories  fled,  and  the  Liberals  claimed  that  the  day  brought  victory  to 
them.  The  enemy  dispersed ;  the  meeting  discussed  not  one,  but  two 
attacks  upon  public  freedom.  A  few  days  later  a  petition  was 
presented  to  Sheriff  Hamilton  by  Doyle  McKenny  and  others,  asking 
that  officer  to  take  such  steps  as  may  be  considered  necessary  to  stop 
all  future  public  (Reform)  meetings.  The  old  Liberal,  then  published' 
at  St.  Thomas,  by  John  Talbot,  in  an  editorial  speaks  of  this  petition 
as  follows  : — "  While  the  Tories  could  keep  down  the  Reformers  with 
their  war  clubs,  all  was  well,  no  Sheriff  was  called  upon  to  protect  the 
Radicals;  but  when  the  brave  men  of  Middlesex  determined  upon 
defending  themselves,  then  the  Tory  cry  was  raised  '  The  constitution 
is  in  danger.' "  A  facetious  description  of  the  Westminster  meeting 
follows,  wherein  it  is  stated  that  Mahlon  of  the  Basket,  and  Larry,  of 
of  the  Tribe  of  Lawrence,  fought  and  ran  away. 

Many  such  meetings  were  held  throughout  Canada ;  but,  as  a  rule, 
the  forces  of  the  dominant  party  caused  disturbance  enough  to  break 
up  the  meeting,  and,  when  safe,  deliberately  scattered  the  people  with 
batons  or  arms. 

104  HISTORY   OF    THE 

During  the  winter  of  1837-8  the  political  disability  under  which 
the  people  of  Canada  labored  urged  a  few  nobler  than  the  rest  to  rush 
to  arms  and  abolish  the  wrong.  The  leader  of  the  men  of  Upper 
Canada  was  William  Lyon  Mackenzie,  and  of  Lower  Canada  M. 
Papineau.  They  were  undeniably  honest,  and  each  had  worked  him- 
self into  a  just  rage  over  the  evils  which  surrounded  the  people  and 
the  state  of  serfdom  to  which  the  secret  society  known  as  "  The  Family 
Compact "  had  subjected  them. 

A  mile  below  Prescott  is  an  old  windmill,  a  round  stone  tower,  with 
loopholes  in  the  walls,  which  is  now  used  as  a  lighthouse.  Fifty-one 
years  ago,  in  November,  it  was  occupied  by  a  party  of  Patriots.  Under 
the  leadership  of  Von  Schultz,  a  Polish  soldier,  the  Patriots  held  the 
mill  for  several  days  against  the  British  force,  commanded  by  Colonel 
Dundas.  During  the  assault  the  opposite  shore  was  lined  with 
sympathizing  spectators,  who  cheered  when  the  military  were  repulsed. 
But  the  windmill  was  captured, .  and  ten  of  the  hundred  and  ten 
prisoners  taken  were  court-martialled  and  hanged ;  among  them  was 
their  leader,  Von  Schultz.  He  was  given  a  sham  trial,  during  which 
the  present  Premier  of  the  Dominion  (1888)  defended  the  leader. 

On  December  4,  1837,  the  Patriots  descended  on  Toronto,  but  they 
were  defeated  on  the  7th  at  Montgomery's  tavern.  This  house  is  said 
to  have  been  burned  by  his  nephew,  Alfred,  who  afterwards  kept 
tavern  at  Delaware.  The  American  tug  Caroline  was  destroyed  by  a 
Canadian  force  under  Commodore  Drew,  December  29th,  and  in  this 
capture  Captain  McCormick,  a  commuted  pensioner  of  Adelaide,  had 
his  arm  cut  by  a  sabre.  On  January  10,  1838,  the  Patriots  abandoned 
Navy  Island,  two  days  after  the  capture  of  Theller  and  Dodge.  In 
June  the  Americans  destroyed  the  British  steamer  Sir  Eobert  Peel, 
and  the  "  affair  of  the  Short  Hills,"  Niagara,  took  place  that  month. 

Dr.  Charles  Duncombe  commanded  the  Patriots  of  Oxford,  Nor- 
folk and  Middlesex.  In  November,  1837,  a  number  of  Radicals 
assembled  at  Oakland  Village,  and  under  Joshua  G.  Doan,  Robert 
Anderson  and  Henry  Fisher,  the  Yarmouth  and  Bayham  men  marched 
to  join  him.  The  London,  Woodstock  and  Simcoe  militia  and  all  the 
militia  of  the  Province  were  sent  forward  against  them,  so  that  at 
Scotland  Village  Duncombe  disbanded,  and  each  member  of  his  force 
fled  to  the  United  States  or  returned  home.  The  men  who  returned 
to  their  homes  were  arrested  and  lodged  in  jail  at  London,  Simcoe  or 
Hamilton,  to  await  trial.  It  is  related  by  Robert  Summers  that,  in  a 
fight  in  London  Township,  east  of  the  Proof  Line,  a  family  of  San- 
borns  attacked  a  Waterloo  soldier  named  William  Tweedy,  and  in  the 
scuffle  one  of  the  Sanborns  bit  off  the  whole  of  his  under  lip.  He 
wrapped  the  piece  in  paper  and  went  to  Dr.  Duncombe,  who  was  then 
staying  with  his  brother-in-law,  Henry  Schenick.  The  Doctor  caught 
a  rooster,  cut  out  of  its  breast  a  piece  to  correspond  with  that  taken 
out  of  Tweedy's  lip,  and  stitched  it  in,  and  with  the  exception  of  no 
beard  growing  there  and  a  little  stiffness  and  swelling,  it  appeared  as 


good  as  the  original  lip ;  but  did  not  prove  so  useful,  as  Tweedy  never 
afterwards  could  play  the  fife. 

When  the  false  reports  of  Mackenzie's  success  drew  forth  to  arms 
the  Reformers  of  the  London  District,  Duncombe  summoned  the  volun- 
teers to  meet  him  at  Scotland  village,  and  two  days  later,  when  he 
learned  of  Mackenzie's  defeat,  asked  them  to  disband  and  disperse. 
Sackrider,  a  veteran  of  1812,  opposed  this  proposition,  and  suggested 
that  the  men  of  Middlesex,  Oxford,  Brant,  and  adjoining  counties, 
should  withdraw  to  the  pine  forests  of  Dorchester  and  Burford,  and 
there  make  a  stand  against  Col.  MacNab's  militia.  This  proposition 
was  also  voted  down  and  the  last  hope  of  the  Patriots  disappeared ;  for 
was  Sackrider's  advice  taken  the  splendid  yeomanry  of  all  the  country 
would  flock  to  Liberty's  standard  and  win  against  all  odds.  In  the 
dispersion  that  followed,  Duncombe  was  not  the  least  to  suffer.  For  a 
month  he  was  concealed  in  Mrs.  Schenick's  house,  near  London.  She 
was  his  sister,  and  made  every  effort  to  secure  his  safety  from  the 
political  bloodhounds  who  were  seeking  for  him.  His  final  escape  was 
due  to  Charles  Tilden,  then  residing  near  Amherstburg.  He  went  to 
see  his  friend  in  the  winter  of  1838,  and  found  him  hid  in  a  hay-loft ; 
a  suggestion  to  escape  was  received  coldly,  but  on  Tilden  pointing  out 
the  Doctor's  round  face  and  showing  how  easily  he  could  escape  in 
woman's  costume ;  he  accepted  the  plan.  All  the  forces  of  the  Tory 
party,  aided  by  the  Grand  River  Indians,  were  hunting  for  him,  and 
reward  offered  for  his  head,  so  that  great  care  had  to  be  exercised. 
Duncombe  dressed  himself  in  his  sister's  clothes  and  sitting  beside  her 
in  Tilden's  wagon,  was  driven  by  the  owner  into  Michigan,  where  he 
stood  a  freeman  on  a  free  soil.  At  Marine  City  the  people  soon 
learned  that  another  refugee  was  among  them,  and  with  all  the  good 
intentions  of  the  Americans,  they  urged  him  to  address  the  crowd 
before  taking  off  his  female  apparel.  This  he  acceded  to,  and  there- 
after became  a  favorite  physician  wherever  he  located  in  the  States. 

Col.  L.  A.  Norton,  speaking  of  the  affairs  of  1837-8,  and  of  the 
times  in  which  he  and  other  Westminster  men  were  captured  by  the 
English  party,  says: — "I  learned  that  Col.  Maitland,  of  the  32nd 
Infantry,  then  guarding  London,  was  to  march  down  to  Delaware, 
while  another  command,  with  military  stores,  was  to  reach  London 
next  morning.  He  learned,  that  after  Col.  Maitland  would  leave,  only 
thirty  raw  recruits  would  hold  the  village,  and  devised  the  plan  of 
having  his  uncle  David  assemble  the  Scotch  on  Westminster  street, 
make  a  night  attack,  and  release  the  prisoners  and  capture 
London.  At  this  time  his  uncles  were  at  the  head  of  four  hundred 
Patriots,  but  they  could  not  do  anything  toward  carrying  out  the  plans. 
The  village  was  in  a  fever.  Scouts  were  sent  out,  but  were  afraid  to 
go  out  of  sight  of  the  settlement.  They  would  retire  to  some  secluded 
place,  and  ride  their  horses  until  they  would  get  them  in  a  perfect 
foam;  then  come  rushing  in  and  report  the  rebels  surrounding  all 
sides  of  the  Union.  Another  would  come  in  and  report  them  nearer. 


At  last  they  got  them  within  three  miles  of  the  town,  when  Hughey 
(or  Howey),  the  Turnkey,  came  into  the  room  where  the  prisoners  were, 
say  in",  *  I  would  give  $100  for  an  axe  to  cut  down  the  bridge.'  The 
rebels  had  taken  or  hidden  all  the  axes.  People  were  hastily  packing 
up  and  leaving.  The  Tory  magistrates  had  left,  and  it  was  reported 
that  should  the  prisoners  be  blown  up,  as  the  magistrates  had  ordered 
them  to  be,  not  a  man,  woman  or  child  in  London  would  be  left  alive 
by  the  Patriots.  Citizens  were  appointed  to  call  on  the  English  officer 
commanding  to  revoke  the  blowing-up  order,  and  he  acquiesced  in 
their  prayer.  During  the  excitement,  Mrs.  O'Brien  rushed  in,  saying 
'  They  are  coming !  They  are  coming !  and  they  dare  not  blow  you  up. 
I  heard  them  say  so.'  The  whole  fact  was,  that  a  number  of  Indians 
advanced  from  Maiden,  and  exaggeration  converted  them  into  a  large 
rebel  army.  Mrs  Anna  Burch  was  the  great  rebel  spy,  and  their 
doctress."  Col.  Norton  was  taken  down  with  fever  while  in  prison, 
and  sent  to  the  hospital,  where  Dr.  Thomas  Moore,  the  tall  Irishman, 
attended  him,  and  saved  him.  James  Watson  died.  The  jail  then 
was  in  a  fearful  condition,  but  the  excitement  which  seized  on 
magistrates,  officials  and  soldiery,  added  to  the  threats  of  blowing  up 
the  jail  and  prisoners,  withdrew  much  attention  from  the  state  of 
the  rooms,  and  kept  men  in  health,  who,  without  this  excitement, 
would  die  there.  On  Nov.  12,  1837,  L.  A.  Norton  joined  Joshua 
Doane's  Spartan  Rangers,  at  Sparta,  in  Yarmouth.  A  little  skirmish 
ensued,  in  which  Norton  was  wounded,  and  next  morning  he  found 
that  his  friends  had  disappeared,  except  Benj.  T.  Smith.  Near  Durham 
Forge,  both  were  arrested  and  brought  to  Sinicoe  jail,  where  Harring- 
ton and  Sturge  were  imprisoned  by  John  Burwell,  whose  escape  he 
aided  in.  On  being  re-arrested,  he  was  imprisoned  at  London,  where 
Mrs.  Parks,  the  jailor's  wife,  Mrs.  Dennis  O'Brien  and  Mrs.  Alvero 
Ladd,  sisters,  were  friends  to  him,  Ladd  being  then  in  prison. 

Trial  and  Execution  of  Patriots. — On  January  9,  1838,  the 
Grand  Jury  of  the  District  was  discharged  owing  to  the  progress  of  the 
rebellion.  On  April  10,  1838,  the  Quarter  Sessions  Court  was  held  in 
the  school  house,  owing  to  the  fact  that  the  trial  of  persons  charged 
with  high  treason  was  being  carried  on.  This  school-house  now 
stands  in  the  Court  House  Square,  just  west  of  the  Registry  Office. 

Dr.  E.  A.  Theller,  commander  of  the  Patriot  schooner  Anne,  was 
taken  prisoner,  tried,  sentenced  to  transportation  for  life,  but  escaping, 
returned  to  serve  the  cause  in  which  he  first  embarked.  On  his  second 
capture  he  was  carried  to  London,  Canada,  where  he  was  hanged  in 
1838,  with  Henry  Anderson,  who  claimed  to  be  an  American.  While 
W.  W.  Dodge,  a  third  of  Theller's  party,  is  said  to  have  been  hanged 
subsequently  in  1838,  but  there  is  no  record  to  point  out  such  execu- 

In  September,  1838,  Samuel  H.  Parke  took  from  the  jail,  of 
which  he  then  had  charge,  Cornelius  Cunningham,  Joshua  Gillean 
Doane,  Amos  Pearley  and  Albert  Clark,  and  placed  them  in  the  dock 



for  trial  on  the  charge  of  high  treason.  John  Wilson,  subsequently 
Judge,  was  appointed  to  defend  them,  a  task  very  obnoxious  to  him, 
as  he  wanted  all  rebels  hanged.  He  defended  them  in  a  very  formal 
manner ;  had  not  one  word  to  say  in  extenuation  of  the  charge  against 
them.  They  were  sentenced  to  be  hanged,  and  on  January  14,  1839, 
this  sentence  was  carried  out,  the  scaffold  being  the  same  as  the  one 
from  which  Jones  was  hanged  in  1868.  At  the  Fall  Assizes  of  1838, 
Job  and  Enos  Scott  were  also  sentenced  to  be  hanged  on  October  27th, 
but  there  is  no  account  of  this  sentence  being  carried  into  effect. 
Prior  to  that  time  a  detachment  of  the  London  militia,  of  which  Dr. 
Salter  was  a  member,  took  a  number  of  prisoners  before  the  Governor 
and  executive  officers.  Among  the  men  in  jail  was  Wm.  Hale,  who 
built  the  court-house.  He  relates  that  the  military  guard  occupied  t 
the  room  below  where  some  of  the  prisoners  were  confined,  and  would  • 
amuse  themselves  by  firing  bullets  up  through  the  floor.  Another 
prisoner  was  John  Grieve.  Among  the  Government  scouts  were 
Crazy  Cy,  Philo  Bennett,  a  retired  Methodist  preacher,  and  Cyrus 
Curtiss,  who,  while  ransacking  the  county  for  rebels,  did  some  acts  not 
entirely  of  a  legal  character. 

Dr.  Kolph,  Dr.  Duncombe  and  David  Gibson  were  expelled  from 
the  House  for  the  part  they  had  taken  in  the  troubles  of  1837-8, 
while  Elias  Moore,  a  Quaker  member  from  Middlesex,  Robert  Alway, 
from  Oxford,  and  Dr.  Morrison  were  put  in  prison. 

Samuel  Lount  and  Peter  Matthews  were  tried  at  Toronto,  March 
26,  1838,  before  Justice  Robinson,  and  were  sentenced  to  be  hanged 
April  12,  1838,  which  sentence  was  carried  out.  John  Montgomery 
was  also  sentenced  to  death,  but  escaped.  Dr.  Morrison  was  found 
not  guilty.  Elias  Moore  and  Robert  Alway  were  released  under  bonds. 

The  trouble  of  1837  ended  with  the  execution  of  many  noble- 
minded  men,  the  banishment  of  others  to  Bermuda  and  the  exile  of  a 
greater  number  to  the  United  States,  but  in  1849  amnesty  was  offered 
by  Lord  Durham  and  several  returned ;  Durham  making  the  statement 
that  the  people  called  rebels  were  the  most  loyal  in  Canada,  and  that 
were  he  here  he  would  be  a  rebel. 

Contemporary  Memoranda. — On  July  11,  12  and  14,  1838,  £16- 
2s.  6d.  are  charged  for  bringing  up  prisoners  for  trial  and  sentence,  for 
five  days'  attendance  on  Court,  summoning  jury,  advertising  Court  and 
drawing  calendar.  The  names  of  the  defendants  as  given  are: — 
McNutty,  Phipps,  Wright,  Donnelly,  and  others. 

In  September,  1838,  the  Clerk's  expenses  incurred  in  the  trial  of 
P.  McManus,  not  guilty ;  P.  Acres,  not  guilty ;  D.  S.  Cummings,  not 
guilty  ;  amounted  to  £3  2s.  6d.  His  expenses  on  the  trial  of  Jacob 
Schemagin,  Peter  Mishler,  Hamilton,  Job  and  Enos  Scott,  David 
King,  a  colored  boy,  amounted  to  £4  10s.  Od.  Job  and  Enos  Scott 
were  sentenced  to  be  executed  October  27,  1838 ;  but  they  were 
not  hanged.  David  King  to  three  months  in  jail ;  Jacob  Schemagin, 
Allen  Hamilton  and  Peter  Mishler  to  one  year  in  Penitentiary.  Ben. 


108  HISTORY   OF    THE 

West  and  Wm.  Gibson  were  discharged,  and  James  Woods  allowed 
out  on  bail.  Many  of  the  men  named  were  held  for  the  political  crime 
of  the  period — seeking  responsible  government. 

Leading  Men  in  the  Drama  of  1837. — John  Eolph,  born  in 
England  in  1793,  came  to  Canada  with  his  father,  Dr.  Thomas  Eolph, 
about  1811,  and  served  against  the  Americans  during  the  war  of  1812 
until  taken  prisoner  to  Batavia,  N.Y.  On  his  release,  he  returned  to 
England  and  studied  law  and  medicine.  Kejoining  his  parents  in 
Canada,  he  soon  settled  in  Charlotteville  Township,  near  Vittoria,  and 
in  1821  was  admitted  to  the  Primitive  Law  Circle  of  the  Province ; 
became  Col.  Talbot's  lawyer,  and  later  the  founder  of  the  Talbot 
Anniversary  of  Settlement,  the  first  reunion  being  held  in  1817. 
Notwithstanding  his  English  sympathies,  common  justice  urged  him  to 
cast  ofV  Talbot's  patronage  and  turn  toward  the  cause  of  the  people. 
In  1824  he  and  Captain  John  Matthews  were  returned  to  Parliament 
on  the  Reform  ticket.  The  latter  was  a  retired  artillery  officer  of 
twenty-seven  years  standing,  who  had  also  been  a  convert  to  Reform. 
In  1836  Rolph  delivered  his  celebrated  speech  against  the  English 
Church  reserves ;  but  when  the  hour  came  when  men  should  face  the 
cannon  for  justice'  sake,  Mr.  Rolph  appears  to  have  deserted  the 
physical  force  men  and  allied  himself  to  the  moral  force  army  and 
held  aloof  from  the  meeting  of  Oct.  10,  1837,  as  held  seven  miles  out 
on  Yonge  street. 

Allan  MacNab  (baronet),  born  at  Niagara  in  1798,  where  his  father 
was  attached  to  Simcoe's  staff,  began  the  study  of  law  in  1817  and 
admitted  to  the  Bar  in  1825.  He  was  appointed  the  first  Queen's 
Counsel  in  Upper  Canada  shortly  after,  and  in  1829  he  and  John 
Wilson  were  elected  members  for  Wentworth,  MacNab  holding  the 
position  for  three  parliaments.  He  was  a  harsh  opponent  of  the 
Patriots  in  1837-8;  was  Speaker  in  the  first  Parliament  after  the 
Union,  and  Premier  from  1854  to  1856.  In  October,  1.857,  he  retired, 
having  been  dropped  by  the  astute  John  A.  Macdonald. 

William  Lyon  Mackenzie,  born  in  Scotland  in  1795,  came  to 
Canada  in  1820.  On  May  19,  1824,  appeared  the  Colonial  Advocate, 
at  Niagara.  This  took  the  bull  by  the  horns  and  swung  him  around  so 
unmercifully  that  the  compact  men  destroyed  the  office  in  1826  at 
Toronto,  to  which  place  the  office  was  removed.  This  act  won  new 
supporters,  and  the  Advocate  continued  until  1853,  when  the  new 
press  and  type  were  sold  to  Dr.  O'Grady.  In  1828  Mackenzie  was 
elected  by  York  to  the  Canadian  Parliament.  He  was  expelled,  but 
elected  and  re-elected,  until  his  power  gave  him  a  place.  When  the 
rebellion  of  1837-8  did  not  succeed,  he  fled  from  his  enemies,  who 
were  hungry  for  his  blood.  On  his  return  he  was  coldly  received.  In 
1851  he  defeated  Geo.  Brown,  who  ran  on  what  was  termed  the 
Protestant  ticket,  in  Haldimand,  held  this  seat  until  1858,  and  died  in 
-comparatively  wretched  circumstances  at  Toronto  in  August,  1861. 

George  Brown  entered  Parliament  for  Haldimand  County  in  1852, 



defeating  Wm.  Lyon  Mackenzie.  In  the  days  of  the  Double  Shuffle 
he  and  Dorion  formed  a  Ministry  which  had  a  four-days'  life,  when 
the  Conservatives  returned  to  power.  He  entered  the  Coalition 
Government,  made  up  for  the  purposes  of  Confederation,  but  later 
resigned.  In  1873  he  was  called  to  the  Senate,  in  which  he  served 
until  shot  by  Bennett  in  March,  1880.  He  was  a  powerful  figure  in 
local  politics,  politically  broad,  and,  as  his  star  was  ambition,  he  was 
equally  narrow  in  other  affairs.  Many  of  the  privileges  which 
1837-8  did  riot  scare  away  he  had  removed. 

Eobert  Baldwin,  son  of  Dr.  W.  W.  Baldwin,  of  Cork  Co.,  Ireland 
(who  came  to  Canada  and  studied  law,  and  who  died  in  1844),  began 
the  study  of  law  at  Toronto.  In  1829  he  was  elected  Liberal  member 
of  the  Upper  Canada  House,  he  being  supported  by  Wm.  Lyon  Mac- 
kenzie. His  voice  was  always  heard  against  the  Compact  and  the 
system  of  government.  In  1836  he  became  an  Executive  Councillor; 
in  1840,  Solicitor- General  in  Draper's  Government,  and  in  1842, 
leader  of  the  Baldwin-Lafontaine  Government,  but  in  1843  retired, 
owing  to  the  rupture  with  Lord  Metcalfe.  He  resumed  office  in  1848  ; 
saw  the  Compact  partially  broken  before  his  retirement  in  1851,  and 
died  in  1858. 

Francis  Hincks,  a  native  of  Cork,  Ireland,  who  settled  in  Canada 
in  1832,  established  the  Examiner  at  Toronto,  and  in  1841  was 
elected  to  the  first  Parliament  from  Oxford  County  after  the  union 
of  the  Upper  and  Lower  Provinces.  In  1844,  when  Metcalfe  dis- 
solved the  Canadian  Parliament,  Hincks  was  defeated  by  Robert 
Riddle,  but  was  returned  in  1848.  Through  a  technicality,  Mr.  Car- 
roll was  given  the  seat ;  but  Hincks  was  subsequently  elected,  and, 
on  the  retirement  of  Baldwin,  served  as  Prime  Minister  until  1854. 
He  visited  Ireland ;  was  appointed  Governor  of  Barbadoes ;  later  of 
British  Guiana,  and  in  1869  became  Finance  Minister,  vice  John  Rose, 
resigned,  by  John  A.  Macdonald.  He  resigned  in  1873,  and  died  in 

Malcolm  Cameron,  the  son  of  a  hospital  sergeant  of  a  Highland 
regiment,  who  came  to  Canada  in  1806,  was  bom  at  Three  Rivers  in 
1808.  His  father's  regiment  was  disbanded  in  1816,  and  removing  to 
Perth,  the  old  sergeant  opened  a  tavern  there.  Later  we  find  the  son 
at  Montreal;  next  he  is  opposing  Sir  Francis  Bond  Head's  strut 
through  Upper  Canada;  in  1836  he  is  member  from  Lanark,  in  the 
Upper  Canada  Assembly;  in  1851  he  is  the  President  of  the  Council; 
in  1850,  member  from  Lambton ;  in  1874,  from  South  Ontario,  which 
seat  he  held  until  his  death  in  1876. 

John  Sandfield  Macdonald,  son  of  Alexander,  was  born  at  St. 
Raphael,  in  1812,  studied  law  in  McLean's  office  at  Cornwall,  and  in 
Draper's  office.  In  March,  1841,  after  the  union,  he  was  elected.  He 
opposed  Family-Compact  toryism.  In  1848  to  1852  and  1854  he  was 
elected  without  opposition  by  Glengary.  In  1849  he  was  Solicitor- 
Oeneral  in  the  Lafontaine-Baldwin  Government;  speaker  at -Quebec  in 


1852-4;  Solicitor  in  the  Dorion-Brown  Government  in  1858  ;  member 
for  Cornwall  in  1857,  his  brother  D.  A.,  succeeding  him  as  member  for 
Glengary.  Later  he  opposed  Separate  Schools,  although  a  Catholic, 
but  still  was  elected  by  that  great  Scotch  Catholic  constituency,  and  in 
1862  was  called  at  head  of  the  new  administration  on  the  defeat  of 
the  Cartier-Macdonald  Government.  He  opposed  Confederation,  and 
in  1864  resigned,  but  was  called  upon  to  organize  the  Government  of 
Ontario.  In  1871  he  retired  from  politics,  and  died  in  1872. 

John  Alexander  Macdonald,  born  in  Glasgow,  Scotland,  in  1815, 
was  brought  to  Canada  by  his  parents  in  1820.  Before  1837  he  was  a 
lawyer,  and  appointed  to  defend  Shoultz,  the  Pole,  who  led  the 
Hunters  from  the  American  side  to  take  Prescott,  where  he  was 
captured.  In  1844  he  was  elected  member  for  Kingston.  Prior  to 
1849  he  held  the  offices  of  Receiver-General.  During  Lafontaine-Bald- 
win  regime",  in  1849,  he  was  in  opposition,  on  the  fall  of  the  Hincks- 
Morin  Cabinet,  he  became  Attorney- General  under  Allan  McNab's 
regim£ ;  again  out,  he  returned  as  leader,  but  not  until  the  Brown- 
Mowat-McDougall  coalition  did  he  assume  great  importance.  In 
1873  the  Parliament  held  him  guilty  of  collusion  with  (Sir)  Hugh 
Allan.  In  1878  he  recovered  from  this  attack,  and  returned  to  office 
as  leader  of  the  Conservative  party  in  Canada. 

Edmund  Walker  Head  (Baronet),  born  in  England  in  1805,  suc- 
ceeded Lord  Elgin  in  1854,  as  Governor-General.  At  this  time  the 
Liberal  party  under  the  lead  of  Brown,  was  opposed  by  the  Conserva- 
tives under  John  A.  Macdonald  and  George  E.  Cartier.  The  Tories 
were  beaten  in  the  strife,  but  Head  would  not  dissolve  Parliament,  so 
that  the  measures  taken  to  defeat  the  Liberals  were  named  The 
Double  Shuffle;  it  being  alleged  that  a  Tory  judge  espoused  the  wrong- 
doing. However,  Brown  was  called  upon  to  form  a  government,  and 
the  Dorion-Brown  administration  resulted.  Mr.  Langevin  and  John 
B.  Robinson  moved  and  seconded  the  Double  Shuffle  resolution,  which 
ended  Brown's  Parliament. 

George  E.  Cartier,  a  descendant  of  the  discoverer  of  Canada,  was 
born  in  1814.  In  1835  he  commenced  law  practice,  and  up  to  1837 
was  an  adherent  of  M.  Papineau,  but  refused  to  support  his  rebellion. 
From  1848  to  1861  he  represented  Vercheres  County,  meantime 
holding  many  ministerial  positions.  In  1858  he  became  the  head  of 
the  Cartier-Macdonald  ministry,  and  was  instrumental  in  effecting 
the  confederation  of  the  provinces. 

Oliver  Mowat,  son  of  a  soldier  in  the  British  army,  was  bom  at 
Kingston  in  1820 ;  served  with  the  Compact  forces  in  1837-8 ;  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1841 ;  was  elected  to  the  House  of  Assembly  in 
1857.  In  the  Four  Days'  Administration  of  1858  he  was  Secretary. 
In  1861  he  was  elected  by  South  Ontario,  but  did  not  succeed  in 
defeating  John  A.  Macdonald  in  Kingston.  In  1863  he  became  Post- 
master-General under  Sandfield  Macdonald  and  Dorion's  administra- 
tion. In  1872  he  succeeded  Blake  and  Mackenzie  as  Liberal  leader 
for  Ontario,  a  position  he  still  holds. 


Edward  Blake,  son  of  William  Hume  Blake,  was  born  in  the  Bear 
Creek  settlement  (now  known  as  Kates ville,  Cairngorm  and  Mt.  Hope),, 
October  13,  1833.  Within  a  few  months  his  father  moved  away,  so 
as  to  escape  the  privations  of  the  backwoods,  and,  casting  his  fortunes 
at  Toronto,  had  his  son  educated  there.  In  1856  Edward  was  admitted? 
to  the  bar.  Two  years  later  he  married  Margaret,  daughter  of  Bishop 
Cronyn,  of  London.  In  1867  he  entered  the  political  field,  was  elected 
member  for  West  Durham  (the  same  which  he  represented  in  1886),. 
while  South  Bruce  sent  him  to  the  Local  Parliament,  where,  in  1869, 
he  succeeded  Archibald  McKellar  as  leader  of  the  Provincial  Opposi- 
tion. In  1871,  when  Sandfield  Macdonald's  Coalition  Government 
was  overthrown  on  Mackenzie  and  Blake's  resolution  of  want  of 
confidence,  Mr.  Blake  was  appointed  President  of  the  Eeform  Council. 
When  dual  representation  was  abolished  he  held  his  seat  in  the 
Canadian  House  and  aided  in  the  downfall  of  Sir  John  Macdonald's 
Ministry,  being  rewarded  by  a  membership  in  Mackenzie's  Cabinet. 
From  1875  to  1877  he  was  Minister  of  Justice,  and  in  the  latter  year 
became  President  of  the  Council.  After  Mackenzie's  defeat  he  was 
leader  of  the  Opposition.  In  1878  he  was  defeated  in  South  Bruce, 
but  in  1879  elected  by  West  Durham. 

Alexander  Mackenzie,  born  in  Scotland  in  1822,  came  to  Canada 
in  1842,  when,  for  some  years,  he  worked  at  his  trade  of  stone-mason, 
and  established  the  Lcwnbton  Shield  in  1852,  which  he  conducted  for 
two  years.  In  1861  he  was  elected  by  Lambton  County ;  and,  from 
the  Union  of  1867  until  1873,  he  was  the  leader  of  the  Reform  party 
in  the  House  of  Commons.  In  1873  he  was  called  by  Lord  Dufferin 
to  form  a  Government.  From  December,  1871,  to  October,  1872,  he 
was  Treasurer  in  Blake's  Ontario  Ministry,  meanwhile  taking  a  full 
part  in  military  and  business  affairs. 

The  constitution  of  the  Legislative  Council  of  Canada,  prior  to  the- 
approval  of  the  19  and  20  Viet.,  Cap.  140,  comprising  Crown-nominated 
members  solely,  was  changed  by  that  act,  so  that  the  Council  would 
consist  of  the  existing  Councillors,  who  would  be  life  members,  and 
forty-eight  elective  members,  the  term  for  each  being  eight  years,, 
candidates  being  British  subjects  of  the  age  of  thirty  years  or  more, 
residents  of  Canada,  and  possessors  of  £2,000  worth  of  real  property. 
Of  the  forty- eight  Council  Districts,  twenty-four  were  apportioned  to- 
Upper  Canada.  Lambton  County  and  the  West  Riding  of  Middlesex 
formed  the  St.  Clair  Electoral  Division  or  Council  District,  and  the 
East  and  West  Ridings  of  Elgin,  the  City  of  London  and  the  East 
Riding  of  Middlesex,  the  Malahide  District.  The  plan  of  election  of 
Councillors  by  Districts  was  a  peculiar  one.  A  drawing  of  places  by 
lot  was  arranged,  and  on  July  15,  1856,  this  drawing  placed  St.  Clair 
Electoral  Division  in  the  third  group,  and  Malahide  in  the  fourth 
group — the  former  electing  in  1860,  and  the  latter  1862,  under  the 
act  as  proclaimed  July  16,  1856. 

Geo.  T.  Goodhuewas not  a  candidate  for  Parliament;  but,  in  1846, 



was  appointed  by  the  Government  at  Kingston  to  a  seat  in  the 
Legislative  Council.  In  politics  he  was  a  follower  of  Baldwin  and 
Lafontaine,  and  in  those  days  called  a  Keformer.  His  appointment 
was  due  as  much  to  his  prominence  as  an  old  resident  and  a  man  of 
means  as  to  any  previous  connection  with  political  affairs ;  for  in  such 
matters  he  had  never  shown  any  especial  interest,  or  taken  any  active 
part.  One  anecdote  of  his  appointment  is  worth  relating.  It  is  a 
little  incident  which  transpired  at  a  missionary  meeting,  and  which 
brought  him  in  very  much  favor  with  the  Wesleyan  Methodists,  a 
body  in  strong  numbers  at  London  at  the  time.  The  occasion  was  an 
extraordinary  one  in  the  church,  and  distinguished  speakers  from 
Toronto  and  other  parts  were  present,  among  them  Eev.  Wm.  Ryerson 
and  Peter  Jones,  the  Indian  missionary  of  the  Mohawks.  Mr. 
Goodhue  consented  to  preside  over  the  meeting,  and  during  an  appeal 
made  by  Peter  Jones,  who  was  eloquent  and  witty,  he  emptied  the 
contents  of  a  well-lined  purse  upon  the  table.  This  act  of  generosity 
was  so  much  appreciated  by  the  people  assembled,  and  the  heads  of  the 
meeting,  that  the  next  morning  they  drew  up  a  formal  petition  to  the 
Government,  asking  for  Mr.  Goodhue's  appointment  to  the  office  of 
Councillor,  and  his  nomination  was  confirmed  over  Messrs.  Keefer,  of 
Niagara,  and  Simeon  Washburne,  of  Hallo  well,  whose  names  were 
also  brought  forward.  Mr.  Goodhue  retained  his  seat  in  the  Legisla- 
tive Council  until  the  passage  of  the  Act  of  Confederation,  at  which 
time,  and  for  four  years  previously,  his  growing  infirmities  prevented 
his  attendance  at  the  House.  During  his  parliamentary  career  he  was 
never  distinguished  as  a  speaker,  yet  his  counsel  was  always  sought 
and  valued,  as  being  that  of  a  man  of  sound  judgment  and  consistent 

Elijah  Leonard,  a  native  of  New  York  State,  and  one  of  the  most 
useful  residents  of  Canada,  established  a  foundry  at  St.  Thomas  in 
1834,  and  one  at  London  in  1838.  He  represented  the  Malahide 
division  in  the  Legislative  Council  from  1862  to  1867,  defeating  H. 
C.  R.  Becher.  In  the  latter  year  he  was  commissioned  a  Dominion 
Senator,  under  the  B.  N.  A.  Act. 

In  March,  1874,  Nathaniel  Currie  introduced  a  bill  into  the 
Legislature  which  provided  for  female  suffrage  and  the  representation 
of  property  according  to  its  value.  The  main  clauses  were  : — 1st. 
That  in  municipal  elections  and  votes  on  by-laws  creating  debts  real 
property  shall  be  the  basis  of  the  franchise,  and  parties  shall  have  dual 
or  plural  votes  according  to  the  value  of  their  property.  2nd.  Women 
of  full  age,  subjects  of  Her  Majesty,  with  the  proper  property  quali- 
fication, shall  have  a  right  to  vote  at  such  elections  The  Farmers' 
Sons  Franchise  Act  was  passed  by  the  Ontario  Assembly  in  1877  In 
May,  1885,  the  question  of  giving  the  Indians  of  Upper  and  Lower 
Canada  and  the  Maritime  Provinces  the  right  of  voting  was  endorsed 
by  Dr.  Oronhyatekha,  of  London,  himself  an  Indian.  Each  of  these 
important  questions  were  discussed  both  in  and  out  of  Parliament  and 



with  the  original  bills  subjected  to  some  material  amendments,  were 
placed  on  the  statute  books  of  the  Dominion. 

The  Eedistribution  Bill  of  1882  provided  that  the  County  of 
Middlesex  be  divided  into  four  Eidings,  each  of  which  to  return  a 
member  to  the  House  of  Commons  ;  that  the  South  Eiding  of  the  County 
of  Middlesex  shall  consist  of  the  townships  of  Westminster,  Caradoc 
and  Lobo  ;  that  the  East  Eiding  of  the  County  of  Middlesex  shall  consist 
of  the  townships  of  London,  West  Nissouri,  North  Dorchester,  South 
Dorchester,  and  the  town  of  London  East  and  the  villages  of  London 
West  and  Springfield ;  that  the  West  Eiding  of  the  County  of  Middlesex 
shall  consist  of  the  townships  of  Adelaide,  Metcalfe,  Mosa,  Euphemia 
and  Ekfrid,  and  the  villages  of  Glencoe,  Newbury  and  Wardsville,  and 
the  town  of  Strathroy  ;  that  the  North  Eiding  of  the  County  of  Middle- 
sex shall  consist  of  the  townships  of  East  Williams,  West  Williams, 
McGillivray,  Biddulph  and  Stephen,  and  the  villages  of  Ailsa  Craig, 
Lucan  and  Parkhill. 

Taking  the  general  election  of  September  17,  1878,  as  a  basis,  the 
political  status  of  the  new  Electoral  Divisions  would  be  as  follows. 
The  figures  denote  the  respective  majorities  in  each  precinct : — 















Newbury  . 







95        McGillivray  . 


18        Biddulph  


53        West  Williams.. 
East  Williams  
51         Parkhill  .  . 


Ailsa  Craig  







London  Township. 





West   Nissouri  .... 


Delaware                   .      ... 

....         12 

North  Dorchester. 



South  Dorchester  . 

Reform  maioritv.. 


London  East  
London  West  .  . 









The  bill  provided  for  the  establishment  of  the  South  Eiding,  but 
did  not  deal  with  London  City. 

The  first  representatives,  of  what  now  constitutes  Middlesex 
District,  in  the  old  Parliament  of  1816,  were  Messrs.  Wilcox  and 
Beagley.  Col.  Mahlon  Burwell  and  John  Bostwick  served  in  two 
Parliaments,  1820  to  1824,  and  in  1825-6  the  London  District  was 
represented.  Dr.  John  Eolph,  Capt.  John  Matthews,  Francis  L. 
Walsh,  Duncan  McColl,  Thomas  Homer  and  Charles  Ingersoll,  the  two 


first  named  representing  Middlesex.  In  1828  Rolph  and  Matthews 
were  re-elected.  Mahlon  Burwell  opposing,  his  platform  being  to 
remove  the  court-house  to  St.  Thomas.  Capt.  Matthews,  who  m 
1830,  went  to  England  to  lay  the  state  of  the  country  before  Parlia- 
ment asserted  that  no  one  who  did  not  endure  it  could  understand  the 
rascality  of  the  Government.  Prior  to  1830,  Capt.  Matthews  visited 
Toronto.  He  found  a  band  there  who  could  neither  play  God  Save 
the  King  nor  Eule  Britannia,  but  could  play  Yankee  Doodle.  On 
striking  this  air  one  man  called  for  hats  off,  but  Van  Conant  would 
not  respond,  Matthews  advanced  and  knocked  the  hat  across  the  room. 
He  was  tried  for  treason,  but  let  off. 

The  members  of  the  House  of  Assembly  from  Middlesex  and 
adjoining  counties  in  1831,  were  Mahlon  Burwell  and  Koswell  Mount, 
Middlesex;  Wm.  Berczy,  Kent  County;  Wm.  Elliott  and  Jean  B. 
Macon,  Essex  County  ;  Charles  Ingersoll  and  Charles  Buncombe, 
Oxford;  D.  McColl  and  Wm.  Wilson,  Norfolk.  In  1832  Elias  Moore 
and  Thomas  Parke  were  chosen  to  represent  Middlesex,  and  re-elected 
in  1836.  At  this  time  a  party  fight  took  place  at  London,  Levi 
Merrick,  a  reformer,  flying  from  the  Orangemen  headed  by  Matt. 
Coughlin  and  John  O'Neil.  Michael  Shoff,  Eobert  Summers,  jr.,  and 
other  reformers  carried  their  points.  The  members  of  the  House  of 
Assembly  from  Middlesex  in  1839  were  Thomas  Parke  and  Elias 
Moore  ;  from  London,  Mahlon  Burwell  ;  from  Kent,  Wm.  McCrae 
and  N.  Cornwall  ;  from  Essex,  John  Prince  and  Francis  Caldwell. 
Thomas  Parke,  of  Wicklow  County,  Ireland,  who  settled  at  Toronto 
in  1820,  and  represented  Middlesex  in  the  last  two  Parliaments  of 
Upper  Canada,  in  1834,  and  on  the  first  Parliament  of  the  Province  of 
Canada,  in  1841,  was  the  father  of  E.  Jones  Parke,  of  London.  He 
died  at  St.  Catharines  in  1864. 

The  election  of  1841  was  warmly  contested,  and  party  feeling  ran 
so  high,  that  on  January  23  a  violent  attack  on  the  houses  of  Col. 
Witherell,  of  the  Royal  Fusiliers,  and  John  Givens,  a  lawyer,  was 
made  —  rocks  and  bricks  being  freely  used.  In  February  the  Magis- 
trates offered  £40  for  information  which  would  lead  to  the  conviction 
of  the  guilty  parties.  In  1842,  Ermatinger,  of  St.  Thomas,  was 
selected,  but  his  opponent,  Wm  Notman*  petitioned  against  his 
methods,  unseated  him,  and  was  himself  elected.  He  was  re-elected 

*The  Convention  of  Oct.  2, 1851,  was  organized  with  Adamson,  of  Lobo.  presiding,  and 
Holcroft  Clench,  Secretary.  The  delegates  present  were  :— Township  of  London— Wm. 
Hale,  James  Ferguson  and  Nathan  Jacobs.  Dun wich— Moses  Willey.  Southwold— Robert 
Thomson  and  Colin  Munro.  Bayham— John  Elliott,  John  Skinner  and  Wm.  Hatch.  Yar- 
mouth—Hugh Douglas.  Lindley  Moore  and  M.  T.  Moore.  Malahide— W.  Campbell,  Dr. 
Ogden  and  J.  W.  Beemer.  S.  and  N-  Dorchester- W,  H.  Niles  and  Wellington  Crouse. 
Caradoc— Holcroft  Clench  and  Hugh  Anderson.  Delaware— Henry  Bawlings.  Metcalfe— 
Thomas  Gately.  Adelaide— Patrick  Mee.  Lobo— R.  Adamson  and  John  Edwards.  West- 
minster—Thomas Baty,  Joseph  L.  Odetl  and  D.  M.  Rymall.  There  were  no  delegates 
present  from  the  townships  of  Aid  borough,  Ekfrid,  Mosa  and  Williams.  It  was  moved  by 
J.  Elliott,  and  seconded  by  Patrick  Mee,  that  Wm.  Notman  be  the  Reform  candidate  to 
represent  this  County  at  the  next  general  election.  In  amendment  it  was  moved  that  Dr. 
John  Rolph  be  the  candidate.  The  vote  was  then  taken;  ten  voting  for  the  amendment, 
and  sixteen  for  the  original  motion.  The  formal  meeting  to  call  the  Convention  was  held 
at  the  Junction  in  September,  1851. 



in  1847 ;  but  in  1851  was  defeated  by  Crowell  Wilson,  who  repre- 
sented the  united  Counties  of  Elgin  and  Middlesex  until  1854. 

In  1853  Middlesex  proper  was  divided  into  two  representative 
districts,  and  in  the  elections  of  1854  William  Niles  was  elected  for 
the  East  Eiding  over  his  opponent,  Wm.  Horton,  while  John 
Scatcherd  was  chosen  for  the  West  Riding  over  James  Ferguson.  In 
1857  Scatcherd  was  re-elected,  but  Marcus  Talbot  took  Niles'  place. 
It  appears  that  shortly  after  the  election  of  Marcus  Talbot,  in  1857, 
he  visited  Ireland  and  there  was  married.  In  returning,  he  was 
drowned  on  the  ship  Hungarian;  so  that  an  election  to  fill  the 
vacancy  thus  created  in  the  East  Hiding  was  held,  which  resulted  in 
sending  Robert  Craik  to  Parliament.  M.  B.  Portman  followed  Craik, 
a  Reformer,  and  served  until  1862-3,  when  Crowell  Wilson  was 
selected  to  represent  the  division — being  elected  and  re-elected  until 
1872.  In  1872,  on  the  retirement  of  Crowell  Wilson,  David  Glass, 
C.,  and  James  Evans,  R.,  contested  the  East  Riding,  when  the  former 
was  elected.  In  November,  1873,  Mr.  Glass  opposed  the  leader  of  his 
party,  and  went  before  his  constituency  as  an  adherent  of  the  Mac- 
kenzie-Scott or  Reform  party.  He  was  defeated  by  Crowell  Wilson 
in  1874.  On  his  seat  being  declared  vacant,  owing  to  the  questionable 
methods  used  to  secure  his  election,  Duncan  Macmillan,  C.,  was  chosen, 
he  being  opposed  by  the  Reformer  James  Armstrong. 

On  the  death  of  John  Scatcherd,  A.  P.  Macdonald  was  chosen  and 
he  represented  the  Western  Riding  in  the  two  Parliaments,  when  in 
1861  his  successor,  Thomas  Scatcherd,  took  his  seat  and  served  until 
Confederation.  On  the  re-subdivision  of  the  county  for  electoral  pur- 
poses under  the  Act  of  Confederation  into  three  divisions,  he  was 
elected  to  represent  North  Middlesex,  and  this  position  he  held  until 
his  death,  April  15,  1876,  when  his  brother,  R.  C.  Scatcherd,  succeeded 
him,  defeating  John  Levie  at  the  polls.  In  1867  the  Western  Division 
was  carried  by  A.  P.  Macdonald  over  Dr.  Billington — Alfred  Mont- 
gomery's tavern  and  another  one  being  open  free  to  all  comers.  In 
1872  Geo.  W.  Ross  defeated  Macdonald,  and  in  1874  also  carried  this 
district  by  acclamation;  again  in  1878  and  1882.  In  1883  his  seat 
was  declared  vacant  by  reason  of  bribery  by  agents.  In  November, 
1883,  he  was  appointed  Minister  of  Education,  and  in  December,  1883, 
elected  to  the  Legislative  Assembly  for  West  Middlesex. 

James  Evans  represented  the  East  Riding  in  the  Ontario  House 
from  1867  to  1871,  when  Richard  Tooley  was  elected,  defeating  the 
Reform  candidate.  James  Evans. 

J.  S.  Smith,  Liberal,  was  elected  member  of  the  Ontario  House  from 
the  North  Riding  in  1867,  which  he  represented  until  1875,  when  J. 
McDougall  was  chosen  representative. 

Nicholas  Currie  was  elected  to  represent  the  West  Riding  in  the 
Ontario  Assembly  in  1867,  but  gave  way  to  Alexander  Mackenzie,  the 
Premier,  in  1871.  In  1872  J.  Watterworth  was  elected,  defeating 
Dewan  by  98  votes. 


The  elections  of  March,  1871  resulted  in  the  choice  of  John  Car- 
ling  Conservative,  for  London ;  Richard  Tooley,  Conservative,  for  East 
Middlesex ;  J.  S.  Smith,  Liberal,  for  North  Middlesex :  Alex.  Mac- 
kenzie, Liberal,  for  West  Middlesex. 

The  returns  of  the  West  Middlesex  election  of  August,  1872,  show : 
1  322  votes  for  G.  W.  Ross,  Liberal,  and  1,266  for  A.  P.  Macdonald, 
Conservative.  In  the  North  Riding,  Scatcherd,  Liberal,  and  in  the 
East  Riding,  D.  Glass,  Conservative,  were  elected.  John  Carlirig, 
Conservative,  was  elected  for  London.  In  September,  West  Middlesex 
gave  J.  Watterworth,  Liberal,  1,311,  and  J.  Dewan,  Conservative,  1,213 


In  1874,  Major  Walker  was  elected  to  represent  London,  receiving 
1,270  votes,  while  John  Carling  received  1,208,  but  was  unseated  by 
petition.  Messrs.  Scatcherd,  Ross,  and  Wilson,  were  elected  for  North, 
West,  and  East  Middlesex  respectively. 

The  election  of  1875  resulted  in  the  return  of  W.  R.  Meredith  for 
London ;  Richard  Tooley,  J.  McDougall  and  J.  Watterworth  for  East, 
North  and  West  Middlesex  respectively. 

The  elections  for  the  Ontario  House,  held  in  June,  1879,  resulted 
as  follows: — West  Middlesex — Richardson  (Conservative),  1,524; 
Watterworth,  1,575.  North  Middlesex— McDougall,  1,685  ;  Waters  ; 
1,917.  East  Middlesex— R.  Tooley,  526;  Daniel  Mackenzie,  340. 
London — W.  R.  Meredith  (Conservative),  was  elected,  the  city  being- 
contested  by  Magee.  W.  R.  Meredith  was  chosen  Conservative 
leader  in  the  Ontario  Parliament  January  9,  1879. 

The  elections  of  February,  1883,  resulted  in  the  choice  of  W.  R. 
Meredith,  Conservative,  for  London;  A.  Johnston,  Conservative,  for 
West  Middlesex ;  John  Waters,  Liberal,  for  North,  and  Dan.  Mackenzie, 
Liberal,  for  East  Middlesex,  defeating  Thomas  Routledge,  West 
Middlesex  being  won  from  the  Liberals.  The  trial  of  the  election 
case,  E.  Scatcherd  representing  the  cause  of  Watterworth  vs.  Alex. 
Johnston,  M.  P.  P.,  was  heard  November  9,  1883,  before  Justice 
Cameron.  James  Bethune,  Wm.  Johnston  and  John  Cameron  re- 
presented the  petitioner;  Dalton  McCarthy,  W.  P.  R.  Street  and  E. 
R.  Cameron  the  respondent.  Johnston  was  declared  unseated.  In 
August,  1884,  the  trial  of  the  petition  against  the  return  of  Geo. 
W.  Ross,  as  member  for  West  Middlesex,  was  opened  at  Strathroy. 
Justices  Gait  and  Ferguson  presided.  Dr.  McMichael  and  H.  Becher 
represented  the  petitioners,  while  B.  B.  Osier,  W.  Johnston,  Peterson 
and  Cameron  represented  Mr.  Ross.  The  petition  contained  125 
charges,  not  one  of  which  was  sustained. 

In  December,  1886,  Geo.  W.  Ross  was  elected  for  West,  John 
Waters  for  North,  and  R.  Tooley  for  East  Middlesex ;  while  W.  R. 
Meredith  was  chosen  to  represent  London,  his  majority  being  213. 
In  1879  he  was  elected  by  a  majority  of  447,  and  'in  1883  without 

Justice  Falconbridge  unseated  Dr.  Roome,  elected  member   for 


West  Middlesex,  in  February,  1888.  No  charge  existed  against  the 
doctor,  but  the  fact  of  George  Wilkins  volunteering  transportation 
was  sufficient  to  invalidate  the  election. 

The  North  Middlesex  election  of  June,  1876,  resulted  in  1,380 
votes  for  John  Levie  and  1,576  for  E.  C.  Scatcherd. 

The  elections  of  September,  1878,  resulted  in  the  return  of  John 
Carling  for  London,  Timothy  Coughlin  for  North,  Macmillan  for  East, 
and  Geo.  W.  Eoss  for  West  Middlesex. 

The  elections  of  June,  1882,  resulted  as  follows : — Member  for 
London — John  Carling,  C.,  1,485;  John  Campbell,  L.,  1,238;  majority t, 
247.  Member  for  East  Middlesex— E.  Macmillan,  C.,  1,998;  I. 
Langford,  L.,  1,431.  Member  for  North  Middlesex — Timothy  Cough- 
lin, 1,741 ;  L.  E.  Shipley,  1,632.  Member  for  West  Middlesex— G. 
W.  Eoss,  1,651 ;  N.  Currie,  1,597.  Member  for  South  Middlesex— J. 
Armstrong,  L.,  1,678 ;  J.  Eayner,  C.,  812. 

London  was  established  a  separate  representative  district  in  1835,. 
when  Col.  Mahlon  Burwell  was  elected  its  first  member  of  Parliament. 
Hamilton  H.  Killally  was  next  accorded  the  honor ;  then  Lawrence 
Lawrason,  in  1844,  followed  by  William  H.  Draper,  who  resigned  to- 
accept  a  Judgeship ;  John  Wilson,  who  was  subsequently  appointed 
Judge ;  Thomas  C.  Dickson,  who  was  defeated  at  the  next  election  by 
John  Wilson,  and  in  1857  by  John  Carling,  who  represented  the  city 
until  1874,  when  John  Walker,  now  Eegistrar,  was  elected.  Col. 
Walker  was  unseated  on  a  petition,  and  James  H.  Eraser  was  chosen 
to  represent  London.  John  Carling  was  elected  member  of  Parliament 
for  London  City  in  1857,  and  continued  representative  until  1874, 
when  he  was  defeated  by  Col.,  then  Major  Walker,  who  was,  however, 
unseated.  In  1862  he  was  Eeceiver- General,  but  owing  to  the  defeat 
of  his  party  in  Parliament  in  1874  that  position  was  transferred  to  a 
Liberal  within  a  few  months.  In  1867  he  represented  the  city  in 
the  Ontario  Parliament ;  was  Commissioner  of  Public  Works,  Agricul- 
ture and  Immigration  until  1871,  when  the  Macdonald  party  was 
defeated.  During  his  term  the  Insane  Asylums  at  London  and 
Belleville,  and  the  Asylum  for  the  Blind  at  Brantford,  were  estab- 
lished. In  1872  he  resigned  his  seat  in  the  Assembly,  having 
accomplished  or  aided  in  accomplishing  almost  everything  his  consti- 
tuents called  for,  meanwhile  being  a  member  of  the  Dominion  House. 




THE     BENCH    AND    BAR. 

From  the  earliest  period  in  the  history  of  the  world,  the  advocate 
has  existed  and  made  his  presence  known  where  men  of  other  trades 
or  professions  were  silent  or  unfelt.  Milton,  in  the  days  when  religious 
revolution  reduced  the  human  mind  to  a  state  of  skepticism  and  left 
the  puolic  conscience  uncontrolled,  declared  that  "most  men  are 
allured  to  the  trade  of  law,  grounding  their  purposes  not  on  the  pru- 
dent and  heavenly  contemplation  of  justice  and  equity,  which  was 
never  taught  them,  but  on  the  promising  and  pleasing  thoughts  of 
litigious  terms,  fat  contentions  and  flowing  fees."  Later  the  advocate 
assumed  the  form  of  a  student,  and  with  this  form  grew  up  a  thousand 
ambitions,  and  with  the  ambitions  came  the  original  trades'  union, 
which  prompted  the  old  bar  to  circumscribe  its  circle  and  surround 
itself  with  certain  ceremonies  and  insignia.  Law  became  a  great 
study,  and  thus  in  Johnson's  time  the  bar  embraced 

"  Men  of  that  large  profession,  who  can  speak 
To  every  cause,  and  things  indeed  contraries, 
Till  they  are  hoarse  again,  yet  all  be  law  : 
That  with  most  quick  agility  can  turn, 
And  return,  make  knots  and  undo  them, 
Give  forked  counsel,  take  provoking  gold 
From  either  side  and  put  it  up." 

One  of  the  first  criminal  cases  tried  in  London  may  be  taken  as 
evidence  that  the  lawyer  of  Johnson's  time  had  not  passed  away  in 
1832 ;  for  here  we  find  the  pioneer  advocate,  Michael  Tenbroeck, 
defending  Sovereen  with  an  earnestness  worthy  of  a  good  cause ;  and 
later,  when  his  wretched  client  is  on  the  scaffold,  the  same  Michael 
Tenbroeck  cries  out  to  the  criminal  to  confess  his  crime  as  he  con- 
fessed it  to  him.  Justice  was  easily  dispensed.  There  was  no  law 
and  very  little  trouble.  Squire  Matthews  remembers  Tenbroeck,  the 
London  lawyer,  because  he  was  the  first  he  had  ever  seen  and  "  was  a 
square  kind  of  man."  "If  there  were  any  bit  of  a  quarrel,"  says  the 
Squire,  "or  injury  or  trespass  inflicted,  the  one  on  the  other,  the 
plaintiff  got  one  man  and  the  defendant  another,  and  if  they  couldn't 
settle  it  all  up,  as  they  generally  did,  why,  they  called  on  a  third  man, 
and  the  whole  business  was  done  in  a  jiffy  without  pen  or  ink, 
Testament,  paper,  costs  or  anything  else.  Maybe  the  court  would  be 
held  on  a  log  or  across  a  stump.  The  first  magistrate  I  remember  was 
Squire  Mackenzie ;  but  we  never  troubled  him."  *  In  1827  all  this,  or 
much  of  this  happy  state  of  affairs,  was  changed,  and  the  Quarter 
Sessions  Court  had  for  some  years  afterwards  extensive  dealings  in 
settling  up  old  feuds.  Indeed,  prior  to  1827  the  old  method  of  friendly 



arbitration  began  to  wane;  for  in  1825  a  log  court-house  or  town 
meeting-house  was  erected  at  Springbank,  and  in  it  Squires  Springer 
and  Ingersoll,  and  sometimes  Col.  Talbot  and  Capt.  Matthews,  held 
regular  court. 

In  the  transactions  of  the  Quarter  Sessions  Court  of  London 
District,  a  close  summary  of  its  proceedings  from  1813  to  1842  is 
given.  In  fact,  all  the  petty  trials  from  1813  to  1827,  when  the 
court  was  removed  from  Long  Point  or  Vittoria  to  London,  are  given. 
The  early  records  of  the  Assize  Court  are  very  irregular,  and  with  few 
exceptions  are  of  little  use  for  historical  purposes,  up  to  the  period 
when  Col.  Macbeth  took  possession  of  the  Crown  office  here.  It  is  a 
fact  that  of  all  the  documents,  which  must  have  existed  in  1838-9 
relating  to  the  trial  of  the  Patriots,  very  few  are  to  be  found  to-day. 
It  might  not  be  an  exaggeration  to  assert  that  such  records  were 
intentionally  destroyed  or  carelessly  given  away. 

The  oldest  record  of  the  London  District  Court  deals  with  the  case 
of  Alex.  Eoss  vs.  Kobert  Hindman,  in  which  a  capias  ad  responden- 
dum  was  issued,  Feb.  3,  1823,  for  £13  currency.  On  March  24  the 
process  was  returned,  when  bail  was  entered.  On  March  27  an 
affidavit  was  filed,  and  motion  arid  order  withdrawn ;  on  the  29th,  a 
declaration  was  filed,  and  a  motion  for  the  discharge  of  the  defendant, 
on  filing  a  common  appeal  and  the  bail  bond  to  be  delivered  up,  was 
granted.  On  March  31,  a  demurrer  and  notice  of  set-off  was  filed  by 
J.  Tenbroeck,  plaintiff's  attorney.  The  case  of  Eichard  L.  Corkcroft 
vs.  James  Bell  was  presented  by  Attorney  John  Eolph,  who  found  that 
the  parties  had  settled  the  claim  for  £3.  The  claim  of  Frederick 
Smith  v.  Samuel  Mowrey  was  presented  by  Attorney  Tenbroeck,  but 
the  only  result  shown  is  the  payment  of  two  shillings  and  sixpence  to 
Judge  Mitchell.  Luke  Teeple,  by  his  attorney,  John  Eolph,  prose- 
cuted Peter  Massap,  as  bondsman.  The  case  of  John  Earle  v.  James 
Cowan  was  presented  by  Eolph;  also  that  of  Geo.  C.  Salmon,  v. 
Eichard  Massap ;  also  of  Milton  Gregory  v.  Chandler  C.  Haskill ;  John 
J.  Harris  v.  Gatien  Lizer;  Smith  and  Williams  v.  James  Nevilles; 
Jacob  Patrick  v.  Cowan  &  Walker ;  Alanson  Allen  v.  Silas  Harris ; 
George  Boyington  v.  George  Coughall ;  James  Bell  v.  Jeremiah  Moor ; 
Josiah  C.  Goodhue  v.  George  Teeple ;  Joseph  Defulds  v.  James  Hayes ; 
Eeuben  Morrison  v.  Horatio  Nelson  Franklin ;  John  Islik  v.  Thomas 
Finch;  J.  C.  Goodhue  v.  David  Graham;  same  v.  Isaac  Ostrander; 
same  v.  John  Elwood ;  same  v.  Philip  Beringer ;  same  v.  W.  H.  Lee ; 
same  v.  Daniel  Springer;  same  v.  Winslow  Thayer,  and  sixteen  other 
cases.  Eolph  may  be  said  to  have  been  attorney  for  plaintiff  in  all  the 
above  cases,  Tenbroeck  being  driven  to  defend.  In  a  few  cases  juries 
were  sworn  to  aid  the  District  Judge,  James  Mitchell. 

The  June  session  of  1823  opened  with  Tenbroeck  leading.      Of 
.the  39  cases  brought  before  the  District  Court,  Attorney  Eolph  repre- 
'sented  the  plaintiff  in  37.     In  September  and  December,  1823,  Ten- 
broeck again  leads  the  Court  with  two  cases,  Eolph  representing  the 


plaintiff  in  all  the  others,  except  the  48th  and  49th,  when  Tenbroeck 
presented  plaintiffs'  claims.  A  musty  pasteboard-bound  book  in  Col. 
John  Macbeth's  office,  bearing  the  simple  legend  "1823  "  on  the  back, 
tells  hundreds  of  painful  stories  concerning  the  old  debtors'  prison. 
One  example  will  suffice.  In  October,  1822,  Kichard  W.  Drake  threw 
John  Anderson  into  jail  for  a  debt  of  £6  5s.,  bail  being  refused.  In 
March,  1823,  he  was  tried,  and  the  following  jury  returned  a  verdict 
for  plaintiff :— Win.  Havens,  Wm.  Potts,  Wm.  White,  Nathaniel 
White,  Eichard  Marr,  Cortlands  Olds,  Benjamin  Bawn,  Asa  Stevens, 
Levi  Douglass,  John  B.  Wheeler,  Peter  Wyckoff  and  Charles  Gustin. 
On  the  6th  day  of  March,  1825,  he  was  released,  after  a  new  trial, 
before  another  jury  of  "  twelve  good  men  and  true."  To  those  who 
can  recollect  the  old  vermin -haunted  log  jail  nothing  need  be  said  of 
what  the  unfortunate  Anderson  must  have  suffered  for  this  simple 
debt.  The  old  jailor,  long  since  gone  to  his  eternal  rest,  saw  many  a 
wife  shed  tears  at  the  cell  door  of  an  unhappy  husband  as  he  kissed 
the  child  he  could  not  support,  and  would  gladly  have  set  him  free, 
but  the  stern  law  forbade. 

Among  the  important  cases  brought  before  the  first  Assize  Court 
at  London,  was  the  charge  of  horse  stealing  against  Sovereign  or 
Sovereen,  in  1827  or  1828.  Judge  Macaulay  sentenced  him  to  death  ; 
but  the  old  law  which  would  give  the  insulter  of  women  only  a  few 
days  or  a  few  months  in  the  common  jail,  while  sentencing  the  horse 
thief  to  death,  was  falling  gradually  into  disrepute,  and  so  executive 
clemency  was  extended  to  this  terribly  vicious  pioneer. 

The  first  murder  case  before  the  Quarter  Sessions  here  was  on  April 
14,  1831,  when  a  bench  warrant  was  issued  to  the  High  Constable  for 
the  arrest  of  Jared  Sealey  for  murder.  John  Phelan,  of  Oxford  East, 
blacksmith;  Joshua  H.  Corbin,  of  Norwich,  and  Wm.  Haskel,  of 
London,  were  witnesses.  The  man  murdered  was  Jonathan  Kipp. 
Owing  to  the  fact  that  Sealey  had  friends  on  the  bench,  the  prosecution 
of  the  charges  was  carried  on  without  spirit,  and  there  is  no  record 
whatever  to  show  that  the  case  was  ever  presented  to  the  Judge  of 

In  April,  1831,  £100  were  paid  Geo.  Henry,  Leslie  Pearce  and 
Henry  Fox,  for  arresting  C.  A.  Burieigh  for  the  murder  of  T.  C. 

Execution  of  Burleigh.— The  first  execution  at  London  was  that 
of  Cornelius  A.  Burley  or  Burieigh,  of  Long  Point.  In  1830,  as 
related  in  another  chapter,  he  was  charged  with  larceny.  The  war- 
rant for  his  arrest  was  placed  in  Constable  T.  C.  Pomeroy's  hands. 
The  constable  moved  down  on  the  home  of  Burieigh  in  Bayham,  and 
wfth  rough  words  and  rougher  gestures  sought  to  scare  Burieigh  into 
instant  surrender.  Burleigh's  guilt  was  questionable,  and  this  feeling 
with  the  irritation  which  an  ignorant  officer  can  sometimes  cause,  led 
to  the  act  which  culminated  in  Pomeroy's  death.  Burieigh  shot  and 
killed  him.  At  that  time  men  did  not  wait  to  consider  what  provoca- 



tion  meant,  but  rushed  forward  blindly  to  arrest  the  murderer.  With 
him  they  took  two  men  and  lodged  all  in  the  old  jail  for  a  year.  In 
the  meantime,  all  the  prisoners  (eight  in  number)  escaped,  except 
Burleigh,  as  the  unfortunate  man  did  not  hold  himself  guilty  of  larceny 
or  murder,  and  so  hoped  for  a  reprieve.  Again,  he  knew  that  the 
prisoners  would  be  tracked  through  the  snow,  and  recaptured,  as  they 
were.  In  1831  executive  clemency  failed  to  save  this  man  from 
popular  vengeance.  The  gallows  was  erected  in  the  court-house  yard, 
almost  all  the  people  within  twenty-five  miles  of  London  came  to  see 
the  drama,  and  their  depraved  tastes  were  satisfied ;  for  when  Burleigh 
was  swinging  off,  the  rope  broke,  and  the  half-strangled  man  walked 
round  before  the  people  with  part  of  the  rope  dangling  after  him. 
Eecaptured  he  was  re -led  up  to  the  scaffold,  and  this  time  flung  into 
eternity.  Eev.  Mr.  Mackintosh,  of  the  English  Church,  at  Kettle 
Creek,  attended  to  his  spiritual  wants. 

Execution  of  Sovereen. — Jonathan  Sovereen,  one  of  a  large  tribe 
who  lived  near  Applegarth's  Flats  in  the  early  days  of  the  township, 
moved  to  a  point  near  Burford  in  the  twenties.  This  migration  took 
place  after  his  first  conviction  for  cattle  stealing,  for  which  he  was 
sentenced  to  be  hanged,  but  through  influence  was  reprieved.  Before 
and  after  his  escape  he  was  engaged  in  dark  deeds,  so  dreadful  that  his 
two  eldest  children  left  home  to  work  for  neighbors.  On  the  day 
before  the  dreadful  crime  was  enacted  for  which  he  was  hanged,  he 
asked  those  children  to  return,  but  they  did  not,  and  thus  escaped  the 
slaughter,  which  brought  death  to  their  mother  and  seven  (sisters  and 
brothers)  children.  Sovereen  had  planned  the  extinction  of  his  family, 
lest  by  any  chance  one  of  them  would  give  information  regarding  his 
evil  acts.  On  the  day  before  the  murder,  he  left  home  in  a  manner 
which  would  be  generally  known,  but  returned  during  the  night  and 
carried  out  his  dreadful  designs,  killing  his  wife  and  six  children  out- 
right, and  injuring  a  little  girl  of  five  summers  so  that  she  died  soon 
after,  leaving  a  child  of  three  years  and  the  two  elder  children,  who 
were  away,  survivors  of  the  family.  On  the  following  morning 
Sovereen  himself  gave  the  alarm  that  Indians  had  visited  his  home 
and  murdered  his  wife  and  children.  The  neighbors  flocked  thither, 
and  found  the  wife  between  the  cabin  and  'barn  with  an  old  shoe  knife 
buried  to  the  hilt  in  her  left  side,  and  over  her  body  several  wounds. 
In  her  hand  was  a  bunch  of  gray  hair,  which  she  plucked  from  the 
murderer  in  her  death  struggle :  within  the  house  were  the  bodies  of 
the  murdered  children.  There  was  the  stool  with  which  he  knocked 
their  brains  out,  and  there  the  axe  clotted  with  blood  and  brains  and 
hair.  It  was  no  Indian's  work.  Sovereen's  own  hair  was  the  simplest 
tell-tale,  and  at  the  Spring  Assizes  of  1832  he  was  found  guilty,  not- 
withstanding Michael  Tenbroeck's  able  defence.  On  June  5,  1832, 
Lawrason  and  Goodhue's  store  at  the  northwest  corner  of  Dundas  and 
Ridout  street  was  filled  with  people,  windows,  doors  and  roof.  There 
was  the  gallows,  from  which  Burleigh  was  twice  flung  in  1831,  and  all 


around  a  sea  of  faces,  for  the  people  within  a  circle  of  150  miles  came  to 
see  the  wretch  die.  There  was  Elder  James  Jackson  of  the  Methodist 
Church  attending,  and  his  old  time  member  still  defiant  and  denying. 
Mr  Tenbroeck  cried  out  to  him  :  "  For  God's  sake,  Sovereen,  confess  ; 
don't  die  with  a  lie  in  your  mouth."  But  the  prayer  was  of  no  use. 
Sovereen  was  launched  into  eternity.  The  present  Rev.  Dr.  Webster, 
of  Newbury,  was  in  attendance,  but  not  called  upon.  This  fiend  was  over 
sixty  years  of  age  at  the  time  of  this  murder.  One  of  the  points  in 
evidence  against  him  was  a  suit  of  blood-stained  clothes  discovered  in 
the  bed-tick,  which  were  proven  to  have  been  worn  by  him  the  day 
before  the  murder.  The  clothes,  with  the  hair  wrenched  from  his  head 
in  the  struggle  with  the  dying  wife,  completed  the  chain  of  evidence. 

Execution  of  Jones.— Thomas  Jones,  of  Delaware  Township,  was 
hanged  in  1868  for  the  murder  of  his  brother's  daughter,  Mary  Jones. 
His  two  sons  were  the  principal  witnesses  against  him,  while  his 
daughter,  Elizabeth,  defended  him  to  the  last.  The  sons  pointed 
out  that  he  wished  them  to  murder  their  cousin  Mary  and  their  uncle, 
Henry  Jones.  He  was  convicted  of  robbery  on  the  evidence  of  this 
Mary  once,  and  entertained  toward  her  a  hatred  which  led  to  her 
murder.  His  daughter  Elizabeth,  to  save  her  terrible  father, 
assumed  all  the  blame,  and  passed  ten  years  in  the  penitentiary  for 
her  services  in  his  cause,  but  could  not  save  her  father,  who  was 
swung  into  eternity  in  the  presence  of  8,000  people,  being  the  last 
public  execution  in  this  district.  Justice  Adam  Wilson  presided  at 
the  trial  in  October.  During  the  American  war  of  1861-5,  Thomas 
Jones  was  a  professional  bounty  jumper.  He  even  took  over  a 
number  of  Oneida  Indians  and  had  them  enlisted  at  Detroit  under 
false  statements,  and  he  was  not  free  from  accusation  on  some  grave 
charges  and  suspicion  of  being  concerned  in  the  disappearance  of 
horses  and  cattle.  His  execution  for  the  murder  of  his  neice,  Mary 
Jones,  took  place  December  29,  1868,  and  Delaware  gave  a  sigh  of 

Eocecution  of  Pickard. — Angus  Pickard,  the  murderer  of  Duncan 
McVannell,  a  farmer  of  East  Nissouri,  was  hanged  December  28, 1871. 
It  appears  that  Pickard  fell  violently  in  love  with  a  girl  in  the 
neighborhood.  Her  father  asked  McVannell  the  character  of  his 
proposed  son-in-law,  and  received  anything  but  a  favorable  answer ;  so 
that,  notwithstanding  the  existence  of  an  engagement,  ring  and  wed- 
ding outfit,  negotiations  were  broken  off.  Pickard  left  McVannell's 
employ,  and  asked  the  farmer  to  pay  him  $25  then  due,  as  he  was 
about  to  visit  his  brother  in  Michigan.  He  asked  the  farmer  two  or 
three  times  for  his  pay,  but  each  time  met  with  a  gruff  refusal  and 
some  ugly  denunciation.  Pickard,  driven  to  desperation,  shot  and 
killed  his  man.  On  his  own  confession,  he  was  found  guilty  and 
sentenced  to  death.  His  execution  was  private,  not  more  than  thirty 
persons  being  present  in  the  yard,  but  a  large  crowd  gathered  in  the 
rear.  His  taking-off  was  a  bungling  affair.  The  knot  was  poorly 



arranged  and  slipped  around  under  the  jaw,  thus  ending  in  a  ten- 
minutes'  terrible  death  struggle,  as  the  neck  was  not  broken,  and 
strangulation  ensued. 

The  Assizes  of  March,  1872,  was  presided  over  by  Justice  Gait 
when  the  charge  against  Phoebe  Campbell  for  the  murder  of  her 
husband,  George  Campbell,  of  Nissouri,  was  presented.  Kenneth 
McKenzie,  Q.C.,  prosecuted,  with  W.  R  Meredith  and  F.  E.  Cornish 
defending.  The  jury  comprised  John  Kobson  and  Henry  Percival, 
London;  John  Lumley,  East  Williams;  John  McCollum,  McGilli- 
vray ;  George  Routledge,  Wm.  Martin,  Westminster ;  Phillip  Rosser, 
Lobo ;  J.  Newbeggin,  Mosa ;  J.  C.  Ross,  West  Williams ;  Alex. 
Mclntyre,  Wardsville;  John  Minhinnick,  city,  and  John  Gary,  of 
Biddulph.  In  Mrs.  Campbell's  statement  she  accused  Thomas  Coyle 
of  the  murder,  but  ultimately  declared  her  cousin,  John  McWain,  the 
culprit.  There  were  several  witnesses  examined,  and  on  April  6  the 
jury  returned  a  verdict  of  guilty.  She  was  sentenced  to  be  hanged  on 
June  20,  and  on  that  day  the  execution  took  place,  the  victim  being 
attended  by  Reverends  Canon  Innes,  George  Richardson,  Dr.  Cooper, 
Miss  Mercer,  Mrs.  Osborne  and  the  Jail  Matron. 

Execution  of  Simmons. — The  trial  of  Ben.  Simmons  for  the 
murder  of  Mary  Anne  Stokes,  his  paramour,  was  opened  before 
Justice  Armour,  at  London,  September  15,  1885.  The  criminal  was 
defended  by  John  Taylor.  The  evidence  was  conclusive,  and  a 
verdict  of  guilty  returned.  Simmons  was  sentenced  to  be  hanged 
November  27,  1885,  and  was  hanged  on  that  date.  He  was  born  at 
Kilworth  37  years  prior  to  his  execution,  but  when  three  years  of  age 
moved  with  his  father  to  London.  Here  the  old  gentleman  conducted 
a  grocery  store,  and  later  kept  a  hotel  on  Queen's  avenue,  where  now 
is  the  Club  House.  The  murderer  served  against  the  invaders  of 
1866  in  the  Harrietsville  Company.  His  spiritual  attendants  were 
Bishop  Baldwin,  Revs.  J.  B.  Richardson,  Hicks  and  McGillivray. 
During  the  execution  the  janitor  of  the  court-house  was  compelled 
to  toll  the  bell  by  the  Sheriff,  although  it  was  not  his  duty.  This  task 
was  a  painful  one  for  him,  as  he  had  known  Simmons  for  years,  in  the 
first  place,  and,  in  the  other,  any  connection  with  such  a  thing  so 
degrading  as  an  execution  was  distasteful  to  him  in  the  extreme. 

The  trial  and  execution  of  Mahon  for  his  part  in  the  McGillivray 
tragedy  took  place  at  Goderich,  thus  saving  Middlesex  the  expense 
and  scandal  of  another  hanging. 

The  affairs  of  1837-8  are  entirely  of  a  political  nature.  The  deal- 
ings of  the  courts  and  bar  with  the  political  prisoners  of  1838  were  too- 
pronounced  to  be  associated  with  a  court  of  justice,  and  for  this  reason 
the  history  of  the  execution  of  the  Patriots  is  transferred  to  the 
political  chapter,  where  the  context  may  show  some  cause  for  the 
action  of  the  ruling  party  of  that  day. 

The  nine-tails  were  well  calculated  to  expel  and  eradicate  brutality 
and  meanness,  and  make  London  of  the  thirties  a  most  unwholesome 

124  HISTORY   OF    THE 

place  for  the  lewd  and  dishonest.  The  operation  of  the  "cat"  near 
Eidout  street  was  a  general  attraction  ;  hundreds  gathered  to  see  pun- 
ishment inflicted  on  the  criminal,  while  adjacent  windows  were  filled 
with  spectators.  The  performance  meant  business,  and  there  was  no 
boy's  play  about  it.  One  thing  is  to  be  regretted,  .however,  and  that  is 
that  the  magistrates  selected  for  this  punishment  some  stranger,  who 
was  charged  with  stealing  a  pair  of  shoes,  or  some  other  trivial  piece  of 
property,  while  the  heavy  resident  criminals,  convicted  of  some 
hideous  crimes,  were  only  mulcted  in  a  small  fine  or  short  term  in  the 
District  jail. 

In  January,  1810,  David  Miller  and  John  Emmins  were  con- 
victed of  larceny  and  sentenced  to  receive  39  lashes  on  their  naked 
backs,  at  the  hour  of  11  o'clock,  on  January  15th.  Thomas  Fitz- 
gerald and  Jonathan  Vandeuzen  were  found  guilty  of  larceny.  The 
former  was  to  receive  39  lashes  and  three  months'  imprisonment,  and 
the  latter  30  lashes.  John  Purcell  received  a  like  sentence  in  October, 

In  January,  1830,  Peter  Thomas  Surplus  was  found  guilty  of 
larceny, "  stealing  a  pair  of  shoes,"  and  sentenced  on  the  15th  "  to  stand 
in  the  pillory  for  one  hour  to-morrow,  12  o'clock,  in  the  public  square." 
James  Aldridge  was  also  sentenced  "  to  stand  in  the  stocks  for  two 
hours,  and  pay  £2  Is.  5d.,"  for  trespass  and  assault. 

A  mildewed,  moth-eaten  scrap  of  paper  shows,  in  faded  hand- 
writing, that  on  the  21st  of  July,  1830,  Jeremiah  Thomas  was  con- 
victed of  petty  larceny,  and  sentenced  as  follows  : — "  To  be  put  in  the 
stocks  for  one  hour  this  day,  and  one  hour  next  Wednesday,  and  to 
remain  in  the  prison  for  the  term  of  ten  days." 

John  Eadford,  found  guilty  of  indecent  assault,  was  sentenced  by 
Judge  Elliot  to  five  months'  imprisonment,  and  to  receive  twenty  lashes 
of  the  cat-o'-nine- tails,  May  G,  1870.  The  crime  was  committed  in 
London  township.  The  whipping  took  place  on  May  20th,  the  exe- 
cutioner, wearing  the  same  mask  which  the  negro  who  hanged  Thomas 
Jones  wore,  bound  Eadford  to  the  whipping  post  and  applied  the  lash. 

George  Baker  was  publicly  whipped  in  the  jail-yard  for  his  assault 
on  Mrs.  Penny,  April  8,  1878.  His  second  twenty  lashes  were 
applied  later,  and  after  two  months'  imprisonment  in  the  jail  he  was 
sent  to  the  Central  Prison  for  twenty  two  months,  in  accordance  with 
the  sentence  of  Justice  Wilson. 

In  September,  1879,  an  Indian,  Josiah  Doxtater,  received  twenty- 
five  lashes  from  James  Fee,  of  the  53rd  Infantry,  the  same  who 
whipped  Baker.  The  sentence  was  imposed  by  Judge  Elliot. 

The  Spring  Assizes  of  1851  closed  in  February.  The  convictions 
and  sentences  are  listed  as  follows : — James  S.  Mason,  murder,  to  be 
executed  on  the  5th  of  November.  Patrick  Malone,  larceny,  three 
months'  hard  labor.  Henry  Waters,  misdemeanor,  six  weeks  hard 
larbor.  John  Hill,  larceny,  two  months  hard  labor.  '  Talbot  Chief,  an 
Indian,  misdemeanor,  two  months.  Susannah  Jacques,  larceny,  six 




months'  hard  labor.  Charlotte  Beehagg,  nuisance,  three  months'  hard 
labor.  John  Fowler,  larceny,  one  week's  hard  labor.  John  Fowler, 
second  indictment,  three  years  in  Provincial  Penitentiary.  Talbot 
Chief,  second  indictment,  two  months.  James  McMahon,  larceny, 
four  months. 

Kobert  Soper  was  convicted  of  coining  money,  in  Nov.  1858  ;  Esau 
Reid  of  horse  stealing,  and  Samuel  Douglass  of  robbery;  Donald 
McKay,  Esther  Richmond  and  Robert  Murray  of  larceny. 

The  stocks,  which  stood  in  front  of  the  court-house,  became  very 
unpopular  about  1832,  and  Henry  Groves,  then  High  Constable,  took 
the  frames  down  to  the  river  and  pitched  them  in.  On  one  occasion 
there  were  two  men  in  the  stocks  for  stealing  turkeys,  and  the  curious 
people  when  gathered  there  or  in  passing  the  culprits,  themselves 
made  a  noise  such  as  a  hen  turkey  calling  her  brood  around  would 

John  McLoughlin,  the  wrecker,  a  powerful  Irishman,  who  was 
•an  early  shoemaker  here,  came  down  to  the  stocks  one  day.  Seeing 
the  turkey  stealers  in  the  ugly  frames,  he  asked  Peter  Schram  : 
"Arrah,  Peach,  what  are  you  doin'  with  these  poor  devils  here." 
Schram  responded,  telling  the  cause,  but  McLoughtin  kicked  out  the 
wedges,  determined  to  set  the  prisoners  free.  Schram  cautioned  him 
saying  :  "  If  you  do  not  behave  yourself,  John,  you'll  get  there  your- 
self," while  Sheriff  Rapelje,  who  was  near,  approved  Constable 
Schram's  warning.  McLoughlin  saw  the  point  and  walking  away  said, 
"  Sheriff,  punish  the  men  decently,  but  don't  make  a  show  for  the 
whole  town." 

Other  Trials. — On  November  9,  1858,  Catharine  Graham  was 
brought  to  trial  on  the  charge  of  murder.  Among  the  witnesses  were 
Dr.  Henry  Hanson,  Dr.  Moore,  Margaret  McClennan,  Alex.  Graham, 
Walter  Sparkman,  Isabella  Huel,  Jane  McKellar,  Chester  Graham  and 
Margaret  Fyfe.  The  jury  returned  a  verdict,  "guilty  of  concealing 
child's  birth,"  recommended  her  "to  the  mercy  of  the  Court,"  and 
she  was  sentenced  to  one  month's  confinement  in  jail. 

The  trial  of  John  Harding  for  murder  was  heard  Nov.  11,  1858. 
The  jury  comprised  Henry  Fitzsimons,  Charles  Armstrong,  John  B. 
Elson,  John  Weir,  Wm.  Neal,  Angus  Grant,  Wm.  Lee,  Richard 
Haskin,  David  Baskerville,  John  Burgess,  John  H.  Burgess  and 
Robert  Fox.  The  witnesses  called  were  Samuel  Pope,  Ellen  Glass, 
Ann  McGuire,  Robert  Kennedy,  John  Wilson,  Dr.  Alex.  Anderson, 
Wm.  Coote,  Dr.  Charles  G.  Moore,  T.  Van  Vaulkinburgh  and  Emma 
Storey.  The  jury  returned  a  verdict  of  "  not  guilty." 

The  verdict  in  the  poisoning  case,  which  resulted  in  the  death  of 
Mrs.  Atkinson,  was  that  on  the  night  of  Dec.  31,  1858,  the  old  lady's 
daughter-in-law,  Mrs.  Sophia  Margaret  Atkinson,  administered  the 

Long,  who  brutally  murdered  his  wife  in  1859,  for  which  he  was 
sentenced  to  death,  had  the  punishment  changed  to  imprisonment  for 



life  in  May  that  year.  Mr.  Norris,  who  suggested  the  petition  for 
clemency,  resided  at  London.  The  sentence  of  death  against  convict 
McDiarmid  was  also  removed.  Eev.  A.  Christopherson,  to  whom  the 
culprit  confessed  his  crime,  made  a  strong  effort  for  reprieve.  In 
December  a  boy  named  John  Cain,  of  Biddulph,  killed  William 
Cahalan,  of  the  llth  concession. 

On  June  19,  1860,  William  Vallier  shot  Mrs.  Kirslake  at  his 
home  on  Governor's  Eoad.  In  the  formal  trial,  H.  C.  E.  Becher 

A  negro  named  Mason  choked  his  wife  to  death  at  their  home  on 
Clarence  street,  near  Simcoe  street,  Sept.  19, 1867. 

The  Francis  tragedy,  at  the  Ivy  Green  Tavern,  near  Westminster 
bridge,  was  enacted  Sept.  24.  In  June  $100  were  offered  by  the  city 
for  the  apprehension  of  the  notorious  burglar  known  as  "Slippery 

In  March,  1869,  Justice  Wilson  presided  over  the  Assize  Court. 
At  this  time  the  Emma  Snowdon  murder  case  was  presented.  Owing 
to  the  illness  of  the  Judge,  court  adjourned.  Judge  Hughes,  of  St. 
Thomas,  presided  over  the  Assizes  by  special  commission.  At  this 
time  the  charge  against  William  and  Thomas  Jones  for  complicity  in 
the  murder  of  Mary  Jones  was  dismissed.  Emma  Snowdon,  charged 
with  the  murder  of  her  four-year-old  son  in  December,  1868,  at  her 
home  in  McGillivray,  was  declared  insane  by  Dr.  Hobbs,  and  the  jury 
returned  a  verdict  of  not  guilty,  although  Mrs.  Smith  testified  beyond 
doubt  to  having  seen  the  deed  committed.  Dr.  W.  D.  Potts,  well- 
known  in  London  in  1866,  was  indicted  before  a  Wisconsin  jury  on 
the  charge  of  murdering  his  wife  in  June,  1869. 

In  May,  1870,  a  coroner's  jury  found  Mary  Springstead  guilty  of 
murdering  her  infant.  The  girl  settled  at  London  in  1863. 

The  Fall  Assizes  of  1872  were  presided  over  by  Justice  Haggarty. 
Thomas  Boyle  was  indicted  for  the  murder  of  Campbell.  David  Glass 
defended  and  won  for  his  client  a  verdict  of  "  not  guilty." 

E.  S.  Finlay  was  murdered  in  Sombra  in  May,  1874,  as  it 
was  alleged,  by  his  wife,  Anne,  and  her  paramour,  William  Henry 
Smith,  a  former  resident  of  London,  who  previously  was  tried  for  the 
murder  of  old  pensioner  Dunn,  at  Clark's  Bridge. 

In  November,  1874,  after  the  hearing  of  the  case  Beltz  v.  Molsons 
Bank,  the  Judge  of  Assize,  under  a  law  then  new,  presented  three 
questions  to  the  jury  on  which  they  were  to  bring  in  a  verdict.  Beltz 
was  represented  by  Mr.  Eock,  and  the  Bank  by  Queen's  Counsel 
Harrison.  The  jury  answered  the  first  question  negatively,  and  the 
other  three  questions  affirmatively,  when  the  Judge  declared  the 
verdict  in  favor  of  the  Bank.  Several  jurymen  at  once  cried  out  that 
their  views  were  in  favor  of  the  plaintiff,  and  that  in  answering  the 
questions  they  intended  to  give  a  verdict  for  the  plaintiff;  but  the 
Judge  was  inexorable,  notwithstanding  Mr.  Eock's  objections. 

The  murder  of  Patrick  Monaghan,  of  Warwick,  who  settled  there 


in  1841,  was  perpetrated  March  30,  1876.     In  April,  Eobert  Murray 
and  Patrick  Macfie  were  arrested. 

On  March  2,  1876,  two  boys,  Elinor  Bartram  and  Walter  Guerney, 
entered  the  blacksmith  shop  at  Keyser's  Corners  to  wait  for  a  ride 
home.  John  Graham  Smith,  an  apprentice,  told  the  boys  to  get  out, 
or  he  would  be  after  them,  when  young  Bartram  said,  "  Come  along ; 
I'm  not  afraid."  Smith,  taking  a  sharp-pointed  iron  from  the  fire, 
carried  out  his  promise,  and  stabbed  Bartram.  The  youth  lingered  until 
the  7th,  when  he  died.  The  Coroner's  jury  returned  a  verdict  of 
manslaughter  against  young  Smith.  On  March  22  he  was  tried 
before  Justice  Morrison  and  a  jury,  and  declared  not  guilty. 

The  Fall  Assizes  of  1877  were  presided  over  by  Justice  Harrison. 
The  charge  of  murder  against  Mary  Began  and  James  Hogan  was  one 
of  the  few  heavy  cases  on  the  docket. 

On  March  15,  1878,  J.  H.  Hargreaves  was  charged  with  abusing 
one  of  his  hair-factory  girls,  and  on  the  27th  sentenced  to  three  years 
in  the  Penitentiary.  At  this  time  Munn  was  found  guilty  of  man- 
slaughter, and  sentenced  to  imprisonment  for  ten  years.  Geo.  Baker 
was  flogged  for  indecent  assault  April  8,  1878,  and  received  a  second 
flogging  May  1.  Zeller,  the  Tiffin,  (0.,)  bank  cashier,  was  arrested  at 
London,  May  12,  1878. 

In  April,  1880,  Justice  Wilson  presided  over  the  Assize  Court. 
The  question  of  change  of  venue  in  re  the  persons  charged  with  the 
Lucan  murders  was  presented  by  Mr.  Irving,  and  opposed  by  Messrs. 
Macmahon  and  Meredith.  In  October,  1880,  the  jury  disagreed.  On 
Jan.  26,  1881,  the  Biddulph  murder  cases  were  brought  before 
Justices  Cameron  and  Osier.  The  Crown  was  represented  by  M, 
Irving,  Q.  C.,  and  James  Magee;  while  Hugh  Macmahon,  W.  R 
Meredith  and  J.  J.  Blake  appeared  for  the  prisoners.  The  Grand 
Jury  comprised  W.  D.  Cooper,  Westminster ;  Wm.  G.  Carry,  Ade- 
laide ;  Boot.  Cowie,  East  Williams ;  Michael  Crunnican,  Lucan ;  John 
Elliott,  West  Williams ;  Thos.  Elliott,  Parkhill ;  A.  Finnemore,  West- 
minster ;  G.  M.  Gunn,  Westminster ;  G.  J.  Hutton,  Caradoc ;  J.  J. 
Jelly,  Dorchester;  Alexander  Johnstone,  Strathroy:  John  Jarmyn, 
Biddulph ;  John  Legg,  West  Nissouri ;  Henry  Lockwood,  Caradoc ; 
James  Moran,  city ;  John  Mossop,  Dorchester ;  John  C.  Merritt,  city  ; 
Edwin  M.  Moore,  city  ;  K.  S.  Munson,  Ekfrid ;  Archibald  McPherson, 
city ;  Hugh  McLaren,  city ;  Duncan  McLean,  Lobo ;  Wm.  Patrick, 
London ;  John  Thompson,  Ailsa  Craig.  This  case  was  ultimately 
decided  in  favor  of  the  defendants.  The  special  commission  in  the 
case,  sitting  for  nine  days  at  London,  cost  directly  $3,355.96,  exclusive 
of  Judges'  salaries,  counsel  fees  and  cost  of  witnesses  for  the  defense. 
The  counsel  for  the  defense  were  untiring  in  their  efforts  to  save  their 
clients,  and  when  it  is  considered  that  Bill  Donnelly,  acknowledged  to 
be  one  of  the  most  naturally  astute  men  of  the  county,  aided  the 
prosecution  in  the  effort  to  punish  the  murderers  of  his  relatives,  the 
victory  of  the  defense  is  more  surprising. 


130  HISTORY   OF    THE 

In  June,  1880,  the  celebrated  case,  Ven.  Archdeacon  J.  W.  Marsh 
v.  the  Council  of  Huron  College,  was  heard  before  Justice  Sprague  at 
Toronto.  Messrs.  Bethune,  Dalton  McCarthy  and  Biggar,  represented 
the  plaintiff,  and  E.  Blake  and  Adam  Crooks  the  college.  The  case 
grew  out  of  a  reception  to  Bishop  Cronyn  on  his  return  from  England 
In  1878-9,  and  the  Archdeacon's  expulsion  from  the  Council  in  April, 

The  April  Assizes  of  1881  were  presided  over  by  Justice  Patterson. 
M.  Irving,  Q.  C.,  was  Crown  prosecutor.  A  case  growing  out  of  the 
trial  of  Kent,  for  the  murder  of  Howie,  May  24, 1876,  was  before  the 
Court,  the  complainant  seeking  damages  from  Kent.  Barrister  Mac- 
mahon  appeared  for  the  Howies,  and  W.  E.  Meredith  for  Kent.  The 
jury  awarded  $1,500  damages. 

The  trial  of  William  and  Kobert  Donnelly  for  attempt  to  burn 
Dight  &  Go's  mills  at  Stanley,  took  place  in  November,  1881,  before 
Judge  Elliot.  Counsellors  H.  Becher  and  John  C.  Idington  prose- 
cuted ;  A.  J.  B.  Macdonald  and  E.  Meredith  represented  the  defend- 
ants. Informer  West's  evidence  was  ignored,  and  the  two  men  were 

The  murder  of  John  McKinnon,  at  the  Eob  Eoy  Tavern,  near  Park- 
hill,  was  perpetrated  in  November,  1881.  Neil  McLellan  and  John 
McKillop  were  named  in  the  verdict  by  Coroner's  jury,  and  arrested. 
In  March,  1882,  they  were  tried  on  the  charge  of  manslaughter,  and 

The  murder  of  Patrick  Delargy  by  the  drunken  broom-maker, 
George  Wesley  Code,  was  perpetrated  near  Blackfriars'  Bridge,  April 
15,  1882.  Delargy  was  a  teamster,  who,  in  a  friendly  way,  took  the 
drunken  fellow  to  his  room,  and  was  shot  and  killed  for  his  pains. 
Code  fled,  but  was  soon  captured,  tried  and  acquitted. 

In  June,  1882,  Dr.  Eufus  Bratton,  alias  Simpson,  a  South  Caro- 
linian, was  captured  at  London  by  members  of  the  United  States 
Secret  Service  Corps,  and  taken  forcibly  to  Detroit.  He  was,  it  is 
alleged,  chief  of  a  Ku-Klux  band.  When  arrested  he  was  'given 
chloroform  and  carried  to  Detroit.  The  authorities  of  London  were 
indignant.  Deputy  Clerk  of  the  Crown,  Cornwall,  was  arrested  for 
-assisting  the  American  detectives,  and  dismissed  by  Mr.  Hutchinson, 
while  others  urged  that  the  case  be  brought  before  the  British  Parlia- 
ment. Bratton  was  returned  to  London  by  the  Government  of  the 
United  States. 

The  alleged  murder  of  Ann  Bastard,  an  insane  woman  of  Carlisle, 
in  East  Williams,  was  recorded  December  8,  1882,  and  her  husband, 
Win.  Bastard,  arrested.  The  Coroner's  Jury  found  that  the  murder 
was  perpetrated  by  the  prisoner,  strangulation  being  the  means 

In  May,  1884,  A.  E.  Wrightman  and  James  Graham  were 
arraigned  for  the  murder  of  Silcox,  of  Ekfrid,  in  December,  1883. 
Edmund  Meredith  represented  Wrightman;  W.  E.  Meredith,  Graham 


and  T.  W.  Can-others,  both  prisoners.  Colin  McDougall  and  J.  B. 
McKillop  prosecuted.  The  jury  returned  a  verdict  of  "  not  guilty,"' 
giving  the  prisoners  the  benefit  of  doubts. 

Kufus  Eldridge,  a  farmer  of  Westminster,  was  stabbed  and  killed 
in  September,  1884.  The  Coroner's  jury  returned  a  verdict  of  wilful 
murder  against  Harry  Lansett,  and  made  Edward  Nolty  accessory 
before  the  fact.  Lansett  was  tried  in  November.  He  was  defended 
by  A.  J.  B.  Macdonald  and  John  Taylor,  while  W.  E.  Meredith 
conducted  the  case  for  Nolty.  The  jury  found  the  prisoner  guilty  of 
assault.  He  was  sentenced  to  four  years'  imprisonment. 

On  June  24,  1884,  George  Hall  was  charged  with  causing  the 
death  of  Charles  Breden's  child,  through  gross  ignorance  in  treating  it. 
His  trial  took  place  in  November.  He  was  defended  by  W.  R.  and  E. 
Meredith,  and  acquitted — his  friends  in  the  court-room  cheering  until 
Judge  Wilson  checked  them. 

In  November,  1884,  George  McCabe  was  tried  for  poisoning  Ann 
McCabe,  his  wife,  on  April  26,  in  Westminster  Township.  Colin 
McDougall  prosecuted  for  the  Crown.  W.  R  and  E.  Meredith  defended 
the  prisoner.  The  jury  returned  a  verdict  of  "  not  guilty." 

In  June,  1884,  Albert  E.  Wrightman  was  found  guilty  of  robbing 
James  Campbell's  store  at  lona,  and  was  sentenced  to  eight  years  in 
the  Kingston  Penitentiary.  T.  W.  Carrothers  defended  him. 

In  May,  1885,  the  celebrated  case  of  Charles  Hutchinson,  Clerk  of 
the  Peace,  vs.  Josiah  Blackburn,  of  the  Free  Press,  was  presented  by 
Colin  McDougall,  of  St.  Thomas.  Messrs.  Osier  and  Bayly  repre- 
sented Blackburn.  The  libel  complained  of  was  the  editorial  in  the 
Free  Press  of  Dec.  15,  1884,  headed  "Blind-folded  Justice."  The 
jury  returned  a  verdict  of  "  not  guilty." 

The  Winter  Assizes  of  1885-6  were  presided  over  by  Justice 
O'Connor.  In  the  O'Connell  cases  vs.  Bishop  Baldwin  and  others,  W. 
Nesbitt  represented  the  plaintiff,  and  W.  R.  Meredith  the  defendants. 
The  cases  were  settled  on  the  plaintiff  withdrawing  all  claims  to  the 
assistant-pastorate  of  the  Chapter  House.  It  appears  Mr.  O'Connell 
was  arrested  at  the  instance  of  the  Wardens,  when  about  to  enter  his 
pulpit,  and  placed  in  jail.  He  in  turn  proceeded  against  the  authorities,, 
when  all  charges  against  his  character  were  withdrawn,  and  his  salary 

The  trial  of  George  Dingman  for  manslaughter  was  heard  before 
Justice  Wilson  in  November,  1884.  He  was  charged  with  causing 
the  death  of  Clarissa  Baxter,  August  22,  1883,  by  selling  to  her  father 
strychnine  instead  of  the  santonine,  or  worm  medicine,  which  the 
father  called  for  at  the  drug  store  where  Dingman  was  employed,  at 
Mt.  Brydges.  The  evidence  was  so  clear  that  the  jury  declared  the 
prisoner  guilty.  He  also  was  charged  with  causing  the  death  of  the 
second  child,  Rebecca  A.  Baxter,  but  acquitted.  His  sentence  on  the 
first  charge  was  only  six  months  in  jail,  but  later  he  was  discharged. 

In  December,  1885,  William  Cooper,  formerly  of  London,  shot  and 

132  HISTORY    OF   THE 

killed  his  second  wife,  Dinah  Knight,  and  then  killed  himself  at 
McGregor,  Man.,  some  time  before  he  separated  from  his  first  wife. 
When  the  neighbors  came,  the  blood  of  husband  and  wife  was  frozen, 
and  in  it  the  bodies  were  imbedded  until  chopped  out. 

The  March  Assizes  of  1886  were  presided  over  by  Justice  Kose. 
The  only  important  trial  was  that  of  William  Moncks  for  killing 
William  Shrimpton,  on  the  Hamilton  road,  February  24,  1886.  It 
appears  the  latter  was  driving  by  Moncks'  house,  and,  in  the  delirium 
of  drink,  kicked  in  a  part  of  Moncks'  door.  The  jury,  of  course, 
acquitted  the  prisoner. 

^Wm.  C.  Stinson,  of  London  West,  was  arrested  for  the  murder  of 
his  wife,  April  21,  1887,  but  the  charge  was  without  foundation. 

On  June  27,  1887,  Coroner  Smith  and  a  jury  closed  the  enquiry 
into  the  death  of  Ealph  Shaw,  and  held  Walter  Stevenson  on  a  charge 
of  wilful  murder,  June  18,  1887.  Stevenson  was  defended  by 
Edmund  Meredith,  Q.  C.,  and  acquitted. 

Charles  and  John  Carroll,  residing  near  Strathroy,  in  Caradoc,  were 
arrested  on  the  charge  of  hanging  Mrs.  Jane  Carroll,  Oct.  1,  1887.  On 
Dec.  21  John  Carroll  was  held  for  trial,  and  Charles  discharged. 

A  most  revolting  murder  was  brought  to  light  Sept.  23,  1888,  in 
Adelaide  township.  The  victim  was  Jonathan  Robinson,  an  old  and 
inoffensive  resident  of  the  township,  who  lived  by  himself  in  a 
small  frame  house  on  the  farm  of  Harris,  second  concession  south, 
about  four  miles  from  Strathroy.  He  was  an  Englishman,  a  bachelor, 
and  73  years  old.  The  circumstances  surrounding  the  murder  are 
shrouded  in  mystery,  as  it  was  generally  supposed  that  Eobinson  was 
visiting  in  Michigan,  he  having  informed  several  of  his  neighbors  that 
he  contemplated  such  a  trip,  and  was  last  seen  alive  on  Sept.  13. 

Judges  and  Counsel. — On  September  3,  1821,  W.  Drummond 
Powell,  C.  J.,  signed  the  Clerk's  certificate,  and  in  1827  Judge  Sher- 
wood, who  carne  here  that  year.  The  first  acknowledgment  by  John 
B.  Askin  of  receipts  from  fines  made  at  London,  was  that  of  August 
9,  1827,  before  Judge  J.  B.  Macauley,  of  the  Assize  Court. 

James  Macauley,  son  of  Dr.  James  Macauley,  of  the  33rd  Infantry, 
was  born  at  Niagara  in  1793.  In  1812  he  joined  the  Glengary  Fen- 
eibles;  in  1822  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  and  in  1829  was  appointed 
Judge  of  Queen's  Bench.  In  1847  he  was  Chief  Justice  of  Common 
Pleas,  which  office  he  held  until  his  retirement  in  1856.  He  died  in 

Miles  O'Rielly,  so  well  known  in  the  early  days  of  London,  was 
born  at  Niagara  Falls  in  1806,  and  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1830.  In 
1837-8  he  was  one  of  Allan  MacNab's  "men  of  gore,"  who  opposed  the 
Patriots  at  Montgomery's  tavern.  At  the  trial  of  the  106  prisoners,  he 
volunteered  to  defend  the  whole  lot  unaided,  while  the  late  Chief 
Justice  Allan  MacNab  prosecuted,  Justice  Macaulay  presiding. 

Adam  Wilson,  born  in  Scotland  in  1814 ;  came  to  Canada  in  1830 ; 
studied  law  under  R.  B.  Sullivan,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1839. 


In  1863  he  was  appointed  a  Puisne  Judge  of  the  Queen's  Bench,  and 
the  same  year  Judge  of  Common  Pleas.  In  1868  he  was  reappointed 
Judge  of  Queen's  Bench,  vice  Judge  Haggarty,  promoted,  and  in  1878 
Chief  Justice  of  Common  Pleas.  Judge  Wilson  presided  here  over 
the  Spring  Assizes  in  1873. 

John  Hawkins  Haggarty,  born  at  Dublin,  Ireland,  in  1816,  studied 
at  Trinity  College,  came  to  Toronto  in  1834,  and,  studying  under  Geo. 
Duggan,  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1840.  The  Baldwin  administra- 
tion created  him  Q.  C.,  and  in  1856  he  was  appointed  Judge.  In  1868 
he  was  appointed  Chief  Justice  of  Common  Pleas. 

John  Wilson  who  died  June  3,  1869,  was  born  near  Paisley,  Scot- 
land, in  1809,  and  came  out  to  this  country  when  quite  a  lad  with  his 
father  and  other  members  of  the  family.  His  father  was  a  Scottish 
yeoman,  who  went  to  Halifax  with  what  was  at  that  time  called  a 
venture  of  goods.  Owing  to  the  wreck  of  the  vessel  in  which  his 
venture  was,  he  lost  all,  and  sometime  after  settled  as  a  farmer  in  the 
County  of  Lanark,  near  Perth.  The  son,  John  Wilson,  passed  his 
early  days  upon  the  farm,  and  endured  a  full  share  of  those  hardships, 
which  the  early  emigrants  to  Canada  were  obliged  to  face,  and  which 
they  gallantly  overcame.  It  was  here  that  he  formed  those  tastes 
which  never  left  him,  and  acquired  the  knowledge  of  farm  life,  that 
sympathy  which  a  farmer's  lot  and  trials,  which  came  so  admirably  to 
his  aid  in  after  days.  Having  contracted  a  disease  of  the  chest,  he 
was  advised  to  leave  the  labor  of  the  farm,  and  thus  it  was  that  he 
became  a  school  teacher  at  Perth.  He  continued  in  this  occupation  for 
about  three  years,  but,  being  of  an  ambitious  temperament,  and  feel- 
ing, possibly,  that  he  could  turn  his  attention  to  other  pursuits  more 
profitable  to  himself,  he  determined  to  study  for  the  legal  profession, 
and  entered  as  a  student  in  the  office  of  James  Boulton,  now  of 
Toronto,  but  who  was  then  practising  at  Perth.  In  those  days  Mr. 
Wilson  was  not  blessed  with  any  superfluity  of  means,  and  he  had  a 
hard  struggle  to  eke  out  a  sufficiency  by  which  to  support  himself, 
and  pay  the  fees  incident  to  his  profession.  Among  other  expedients, 
he  employed  himself  in  keeping  the  books  of  a  merchant,  and  when 
too  poor  to  buy  a  candle,  would  lie  down  before  the  fire  and  pen  the 
entries  in  his  firm,  bold  hand  by  the  light  of  the  blazing  logs.  He 
worked  hard  and  studied  hard,  and  at  least  was  able  to  find  himself,  in 
spite  of  many  difficulties  and  hardships,  the  member  of  a  profession  of 
which  he  became  a  leading  ornament,  succeeding  in  due  time  in 
obtaining  one  of  those  prizes,  a  judgeship,  to  which  all  young  lawyers 
look  as  one  of  the  objects  to  be  kept  in  view,  and,  if  possible,  attained. 
•Before  he  left  Perth,  however,  to  enter  upon  a  career  in  the  west,  a 
misfortune  overtook  him  which  caused  him  a  life-long  regret,  and 
directed  towards  him  at  the  time  not  a  little  attention  and  sympathy. 
This  was  his  duel  with  Robert  Lyon,  a  gentleman  who  had  been  a 
friend  of  his  own,  and  a  member  of  the  same  profession.  This  took 
place  in  the  early  part  of  1833.  At  that  day  duels  were  of  frequent 

134  llfSTORY   OF    THE 

occurrence,  a  mode  of  avenging  wounded  honor,  which,  if  now  gone 
somewhat  out  of  date,  was  then  recognised  as  a  necessary  usage  of 
society  among  gentlemen.  It  is  needless  to  dwell  at  length  upon  the 
cause  of  the  quarrel,  but  the  spirit  in  which  Mr.  Wilson  entered  upon 
it  may  be  understood  when  we  say  that  it  was  in  order  to  justify  a 
lady  of  whom  Mr.  Lyon  had  spoken  impertinently  that  led  to  the 
encounter.  Mr.  Wilson  was  the  challenger,  Simon  Eobinson  acting  as 
his  second ;  H.  Lelievre,  a  brother-in-law  of  the  late  Judge  Small, 
performing  similar  duties  for  Mr.  Lyon.  They  met  at  the  appointed 
time,  just  outside  of  the  district  of  Bathurst,  about  three-quarters  of  a 
mile  from  Perth.  Shots  were  exchanged  without  effect,  and  so  unused 
was  either  of  them  to  pistol  practice,  and  flint  locks  did  duty  in  those 
days,  that  the  seconds  were  under  the  impression  that  they  might  fire 
for  some  time  before  even  a  wound  would  be  inflicted.  It  would  have 
been  well  if  the  result  had  been  as  anticipated.  After  the  first  shot 
Mr.  Robinson,  Mr.  Wilson's  second,  advanced  and  presented  a  paper 
to  H.  Lelievre.  Upon  unfolding  and  reading  it,  it  proved  to  be  a 
written  apology  and  retraction  of  offensive  words,  which  it  was 
demanded  that  Mr.  Lyon  should  sign.  Mr.  Lelievre  said  that  he 
could  not  consent  to  Mr.  Lyon  signing  any  such  paper,  but  that  he 
should  read  it  for  himself.  The  document  was  then  handed  to  Mr. 
Lyon,  who,  when  it  had  been  read,  threw  it  from  him,  saying  that  he 
would  never  sign  it,  and  would  "  have  another  shot  first."  Positions 
were  then  retaken,  and  on  this  occasion  the  bullet  from  Mr.  Wilson's 
pistol  entered  Mr.  Lyon's  side  just  under  the  uplifted  arm,  and  pierced 
his  lungs.  To  the  consternation  of  all,  Mr.  Lyon  fell  on  his  face,  dead. 
Thereupon  Mr.  Wilson  and  his  second  returned  to  Perth,  and  gave 
themselves  up  to  the  authorities.  They  were  detained  in  jail  about  six 
weeks,  when  the  Brockville  Assizes  came  on,  and  they  were  tried  before 
Chief  Justice  Robinson.  Mr.  Wilson  defended  himself,  and  laying  all 
the  facts  before  the  jury  was  unanimously  acquitted,  as  was  his  second. 
Much  enthusiasm  was  shown  on  his  behalf,  not  only  on  account  of  the 
matter  that  led  to  the  duel,  but  the  manner  in  which  he  comported 
himself  throughout ;  and  words  of  encouragement  and  offers  of  assist- 
ance came  upon  him  from  all  sides. 

In  the  autumn  of  the  following  year,  1834,  he  came  to  London, 
settled  here,  and  commenced  practice.  At  that  time  there  were 
but  two  other  members  of  the  profession  here,  and  he  soon  drew 
around  him  many  friends.  In  the  summer  of  the  following  year, 
1835,  he  married  Miss  Hughes,  a  sister  of  Judge  Hughes,  of  St. 
Inomas.  From  this  time  his  rise  was  rapid.  The  people  found  in 
nim  a  man  prompt  in  business,  energetic  in  every  cause  he  under- 
took, and  most  powerful  before  a  jury.  His  eloquence  was  of  the 
kind  that  has  been  called  "unadorned,"  but  it  bristled  with  common 
sense,  and  was  strong  in  those  great  Saxon  words  which  express  so 
much  and  are  comprehended  so  fully  by  those  with  whom  he  had  to 
00.  He  had  no  equal  before  a  jury  at  the  bar.  He  was  thus  widely 


sought  after,  and  to  secure  his  services  in  a  doubtful  case  was  as  much 
as  to  say  that  the  cause  was  won  already.  His  method  before  a  jury 
was  to  simplify  a  case,  bring  it  within  their  comprehension  ;  seize 
hold  of  the  strong  points  and  press  them  home.  With  the  subtleties 
of  law  he  did  not  care  to  trouble  them,  but  when  a  nice  point  came  up 
for  argument  with  the  Court,  he  was  found  to  be  acute  and  well- 
informed.  In  his  ordinary  business  he  was  the  client's  friend.  He 
discouraged  litigation  and  promoted  amicable  settlement,  and  many  a 
poor  man  has  had  to  thank  him  for  timely  advice  and  caution,  saving 
him  from  ruin.  For  himself,  he  acquired  a  competency,  and  then  a 
fortune ;  though  it  became  somewhat  impaired  in  the  doubtful  times, 
in  consequence  of  the  generous  use  he  made  of  his  name  in  assisting 
others.  Nor  was  his  generosity  confined  to  such  acts.  He  visited 
poor  people ;  got  them  gifts  of  clothes ;  assisted  them  in  various  ways, 
and  would  be  a  ready  champion  of  their  cause  if  he  found  them  to  be 
deserving.  The  mode  of  conducting  his  business,  his  high  honor, 
buoyant  candor,  and  readiness  to  serve  others,  won  for  him  the  title  of 
"  Honest  John  Wilson,"  and  he  was  by  far  the  most  popular  man  of 
his  time  that  the  West  has  seen.  His  popularity  was  extraordinary, 
and  can  scarcely  be  estimated  in  these  days,  when  circumstances  and 
people  have  so  greatly  changed.  Much  of  his  leisure  was  devoted  to 
education.  He  promoted  schools,  gave  lectures  to  young  men,  and, 
when  Merrill's  Tannery  was  in  full  operation,  would  go  down  there 
and  instruct  fifty  or  more  of  the  young  lads  in  arithmetic,  history,  and 
the  rudiments  of  learning.  In  1839,  after  the  Rebellion,  he  was  ap- 
pointed by  the  Crown  to  defend  some  of  the  rebels  who  were  tried  in 
London.  He  did  not  much  like  the  task,  but  said  he  would  see  that 
they  had  justice,  and  they  had.  for  seven  of  them  were  hanged. 

In  1842  he  was  appointed  Warden  of  this  District,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  J.  Buchanan,  now  of  Chicago.  In  1843  he  acted  as 
School  Superintendent,  and  was  succeeded  by  Wm.  Elliot.  It  was  not 
till  1847  that  he  came  forward  as  a  candidate  for  a  seat  in  Parliament. 
In  that  year,  Mr.  Draper,  who  then  represented  London,  was  raised  to 
the  Bench,  and  Mr.  Wilson  was  elected  in  his  stead  as  a  Liberal- 
Conservative.  He  was  a  very  different  sort  of  man  from  the  Tories  of 
those  days — a  class  of  individuals  scarcely  to  be  found  in  existence 
now.  In  1849  he  was  found  supporting  the  conciliatory  policy  of 
Lord  Elgin  in  the  celebrated  Rebellion  Losses  Bill ;  a  measure  which 
created  intense  excitement  throughout  the  country,  and  led  to  the 
verge  of  a  counter  rebellion.  Some  of  the  London  Tories  having  ex- 
pressed dissatisfaction  at  Mr.  Wilson's  course,  he  determined  to  test 
the  question,  and  resigning  voluntarily  was  re-elected  without  any 
serious  opposition.  He  continued  in  Parliament,  representing  London, 
until  1851,  when  he  was  defeated  by  T.  C.  Dixon,  a  hatter  of  this 
place,  and  a  Tory.  This  was  owing,  in  a  great  measure,  to  some 
indiscretion  of  speech  attributed  to  Mr.  Wilson  in  Parliament,  reflect- 
ing on  the  Irish  population.  The  defeat,  by  a  very  small  majority, 

136  HISTORY    OF   THE 

about  twelve  votes,  caused  some  temporary  annoyance,  and  it  is  said 
even  that  he  shed  tears  at  the  hustings  when  the  fact  that  the  election 
was  lost  reached  him.  Feeling  ran  very  high,  and  some  threats  of 
violence  being  made  against  him,  he  left  the  scene  in  the  carriage  of 
Adam  Hope.  In  1854  another  election  took  place.  These  were  the 
days  of  Hincks,  Dr.  Eolph,  Malcolm  Cameron,  and  Eobert  Baldwin — 
names  rarely  heard  now  in  connection  with  politics,  but  which  had  rare 
significance  then.  Mr.  Wilson  was  now  thoroughly  with  the  Keform 
party.  He  was  for  reciprocity ;  no  separate  schools  ;  economy,  and 
adopted  the  Reform  platform  generally.  His  opponent  was  T.  C.  Dixon 
again,  who  declared  that  the  Treaty  of  Reciprocity  would  be  a  "  cut- 
throat measure."  But  Mr.  Wilson  proved  too  much  for  his  antagonist, 
and  was  elected  by  nearly  seventy  votes.  At  that  time  the  Reformers 
swept  this  Western  country — Oxford,  Middlesex  (east  and  west), 
London,  Elgin,  Kent,  were  all  in  favor  of  what  was  then  known  as 
"  Reform,"  under  the  leadership  of  the  man  whose  name  we  have  men- 
tioned. The  coalition  of  Mr.  George  Brown  and  some  of  his  friends 
with  Mr.  J.  A.  Macdonald,  defeated  Mr.  Hincks,  and  a  "  crisis  "  came 
on.  Mr.  Hincks  wished  to  see  Mr  Wilson  form  a  Government,  but 
Mr.  Brown  objecting,  he  compromised  matters  with  Mr.  J.  A. 
Macdonald,  arid  the  coalition  of  1854,  under  Sir  Allan  McNab,  was 
the  result.  Mr.  Wilson  served  in  Parliament,  acting  with  the  Oppo- 
sition until  the  dissolution  of  the  House  in  1857,  when,  despite  the 
entreaties  of  his  friends,  he  would  not  again  contest  the  city,  and  its 
present  member,  Mr.  John  Carling,  took  his  place.  He  remained  a 
stranger  to  public  life  until  1863,  when  he  was  elected  to  represent 
the  St.  Glair  Division  in  the  Senate.  He  never  took  his  seat,  however, 
in  that  capacity,  for  the  Government  of  Mr.  J.  Sandfield  Macdonald 
being  in  office,  and  a  vacancy  in  the  Bench  occurring,  Mr.  Wilson 
was  created  a  Judge,  and  served  until  his  death,  June  3,  1869,  when 
Mr.  Justice  Gait  was  appointed. 

James  Edward  Small  was  County  Judge  for  a  number  of  years 
prior  to  1869. 

William  Elliot,  born  in  England  in  1817,  came  with  his  parents  to 
the  United  States  in  1836,  and  moved  with  them  to  a  point  on  the 
Thames,  two  miles  from  London,  Ont.,  in  1837.  His  father  died  there 
about  1838,  leaving  the  present  Judge  to  look  after  the  farm.  In 
1847  he  began  the  study  of  law,  and  in  1852  was  admitted  to  the  bar. 
In  1869  he  succeeded  Judge  Small  as  Judge  of  Middlesex,  a  position 
which  he  still  holds.  In  1848  he  married  a  daughter  of  Dr.  Robinson, 
of  Dublin,  Ireland.  Their  son,  S.  Connor  Elliot,  was  killed  at  Duck 
Lake,  Manitoba,  in  the  skirmish  with  Canadian  Indians,  March  26, 
1885.  Young  Elliot  studied  law  in  Fraser  &  Eraser's  office,  and 

Judge  Davis  has,  for  some  years,  been  connected  with  the  Bench 
AS  Junior  Judge. 

William  Henry  Draper  was  born  in  1801,  near  London,  England, 


where  his  father  was  an  English  Church  minister.  He  came  to 
Canada  in  1820,  was  elected  to  the  Legislative  Council  in  1837, 
Solicitor-General  of  Upper  Canada  in  1838,  subsequently  Attorney- 
General,  appointed  Puisne  Judge  by  Lord  Elgin ;  and  in  1856  was 
appointed  Chief  Justice,  vice  (Sir)  James  Macauley.  In  1863  he  was 
appointed  Chief  Justice  of  Upper  Canada,  vice  Judge  Arch.  McLean. 
In  1869  he  was  commissioned  President  of  the  Court  of  Error  and 
Appeal,  which  he  held  up  to  his  death  in  1877.  He  was  known  as 
"  Sweet  William,"  and  while  not  considered  a  member  of  the  Compact- 
Family,  his  ultra-toryism  connected  him  with  that  tribe.  In  April, 
1867,  he  was  Judge  of  the  Assize  Court  here. 

Thomas  Moss,  born  at  Cobourg  in  1836,  was  a  son  of  the  brewer, 
of  Cobourg.  In  1854  he  entered  Toronto  University,  was  admitted  to 
the  bar  in  1861,  and  in  1872  created  Q.  C.  by  the  Premier.  In 
1873-4  he  was  elected  for  West  Toronto  to  the  Dominion  Parliament ; 
soon  after  was  appointed  a  Judge  of  the  Court  of  Appeal ;  became 
President  of  the  Court  on  Judge  Draper's  death,  and  Chief  Justice  of 
Ontario  on  Judge  Harrison's  death.  His  own  death  took  place  on 
January  4,  1881. 

On  Nov.  5,  1875,  Justice  Moss  opened  the  Assizes.  He  was 
appointed,  vice  Justice  Strong,  elevated  to  the  newly  organized 
Supreme  Court.  William  Horton,  then  senior  barrister  of  London, 
presented  the  address,  which  was  signed  by  the  following  named 
members  of  the  Law  Circle  of  London : — W.  Horton,  J.  Shanly,  E.  J. 
Parke,  T.  Scatcherd,  C.  Hutchinson,  E.  W.  Harris,  J.  H.  Flock,  E. 
Bayly,  C.  D.  Holmes,  V.  Cronyn,  C.  F.  Goodhue,  D.  McMillan,  W.  R. 
Meredith,  Warren  Eock,  E.  B.  Eeed,  Hugh  Macmahon,  W.  P.  E. 
Street,  D.  Glass,  C.  S.  Corrigan,  J.  H.  Eraser,  B.  Cronyn,  Jas.  Magee, 
Henry  Becher,  W.  W.  Fitzgerald,  George  Gibbons,  J.  Taylor,  W.  H. 
Bartram,  I.  Martin,  A.  Greenlees,  George  McNab  and  M.  D.  Eraser. 

Chief  Justice  Harrison,  who  died  in  November,  1878,  was  called 
to  the  Bar  in  1855,  created  Q.  C.  in  1867,  and  elevated  to  the  Bench 
in  1875. 

The  Spring  Assizes  of  1870  was  presided  over  by  Justice  Morrison. 
In  October,  1876,  Justice  Burton  presided  over  the  Assizes.  In  his 
charge  to  the  Grand  Jury,  he  reverted  to  his  first  visit  to'  London 
years  before,  when  Judge  Macaulay  presided  over  the  annual  Assize 
Court ;  compared  the  past  with  the  present,  and  seemed  well  pleased 
with  the  progress  of  the  county  in  all  things,  except  the  county 
buildings.  The  court-house  he  called  a  pest-house,  and  attributed  to 
it  the  death  of  Justice  Wilson.  The  Fall  Assizes  of  1881  was  presided 
over  by  Justice  Burton.  In  April,  1885,  Chief  Justice  M.  C. 
Cameron  presided  at  the  Assizes.  The  celebrated  case  of  Julia  E. 
Harris  vs.  Waterloo  Mutual  Insurance  Co.  was  heard  at  this  time.  W. 
E.  and  E.  Meredith  represented  the  plaintiff,  and  B.  B.  Osier  and 
Bowlby  the  defendant.  The  jury  awarded  her  $547  and  costs. 
Justice  Falconbridge  opened  the  Fall  Assizes  of  1888,  Sept.  10,  this 
being  his  first  official  visit  to  London. 


138  HISTORY   OF    THE 

Hugh  Macmahon,  Q.  C.,  born  in  Guelph,  Ont.,  in  1836,  descended 
from  an  ancient  Irish  family,  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1864,  and  in 
1869  settled  at  London.  In  1 876  he  was  created  Queen's  Counsel,  and 
the  following  year  was  leading  counsel  before  the  arbitrators  in  the  case 
of  the  Ontario  boundary,  and  in  1884  before  the  Privy  Council  of 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland.  In  1880,  and  all  through  the  trial  of  the 
Biddulph  cases,  he,  assisted  by  W.  R.  Meredith,  Q.  C.,  defended  his 
clients  with  extraordinary  energy  and  success.  He,  with  Col.  Shanly, 
were  the  main  promoters  of  the  Irish  Benevolent  Society  of  London. 
At  the  close  of  1883  he  removed  to  Toronto.  On  May  7,  1888,  we 
find  him  presiding  as  Judge  of  the  Assize  Court  at  London.  The 
Middlesex  Law  Association  was  represented  by  the  following : — W.  E. 
Meredith,  Q.  C. ;  E.  Meredith,  Q.  C. ;  M.  D.  Eraser,  Charles 
Hutchinson,  J.  B.  McKillop,  Frank  Love,  W.  H.  Bartram,  Ed.  Flock, 
H.  B.  Elliot,  W.  J.  Marsh,  N.  P.  Graydon,  E.  M.  Meredith,  Talbot 
Macbeth,  Colin  McDougall,  C.  G.  Jarvis,  Lieut.-Colonel  Macbeth,  J. 
H.  Flock,  Lieut.-Colonel  Shanly,  E.  M.  Toothe,  George  Moorehead, 
James  Magee,  W.  W.  Fitzgerald,  Thomas  Meredith,  E.  Bayly,  Q.  C. ; 
H.  Becher,  Q.  C.;  Folinsbee,  Coyne,  Nellis,  J.  C.  Judd,  Edmund 
Weld,  Tennant,  A.  0.  Jeffery,  E.  T.  Essery,  B.  C.  McCann,  and  others. 

W.  E.  Meredith  read  the  following  address : — 

To  the  Honorable  Hugh  Macmahon,  one  of  her  Majesty's  Justices  of  the  High  Court 

for  Ontario  : — 

YOUR  LORDSHIP, — The  members  of  the  legal  profession  of  the  City  of  London 
and  County  of  Middlesex  beg  leave,  at  this  the  earliest  opportunity  afforded  them,  to 
offer  to  you  their  hearty  congratulations  upon  your  attaining  that  highest  of  honors 
and  responsibilities  in  the  profession — a  Judgeship.  "Whilst  the  profession  in  other 
cities  and  counties  have  had  the  gratification  of  earlier  offering  to  you  their  congratula- 
tions, we  feel  that  we  have  an  especial  right  and  privilege  to  do  so,  remembering  for 
how  long  you  were  among  us,  and  that  the  majority  of  us  have  had  the  pleasure  of 
practising  in  the  same  profession  with  you  in  this  city  for  many  years,  so  that,  although 
we  cannot  claim  you  as  of  one  of  us,  yet  it  is  one  of  more  than  ordinary  gratification  to 
us,  and  we  feel  affords  us  the  better  right  to  congratulate  you,  and  at  the  same  time 
to  be  the  better  able  to  congratulate  the  profession  in  general,  and  the  country  at 
large,  in  obtaining  a  Judge  so  well  calculated  to  maintain  the  high  standard  of  the 
bench,  past  and  present,  of  this  Province.  Permit  us  to  express  the  hope  that  a  long 
and  eminent  career  is  before  you,  and  to  assure  you  of  the  more  than  ordinary  pleasure 
it  is  to  welcome  you  to  the  City  of  London  upon  your  first  visit  in  your  high  official 
capacity.  W.  R.  MEREDITH, 

President  of  the  Middlesex  Law  Association. 


Secretary  of  the  Middlesex  Law  Association. 

Among  the  attorneys  named  in  the  records  of  1838  are  : — Jamea 
Givens,  afterwards  Judge  of  the  County  Court ;  W.  K.  Cornish,  who 
lost  his  gown  owing  to  a  practical  joke ;  J.  G.  Ackland,  E.  Henry,  jr. 
(or  Hervay),  Geo.  Duggan,  jr.,  John  Stuart,  John  Wilson,  E.  E.  Burns, 
H.  Sherwood,  George  Sherwood,  A.  N.  McNab,  W.  H.  Draper,  C. 
Gamble,  Givens  &  Warren,  Wm.  Salmon,  E.  Burton,  J.  G.  Sprague, 
J.  Cameron,  C.  L.  Hall,  H.  E.  O'Eielly,  C.  A.  Hagaman,  E.  Dickson, 
Gideon  S.  Tiffany,  Miles  O'Eielly,  J.  H.  Price,  A.  Bethune,  John  Bell, 
J.  O'Hatt,  E.  G.  Beasley,  E.  C.  Campbell,  F.  T.  Wicks,  Michael  Me- 


Namara,  G.  Eidout,  James  Boulton,  John  S.  Smith,  Wm.  Miller,  J. 
Bell,  Wm.  Hume  Blake,  A.  S.  Milne,  E.  Macdonald,  C.  K.  Cornish, 
E.  0.  Duggan,  J.  H.  Price,  A.  Grant,  K.  Baldwin,  F.  G.  Stanton. 

In  1839  the  name  of  W.  Lapenstiere  appears  in  the  case  of  Char- 
lotte Armstrong  v.  Wm.  Leighton  and  John  Hobson.  In  April,  1840, 
Frederick  Cleverly  appears  before  the  Court,  representing  J.  H.  Joyce 
and  Edward  Matthews  v.  Henry  L.  Thompson.  In  1841  the  name  of 
Henry  C.  E.  Becher  appears,  differing  from  that  of  Henry  C.  E.  Becher, 
already  given.  John  H.  L.  Askin  represented  Joe  Suter  et  al  v. 
Thomas  Dangerfield,  in  1841.  At  this  time  the  name  of  J.  Strachan 
is  recorded;  in  1842  Thomas  Keir,  A.  D.  McLean;  in  1844  John 
Crawford,  John  Wilson  and  Thomas  Warren;  in  1845  James  Shanly; 
in  1846  E.  Jones  Parke;  in  1847  S.  F.  Robertson,  Geo.  Brooke,  D. 
M.  Thompson;  in  1848  Thomas  Scatcherd,  W.  H.  Weller,  Geo.  W. 
Burton,  James  Santon ;  in  1849  W.  Eichardson,  James  Shanly,  jr., 
Warren  &  Hamilton.  In  1850  the  names  of  James  Stanton  and  D. 
W.  Stanton,  Wm.  Horton,  Arch.  Gilkinson,  appear  on  the  records  of 
the  County  Court  of  Middlesex  and  Elgin.  In  1852  the  names  of 
Cameron  &  Eutledge,  G.  W.  Barton,  Henry  Hamilton,  Thomas  Scatch- 
erd, Eobert  Nichol,  Wm.  Proudfoot,  E.  Horton,  F.  Davis  and  William 
Elliot  appear;  in  1851  Eobert  E.  Burns,  Wm.  Proudfoot,  Edward 
Blevins,  Eobt.  Nicholl  and  Wm.  Elliot  are  recorded.  From  Septem- 
ber, 1844,  to  April,  1852,  there  were  1,395  suits  disposed  of  in  the 
London  District  Court. 

From  1835  to  1839  there  were  765  judgments  rendered.  From 
December,  1839,  to  September,  1844,  there  were  1,103  judgments 
rendered.  There  were  156  cases  entered  for  trial  at  the  March  term 
of  1847  before  Judge  James  Givens.  Of  this  number,  John  Wilson 
entered  28  ;  Wm.  Horton,  21 ;  James  Daniell  and  John  Duggan,  29  ; 
Thomas  D.  Warren,  20 ;  E.  Jones  Parke,  17 ;  James  Givens  and 
James  Shanly,  19;  H.  C.  E.  Becher,  14;  John  Crawford,  1 ;  William 
Notman,  2 ;  D.  J.  Hughes,  William  K.  Cornish,  Simon  F.  Eobertsori, 
A.  D.  McLean  and  George  Brook,  one  each. 

John  F.  J.  Harris,  F.  Evans  Cornish,  C.  L.  Hutchinson,  1852 ; 
Geo.  Baxter,  1853 ;  P.  G.  Norris,  1855,  also  Eobert  Cooper,  afterwards 
Judge  of  Goderich,  of  Elliot  &  Cooper;  Thomas  Partridge,  James 
McFadden,  Burton  Bennett,  of  Vienna,  and  Eobert  C.  Stoneman,  of 
Strathroy,  Duggan  &  Flock,  1856 ;  J.  H.  Flock,  Walter  McCrae,  B. 
Schram,  T.  W.  Lawford,  P.  T.  Worthington,  W.  L.  Lawrason,  J.  D. 
Warren,  Eichard  Bayly,  Edward  W.  Harris,  George  Harris,  J.  Part- 
ridge, 1856-7.  From  1852  to  the  close  of  1857  there  are  1,657 
judgments  recorded  in  the  judgment  book  of  the  united  counties  of 
Middlesex  and  Elgin.  In  1858  the  name  of  J.  Worthington  appears, 
also  S.  H.  Gray  don.  There  were  1,355  judgments  given  between 
August,  1857,  and  October,  1858.  In  1864  the  name  of  E.  E. 
Jackson  appears,  also  John  Geary  and  C.  C.  Abbott.  In  February, 
1859,  the  law  firm  of  Burton  Bennett  and  Thomas  Clarke  appears  on 


140  HISTORY  OF    THE 

the  County  Court  records  ;  R.  Ollard,  Duggan  &  Bain,  J.  McCaughey 
H.  Massingbrod,  E.  S.  Collett  and  A.  McDougall  appears  in  I860; 
W.  C.  L.  Gill,  N.  Nonsarrett,  Cayley,  Cameron  &  McMichael,  of 
Toronto;  C.  A.  Harth,  H.  Kirkpatrick,  C.  D.  Holmes,  D.  C.  McDonald, 
Charles  F.  Goodhue,  Thomas  Carre,  W.  E.  Meredith  and  C.  A.  Hart, 
1861 ;  John  Geary,  jr.,  and  Robert  E.  Jackson,  1862.  In  1863,  C.  P. 
Higgins,  Samuel  Barker,  D.  Macmillan,  Alex.  Mackenzie,  Geo.  Green, 
Samuel  Barker,  Philip  Mackenzie,  Verschoyle  Cronyn,  Geo.  E.  Moore 
and  Warren  Rock.  In  1864,  David  Glass,  Samuel  Barker,  Leon  M. 
Clench,  J.  A.  Carroll,  David  Wilson  and  Charles  S.  Jones,  of  St. 
Marys.  In  1865,  the  record  bears  the  names  of  E.  Stonehouse,  W.  P. 
R.  Street,  just  appointed  Justice  of  Supreme  Court,  Patrick  Darby, 
W.  0.  Meade  King,  C.  S.  Corrigan,  A.  J.  B.  Macdonald  and  W.  P. 
Laird.  In  1866,  Geo.  Moncrief,  now  representing  East  Lambton  in 
Parliament,  J.  A.  Miller,  John  J.  Brown,  Thomas  Clegg,  C.  McDonald, 
H.  H.  Coyne,  George  Railton,  Drummond,  T.  A.  Mills,  Cutten  and 
E.  M.  Scane.  In  1867,  R.  C.  Scatcherd.  In  1868,  Mackenzie, 
J.  H.  Eraser,  Thomas  T.  Irvine,  James  Magee,  Mr.  Livingstone, 
Edmund  Meredith,  H.  Whateley  and  Henry  Ellis.  In  1869,  Hugh 
Macmahon,  J.  E.  Harding  and  J.  0.  Ouilette.  In  1870,  Henry  E 
Nelles,  E.  B.  Reed,  A.  Bell,  J.  R.  Dixon.  In  1871,  Thomas  J.  Wilson, 
W.  W.  Fitzgerald,  T.  O'Brien,  G.  C.  Gibbons.  In  1872,  John  Taylor, 
E.  H.  Duggan,  A.  E.  Irving  and  John  Cameron.  In  1873,  J.  Woods,' 
W.  H.  Bartram,  Andrew  Greenlees.  In  ]  874,  T.  J.  Wilson,  John 
Bell,  Kenneth  Goodman.  In  1874,  J.  Martin,  PI.  T.  W.  Ellis  and 
A.  F.  Campbell.  In  1875,  E.  T.  Essery,  M.  D.  Eraser.  In  1876,  W. 
Norris,  Benj.  Cronyn  In  1877,  J.  Gowans  and  Francis  Love/  In 
1878,  Malcomson,  Watson  and  W.  T.  Lawson.  In  1879,  T.  E.  Law- 
son,  A.  Keefer,  H.  Vivian,  Thomas  A.  Keefer,  J.  J.  Blake,  George 
McNab,  A.  0.  Jeffery.  In  1880,  Win.  McDiarmid,  T.  T.  Macbeth. 
In  1882,  H.  W.  Hall,  and  in  1883,  B.  C.  McCann,  were  admitted  to 
the  Law  Circle. 

Among  the  old  members  of  the  Bar,  whose  reminiscences  may  not 
be  given  in  the  pages  devoted  to  biography,  were  Stephen  Hacket 
Graydon,  born  at  Birr,  Ireland,  in  1819;  settled  on  a  farm  near 
London  in  1846.  In  1847  he  returned  to  Ireland  and  was  married 
there.  In  1848,  with  his  friends,  Wescott  and  Birrell,  he  visited 
Australia ;  returned  in  1851,  and  studied  law  with  Parke  &  Parke 

SS?1    TTWaS  Mayor>  vice  Christie>  resigned,  and  was  elected  Mayor 
in  1870.     He  was  a  very  able  solicitor.     In  1884  his  son,  A  E  H 
Graydon,  died  in  Texas. 

The  present  Bar  of  Middlesex  comprises  :— W.  H.  Bartram,  W.  W 
Fitzgerald,  Richard _Bayly  Q.  0,  R.  Bayly,  jr.,  J.  H.  A.  Beattie,  Henry 
™fTi  Q  w'  ?'  nieti8'  ?.S  Blackburn,  Thomas  Bowman,  A.  G 
Chisholm  W.  J.  Clark,  John  Cameron,  R.  K.  Cowan,  A.  B.  Cox  V 
Cronyn,  Chns^  Corrigan,  R.  H.  Digiiam,  H.  B.  Elliot,  E.  T,  Essery  F 
C.  Cryer,  J.  H.  Flock,  E.  W.  M.  Flock,  Follinsbee,  J.  H.  Eraser  Q  C 


M.  D,  Eraser,  E.  G.  Fisher,  Geo.  C.  Gibbons,  Wm.  Glass,  N.  P.  Gray- 
don,  Kenneth  Goodman,  A.  Greenlees,  A.  D.  Hardy,  F.  F.  Harper,  I. 
F.  Hellmuth,  C.  H.  Ivey,  Charles  Hutchinson  (Clerk  of  the  Peace), 
Chauncey  Jarvis:  A.  0.  Jeffery,  E.  H.  Johnson,  J.  C.  Judd,  C.  A, 
Kingston,  W.  P.  Laird,  Francis  Love,  T.  H.  Luscombe,  Talbot  Mac- 
beth, B.  C.  McCann,  John  Macbeth,  D.  Macmillan,  James  Magee,  G. 
W.  Marsh,  Herbert  Macbeth,  A.  J.  B.  Macdonald,  Geo.  McNab,  James 
B.  McKillop,  Wm.  McDiarmid  (Lucan),  E.  Meredith,  Q.  C.,  E.  M. 
Meredith,  W.  K.  Meredith,  Q.  C.,  T.  G.  Meredith,  A.  A.  Mactavish,  J. 
J.  Macpherson,  G  Moorehead,  Patrick  Mulkern,  David  Mills,  H.  E. 
Nelles,  E.  W.  Owens,  Thomas  O'Brien,  John  D.  O'Neil,  E.  J.  Parke, 
Q.C.,  T.  H.  Purdom,  W.  A.  Proudfoot,  Alex.  Stewart  (Glencoe),  E.  W. 
Scatcherd,  W.  E.  Smythe,  John  Taylor,  D.  H.  Tennant,  J.  A.  Thomas, 
E.  M.  C.  Toothe,  G.  N.  Weekes,  Edmund  Weld  and  Angus  McNish. 

Francis  Evans  Cornish,  son  of  Dr.  Wm.  King  Cornish,  who  came 
to  Canada  from  England  in  1819,  was  born  here  that  year,  and  was 
educated  at  London.  In  1855  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar ;  from  1858 
to  1861  was  Alderman,  and  from  1861  to  186 5,  Mayor  of  London.  In 
1871  he  moved  to  the  Eed  Eiver,  and  in  1872  was  admitted  to  the  bar 
of  the  new  province.  In  1874  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Mani- 
toba Legislature ;  was  Mayor  of  Winnipeg,  and  for  some  years  an 
Alderman  there,  having  been  last  elected  in  1878.  For  years  he  ruled 
the  Orange  association  in  Middlesex,  and  was  a  member  of  the  Masonic 
society  here.  Notwithstanding  his  drinking  and  revelling,  he  was 
popular  with  a  majority  of  citizens.  While  Mayor,  he  tried,  convicted 
and  fined  himself  for  disorderly  conduct,  and  on  one  occasion  caused 
the  withdrawal  of  the  British  garrison  from  London,  by  refusing  to 
apologize  to  the  Colonel  in  command.  This  trouble  grew  out  of  scan- 
dalous remarks  by  the  Colonel  bearing  on  a  member  of  the  Cornish 
family.  For  such  remarks  the  Mayor  punished  the  Colonel  corporally. 
He  died  at  Winnipeg,  November  28,  1878. 

Warren  Eock,  Q.  C ,  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1861,  and  in  1863 
established  his  law  office  at  London.  In  1876  he  acquired  the  title  of 
Queen's  Counsel,  and  a  year  later  formed  a  partnership  with  Talbot 

James  Shanly,  Q.  C.,  born  at  "  The  Abbey,"  Stradbally,  Queen's 
County,  Ireland,  is  a  son  of  one  of  the  pioneers  of  Nissouri  (also 
named  James)  who  emigrated  from  Ireland,  and  in  J  837  established 
his  home  here  known  as  "  Thorndale,"  near  the  village  of  that  name. 
Col.  Shanly  has  taken  an  active  part  in  militia  affairs,  as  told  in  the 
military  chapter.  He  received  his  legal  education  in  Canada  and 
here  was  created  a  Queen's  Counsel,  while  for  many  years  he  has  held 
the  position  of  Master-in-Chancery. 

William  P.  E.  Street,  born  at  London,  Ont,  in  1841,  was  admitted 
to  the  Bar  in  1864,  and  created  Queen's  Counsel  in  1883.  In  1885- 
he  was  Chairman  of  the  North- west  Half-breed  Commission,  and  in 
1888  appointed  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court. 

142  HISTORY   OF   THE 

C.  B.  Reed,  a  law  student  of  London,  was  drowned  at  Toronto, 
while  skating,  in  March,  1862. 

Patrick  W.  Darby,  a  barrister  of  London,  died  in  October,  1865. 
He  had  just  completed  his  law  studies,  and  for  some  years  delighted 
London  audiences  by  his  rendition  of  Irish  music. 

Early  Probate  Business. — Under  date  of  June  15,  1814,  the  fol- 
lowing account  was  rendered  against  the  county  by  Daniel  Whitman, 
charges  incurred  for  the  funeral  of  Lydia  Whitman.  Whitman 
charged  £2  4s.  for  a  coffin,  12s.  for  grave  digging,  £1  12s.  for  a 
winding-sheet,  and  £4  for  nursing,  washing,  use  of  house  and  sundry 
services,  aggregating  £8  8s.  Od.  This  was  evidently  a  probate  busi- 
ness, for  after  £69  17s.  2|d.  and  the  sum  named  above  are  debited, 
David  Whiteman,  or  Wightman,  is  credited  with  £17  6s.  Od.,  his  own 
account  plus  £103  3s.  Od.,  proceeds  of  auction,  and  received  £42  4s. 
9Jd.  from  Magistrate  Backhouse. 

Early  Court  of  Bequest — In  January,  1830,  the  Townships  of 
Ekfrid,  Mosa,  Caradoc,  Lobo  and  Delaware  were  set  off  as  a  Division 
of  a  Court  of  Bequest,  with  Duncan  McKenzie  and  James  Parkinson, 

The  Middlesex  Law  Association  was  formed  October  4,  1879.  In 
December  a  deputation,  composed  of  W.  R.  Meredith,  Parker,  Magee, 
and  Sheriff  Glass,  addressed  the  County  Council,  asking  that  a  room 
in  the  court-house  be  set  apart  for  a  law  library.  This  was  granted, 
and  to-day  the  law  library,  in  charge  of  Librarian  Simmons,  shows  a 
large  collection  of  law  books,  reports,  and  some  useful  books  of  a 
general  character.  The  remodelled  court-house,  in  which  the  library 
is,  was  opened  December  2,  1878,  by  Judge  Davis. 





Governor  Simcoe  always  entertained  the  idea  of  the  re-conquest  of 
the  United  States.  His  plans  were  directed  toward  this  end,  and  with 
that  object  he  established  in  his  mind's  eye  a  central  government  at 
London  on  the  Thames,  with  an  arsenal  and  ship-yard  at  Chatham, 
and  redoubts  along  the  lakes  and  Niagara  River.  He  divided  the 
country  into  counties  for  militia  purposes,  and  made  laws  for  the 
organization  and  management  of  all  male  inhabitants.  The  Quakers, 
Baptists  and  Tunkers  were  to  pay  twenty  shillings  per  annum  in  time 
•of  peace  and  one  hundred  shillings  sterling  per  year  in  time  of  war  for 
this  their  exemption  from  service — the  proceeds  to  be  devoted  to  the 
payment  of  an  Adjutant-General.  The  regular  soldiers  under  his  com- 
mand were  ordered  to  cut  out  the  Dundas  road  from  Lake  Ontario  to 
the  forks  of  the  Thames,  and  Yonge  street  from  Lake  Ontario  to  Lake 
Simcoe.  All  this  and  much  more  was  accomplished  before  the  first 
year  of  this  country  ;  but  English  diplomats,  filled  with  experiences  of 
the  Revolution,  failed  to  be  so  sanguine  as  Simcoe,  and  so  deferred  a 
war  on  the  United  States  until  1812. 

Surrender  of  Detroit. — The  events  leading  to  the  Battle  of  the 
Thames,  date  to  the  surrender  of  Detroit.  This  surrender  of  Aug.  16, 
1812,  and  its  occupation  by  the  British  for  a  year,  were  brought  about 
by  a  lawyer  named  Brush,  who  was  unfriendly  to  the  American  cause, 
although  he  was  Governor  Hull's  legal  adviser.  Brush  consorted  with 
General  Brock  and  advised  the  manner  of  attack,  even  as  he  advised 
Hull  to  surrender,  and  this  was  made  more  manifest,  for  when  Brock 
had  arrived  within  musket  range  he  halted,  and  stood  still  regarding 
the  American  force  and  their  ability  to  oppose  him,  as  if  in  doubt 
whether  he  was  leading  his  men  into  a  trap.  Judge  William  Connor, 
of  Mt.  Clemens,  and  other  old  citizens  of  Detroit,  who  were  present, 
state  that  Hull's  cowardice  and  Brush's  treachery  led  to  this  affair,  and 
refer  to  the  fact  of  Hull  being  so  excited  and  scared  at  his  share  in 
bringing  over  the  British  troops,  that  he  besmeared  his  coat,  vest, 
ruffled  bosom  and  white  cravat  with  tobacco  juice,  lost  in  toto  the 
appearance  of  Hull  of  the  Revolution,  and  assumed  the  look  of  a 
•criminal.  Another  surrender  was  also  made  where  now  stands  the 
city  of  St.  Glair.  Patrick  Sinclair,  a  British  officer,  built  in  1763  a 
fort  and  trading-house.  In  1782  nineteen  other  Britishers  settled  in 
the  neighborhood.  In  1807  the  Michigan  militia  under  Captain  Roe 
•occupied  this  post,  and  also  another  post  located  just  below  Marine 
City.  During  the  war  of  1812  this  post  and  Captain  Joe.  Roe's  com- 
pany of  forty  men  were  captured  by  a  British  force ;  but  in  May, 



1814,  the  river  bank  was  again  in  possession  of  the  American  Rangers 
under  Captain  Gratiot. 

Battle  of  the  Thames.— Commodore  Perry  obtained  a  signal  victory 
over  the  British  naval  forces  on  Lake  Erie,  September  10,  1813.  This 
force  comprised  the  ships  Detroit,  19  guns ;  Queen  Charlotte,  17  guns  ; 
the  schooner  Lady  Prevost,  13  guns;  the  brig  Hunter,  10  guns;  the 
sloop  Little  Belt,  3  guns  and  the  schooner  Chippewa,  1  gun  and  2 
swivels.  Opposed  to  this  was  Perry's  flagship,  the  Lawrence  and  the 
Ariel,  poorly  armed,  and  a  few  small  boats  hurriedly  put  together  at 
Put-in-Bay,  such  as  the  Scorpion  and  Tigress.  With  the  captured 
vessels  he  advanced  on  Windsor  or  Maiden,  and  on  September  23  he 
took  over  to  Maiden  from  Detroit  1,200  men  of  Harrison's  army, 
among  whom  were  120  regular  troops,  the  remaining  1,080  being 
Kentucky  riflemen.  The  balance  of  the  army,  1,500  irregular  troops 
and  30  Indians,  were  held  at  Detroit.  Gen.  Proctor's  force  comprised 
900  British  regular  troops  and  1,500  Indians  commanded  by  Tecumseh. 

Perry  ran  some  of  his  small  boats  up  to  Moravian  Town  and 
Chatham,  while  Harrison's  mounted  infantry  pushed  forward  along  the 
north  bank  of  the  river  and  forded  the  Thames  twelve  miles  below  the 
Moravian  Mission,  and  about  that  distance  from  Lot  4  in  the  Gore  of 
Zone,  where  Tecumseh  fell.  That  night  the  advance  guard  arrived  at 
Dalson's  Station,  where  they  bought  from  Mrs.  Dalson  several  hundred 
loaves  of  bread  (which  Gen.  Proctor's  army  left  behind),  paying  the 
woman  for  each  twenty-five  cents.  Next  day  the  army  resumed  the 
march  and  came  up  with  the  British  regulars,  who  opened  fire  first.  Har- 
rison promptly  returned  the  fire,  and  ordered  Col.  Johnson's  Kentucky 
cavalry  to  charge  upon  their  lines.  This  charge  was  admirably  made, 
breaking  the  lines  and  square  and  permitting  the  riflemen  to  advance 
without  loss  to  make  the  whole  British  force,  then  present,  prisoners. 
Tecumseh's  great  Indian  army  was  held  below,  and  a  little  to  the 
right  of  the  position  held  by  the  regular  British  troops,  in  a  dense  low 
bush.  The  riflemen  dashed  against  this  position,  but  were  repulsed. 
The  message  for  aid  just  came  as  the  British  regulars  were  disarmed, 
and  Col.  Johnson's  cavalry  was  sent  forward.  In  this  charge  Col. 
Johnson  was  wounded,  but  the  battle  went  forward  for  thirty  minutes 
longer  until  Tecumseh  himself  fell,  when  the  field  belonged  to 
Kentucky.  After  the  battle  Col.  Whitney,  an  old  Kentucky  citizen 
accompanying  the  army,  was  found  lying  dead,  and  within  four  rods 
of  him  lay  Tecumseh.  The  location  was  on  the  "  openings,"  just 
beyond  the  low  ground  where  the  Indians  first  took  position  in  the 

It  is  said  that  Perry's  victory  on  Lake  Erie  was  concealed  from 
Tecumseh  by  Proctor,  for  fear  of  its  effect  on  his  savage  followers. 
Tecumseh,  seeing  Proctor's  preparations  to  retire  eastward  from  the 
American  frontier,  suspected  the  truth.  At  a  council  held  in  one  of 
the  storehouses  at  Amherstburg,  Tecumseh,  with  great  vehemence  of 
manner,  addressed  Proctor,  saying  : — 



"Father,  listen!  Our  fleet  has  gone  out;  we  know  they  have  fought;  we  have 
heard  the  great  guns  ;  but  we  know  nothing  of  what  has  happened  to  our  father  with 
one  arm  (Captain  Barclay).  Our  ships  have  gone  one  way,  and  we  are  much  astonished 
to  see  our  father  tying  up  everything  and  preparing  to  run  the  other  way,  without 
letting  his  red  children  know  what  his  intentions  are.  You  always  told  us  to  remain 
here  to  take  care  of  the  lands.  You  always  told  us  you  would  never  draw  your  foot  off 
British  ground  ;  but  now,  father,  we  see  you  are  drawing  back,  and  we  are  sorry  to 
see  our  father  do  so  without  seeing  the  enemy.  We  must  compare  our  father's  con- 
duct to  a  fat  dog  that  carries  its  tail  upon  its  back  ;  but,  when  affrighted,  it  drops  it 
between  its  legs  and  runs  off. 

' '  Father,  listen  !  The  Americans  have  not  yet  defeated  us  by  land,  neither  are  we 
sure  that  they  have  done  so  by  water ;  we,  therefore,  wish  to  remain  here  and  fight 
our  enemy,  should  he  make  his  appearance.  If  they  defeat  us,  then  we  will  retreat 
with  our  father.  You  have  got  the  arms  and  ammunition  which  our  great 

father,  the  King,  sent  for  his  red  children.  If  you  have  an  idea  of  going  away,  give 
them  to  us,  and  you  may  go  and  welcome  for  us.  Our  lives  are  in  the  hands  of  the 
Great  Spirit.  We  are  determined  to  defend  our  lands,  and,  if  it  be  His  will,  we  wish 
to  leave  our  bones  upon  them." 

Lossing,  in  his  "  Pictorial  Field-Book  of  the  War  of  1812,"  from 
which  we  extract  the  above  speech,  says  its  effect  was  electrical. 

Major  H.  H.  Owsley,  a  soldier  in  this  campaign,  speaking  of  the 
death  of  Tecumseh,  says  that  the  Battle  of  the  Thames  was  a  short,, 
hot  skirmish,  in  which  Tecumseh  died  like  a  hero  and  a  patriot,  and 
Proctor  showed  himself  to  be  a  poltroon  of  the  most  pusillanimous 
type.     He  related  incidentally  how  the  story  that  Colonel  Johnson  had 
killed  Tecumseh  originated,  and  gave  the  name  of  the  soldier  who  did 
kill  the  great  Shawanee.     "  Tecumseh  was,"  said  Major  Owsley,  "  as 
fine  a  specimen  of  physical  manhood  as  ever  I  saw.      He  was  above 
middle  height,  beautifully  proportioned,  features  singularly  regular  for 
an  Indian,  a  handsomely-shaped  face,  eyes  like  an  eagle,  and  of  grace- 
ful, though  haughty,  manner.     Indian  and  foe  though  he  was,  I  could 
not  withhold  my  admiration  for  his  patriotism,  his  bravery,  and  his 
ability.     It  is  said  that  he  had  a  premonition  of  his  approaching  end. 
At  all  events,  at  the  Thames,  he  threw  off  his  Brigadier-General 
uniform,  and,  putting  on  a  hunting  shirt  and  taking  rifle,  tomahawk 
and  butcher-knife,  he  led  his  men  in  person  against  Dick  Johnson's 
mounted  Kentuckians.     The  Indians  had  been  made  believe  by  the 
'  Prophet,'  Tecumseh's  brother,  that  '  Tecumseh  bore  a  charmed  life, 
and  could  not  be  wounded.'     And  when  they  saw  their  leader  fall 
their  superstitious  fear  was  aroused,  and  they  broke  and  fled.      For  a 
few  minutes,  or  until  Tecumseh  fell,  the  Indians  fought  as  bravely  as 
ever  men  of  any  people  fought.     Johnson's  men  and  the  Indians  did 
most  of  the  fighting  at  the  Thames  engagement,  which  was  not  much 
of  a  battle  after  all,  though  it  decided  very  important  issues.     Had 
Tecumseh  been  chief  in  command  instead  of  Proctor,  the  result  might 
have  been  different,  for  Tecumseh  was  a  born  soldier."     He  further 
states  that  "  it  was  generally  known  in  the  army  that  red-headed  Dave 
King  killed  the  Shawanee  chief.    King  was  a  tailor  by  trade,  and  lived 
sometimes  at  Stanford,  and  sometimes  at  Lebanon,  Ky.     Before  we 
reached  the  Ohio  Eiver,  on  our  return  home  to  Kentucky,  *  Davy  *" 
King  was  the  best-known  private  soldier  in  the  army.     Next  to  the 



last  night  out,  before  reaching  our  old  Kentucky  home,  it  was  whis- 
pered around  among  the  soldiers  :  '  When  we  get  over  the  Ohio  Paver 
we  must  say  that  Colonel  Johnson  killed  Tecumseh.' " 

Skirmish  at  Byron. — After  the  battle  of  the  Thames,  General 
Proctor  retreated  to  Burlington  Heights,  taking  the  Longwoods  and 
the  Commissioners'  road.  He  was  closely  pursued  by  a  small  body  of 
Kentucky  riflemen,  who  came  up  with  Captain  Carroll's  command 
near  what  is  known  in  later  years  as  the  Village  of  Byron,  West- 
minster Township.  This  Carroll  commanded  a  body  of  mounted 
volunteers  and  one  of  infantry,  both  organized  in  Oxford  County. 
This  force  was  guarding  a  train  of  wounded  Britishers  from  the  field 
near  Chatham,  and  being  unable  to  keep  up  with  Proctor's  main  force, 
Carroll  was  doomed  to  surrender  or  fight.  Taking  the  latter  course,  he 
took  possession  of  ,a  knoll  within  the  great  bend  of  the  Commissioners' 
road,  and  with  Mrs.  McManus,  or  McNames,  (who  resided  near  by)  to 
distribute  ammunition,  waited  the  enemy's  attack.  The  Americans, 
seeing  a  hopeless  task  before  them,  retired  after  one  repulse,  leaving 
the  Canadians  to  take  care  of  their  wounded  men. 

Second  Scout. — In  the  summer  of  1814  some  mounted  Michigan 
and  Ohio  volunteers  entered  Westminster,  and  pushed  forward  to 
Yarmouth,  but  merely  took  away  whatever  provisions  and  horses  they 
required,  and  silenced  the  more  active  enemies  of  the  Republic  in  the 

Battle  Hill— The  affair  at  Battle  Hill,  a  few  miles  west  of  Strath- 
burn,  took  place  May  4,  1814,  between  the  Royal  Scots,  detachments 
of  the  89th  Infantry,  a  large  body  of  Kent  militia,  and  some  Indians 
on  one  side,  and  a  reconnoisance  of  the  American  force  on  the  other. 
The  first  party,  commanded  by  Captain  Basden,  while  bringing  up  an 
-army  train,  were  attacked  by  the  sharpshooters  from  a  log  redoubt  on 
the  hill.  The  British  and  Indians  attacked  the  position  from  all  sides, 
made  several  assaults,  but  before  daylight  had  to  fall  back,  having 
.suffered  very  heavily,  losing  16  killed,  including  two  officers,  and  49 
wounded,  including  three  officers.  The  Americans  retreated  at  dawn, 
:and  in  the  report  of  the  captain  to  headquarters,  carried  out  a  most 
hazardous  enterprise  without  loss  in  killed  or  wounded. 

OtJier  A/airs.— On  May  14,  1814,  Roe's  Rangers  made  an  incur- 
sion into  Canada  to  ascertain  whether  any  British  troops  were  to  be 
found  along  the  Thames.  In  1812  Thomas  Talbot  was  created 
Lt.-Col.  of  militia,  then  embracing  three  companies  of  able-bodied  men. 
Two  were  recruited  from  able-bodied  men  and  widowers,  were  well 
drilled,  and  known  as  "Flank  Companies."  They  participated  in 
several  actions  against  the  Americans  on  the  border.  On  Aug.  13, 
1813,  however,  the  war  came  toward  the  settlement.  A  band  of 
Kentucky  riflemen  and  some  stragglers  under  Commander  Walker 
came  up  from  the  Thames,  and  burned  Col.  Burwell's  log  dwellino 
and  Col.  Talbot's  mill.  Burwell  was  then  suffering  from  ague,  but  the 
Americans  removed  him  gently  from  the  house,  and  sent  him  prisoner 



to  Chillicothe,  Ohio.  On  approaching  Talbot's  log  house,  Col.  Patter- 
son was  arrested,  leaving  the  owner  to  escape  in  the  guise  of  a 
shepherd.  The  Americans  took  whatever  cattle  and  horses  they 
required,  and  returned.  General  McArthur  set  out  on  his  Ontario 
raid  from  Detroit  in  the  fall  of  1814.  He  pushed  forward  to  Grand 
Eiver,  and  foraged  successfully,  bringing  to  Detroit  a  large  band  of 
horses  and  a  heavy  train  of  provisions. 

Pensioners  of  the  War. — The  act  of  Parliament  providing  for  the 
distribution  of  $50,000  among  the  survivors  of  the  War  of  1812,  came 
into  force  in  1875.  That  year  Colonels  McPherson,  Moffat,  Taylor, 
and  Majors  Leys  and  Peters  made  the  payments  of  $20  to  each  of 
thirty  veterans  at  the  City  Hall,  London.  Among  the  old  soldiers  of 
Middlesex  present  were  : — David  Keynolds,  of  Caradoc,  was  present  at 
the  battles  of  Queenston  and  Lundy's  Lane,  being  wounded  at  the 
former  place.  He  had  applied  for  a  pension,  but  never  received  it, 
although  he  had  got  one  hundred  acres  of  land.  He  was  then  84  years 
of  age.  Isaac  Quackenbush,  Komoka,  was  not  on  the  list,  but  later 
on  in  the  day  an  application  was  made  out  for  him  by  Col.  Taylor. 
In  answer  to  Col.  McPherson's  query  as  to  what  rank  he  held,  Quack- 
enbush said  sometimes  he  was  in  the  front  rank  and  sometimes  in  the 
rear.  Andrew  Heron  was  aged  81 ;  he  volunteered  at  Port  Dover,  and 
was  at  the  battle  of  Fort  George,  and  received  a  medal,  which  he 
exhibited  ;  he  was  identified  by  Mr.  Eeynolds.  Benjamin  Myers,  Mt. 
Brydges,  was  born  in  1791,  and  took  part  in  the  first  war,  bearing 
arms  all  through  it.  He  never  received  a  cent  of  pay  or  a  grant  of 
land.  He  was  at  Queenston  and  Lundy's  Lane,  and  was  wounded  in 
the  arm,  a  piece  of  grape  shot  carrying  off  his  coat  collar.  He  could 
write  his  name.  Wm.  Moore,  of  the  township  of  Metcalfe,  was  80  years 
of  age  ;  enrolled  in  1812,  and  served  nine  months;  was  at  the  taking 
of  Ogdensburg  and  at  the  battle  of  Chrysler's  Farm,  were  he  suffered 
more  than  on  any  other  occasion.  He  gave  a  vivid  description  of  the 
hardships  of  that  day,  and  stated  that  he  received  a  hundred  acres  of 
land.  George  Brown,  of  Williams,  was  85  years  of  age,  and  said  he  had 
no  other  of  his  family  similiarly  named.  He  was  enrolled  in  1812, 
but  carried  despatches  and  drew  pay  at  Kingston,  where  he  served 
nine  months.  He  volunteered  on  the  4th  of  June,  and  received  a 
hundred  acres  for  his  military  services.  He  did  not  recollect  the  name 
of  the  corps  he  served,  but  it  was  the  militia  of  the  County  of  Lennox. 
Simon  Grote,  of  Longwood  (colored),  did  not  recollect  his  age ;  thought 
the  name  of  his  Colonel  was  Clause.  The  whole  regiment  was  com- 
posed of  colored  men.  and  he  enlisted  at  the  beginning  of  the  war, 
and  served  through  it  all :  was  at  Lundy's  Lane,  Queenston,  and  St. 
Davids.  He  got  a  hundred  acres  of  land  from  the  Government. 
James  Alexander  Weishulm,  of  Mount  Brydges,  was  unable  to  be 
present,  was  lying  ill  at  his  sister's  house  in  London  township.  His 
son  represented  him,  and  David  Eeynolds  affirmed  that  he  had  served. 
Francis  Emerick,  of  Napier,  did  not  have  his  name  on  the  list.  Barna- 


148  HISTOliY    OF   THE 

bas  Flanagan,  Mt.  Brydges,  was  past  86  years  of  age,  and  served  from 
1812  to  1815  under  Brock.  He  was  engaged  at  Detroit,  Fort  Erie, 
Chippewa,  Queenston  and  Stoney  Creek.  He  never  received  any  land, 
although  it  was  promised,  and  never  received  any  medal  or  a  cent  all 
through  the  war.  Nicholas  Bodine,  Mosa,  was  87  years  of  age,  and 
served  under  Col.  Eyerse  ;  he  was  in  the  army  about  two  years,  and 
received  three  dollars  for  his  services.  There  was  some  deficiency  in 
his  papers,  and  Col.  McPherson  promised  to  write  to  him.  George 
Henry,  Newbury,  served  as  a  private  in  his  father's  company,  pro- 
ducing the  commission  of  the  latter  dated  1804.  It  was  issued  by  Hon. 
Eobert  Hamilton,  Lieutenant  of  the  County  of  Lincoln.  Henry  was  78 
years  of  age,  having  enrolled  when  but  fifteen.  He  never  got  anything 
for  his  services,  and  never  expected  to.  Robert  Cornwall,  of  Caradoc, 
was  80  years  old,  and  served  till  after  the  battle  of  Fort  George  and  at 
Lundy's  Lane ;  was  never  wounded,  and  never  received  a  medal. 
Andrew  Heron  certifies  that  from  conversations  he  has  had  with  Corn- 
wall, the  latter  must  have  been  "out"  in  1812.  The  case  of  four 
Indians  from  Munceytown  was  next  taken  up ;  they  were  named 
George  King,  Tom  Chief,  Isaac  Dolson  and  Tom  Snake.  Arthur 
Wrightman,  of  Longwoods,  died  a  few  weeks  before  the  distribution. 

There  is  a  name,  however,  in  connection  with  the  war  of  1812, 
dear  to  Canadians — General  Brock.  On  July  28,  1812,  he  delivered 
his  written  address  to  the  Council  at  York,  and  from  this  document 
the  following  extract  is  taken : — 

u  Trusting  more  to  treachery  than  open  hostility,  our  enemies  have 
already  spread  their  emissaries  through  the  country  to  seduce  our 
fellow- subjects  from  their  allegiance,  by  promises  as  false  as  the 
principles  upon  which  they  are  founded.  A  law  has,  therefore,  been 
enacted  for  the  speedy  detection  of  such  emissaries  and  for  their 
condign  punishment.  Remember,  when  you  go  forth  to  the  combat, 
that  you  fight  not  for  yourselves  alone,  but  for  the  whole  world.  You 
are  defeating  the  most  formidable  conspiracy  against  the  civilization  of 
man  that  was  ever  contrived.  Persevere  as  you  have  begun,  in  strict 
obedience  to  the  laws  and  your  attention  to  military  discipline  ;  deem 
no  sacrifice  too  costly  which  secures  the  enjoyment  of  our  happy  con- 
stitution ;  follow  with  your  countrymen  in  Britain  the  paths  of  virtue, 
and  like  them,  you  shall  triumph  over  all  your  unprincipled  foes." 

On  Aug.  16,  1812,  Brock  made  good  his  words,  when  Hull  sur- 
rendered, under  the  conditions  hitherto  explained;  but  on  October  13 
he  delivered  his  last  speech,  and  was  killed  at  Queenston  Heights 
with  his  aide-de  camp,  McDonnell.  The  act  of  March  14,  1815  pro- 
vided for  raising  his  monument  on  the  Heights,  £1,000  being  then 
granted.  In  January,  1826,  a  supplementary  grant  of  £600  was 
made  to  complete  the  monument. 

Benj.  Wilson,  an  Ensign  in  the  war  of  1812,  was  present  at  the 

surrender  of  General  Hull,  as  well  as  at  Lundy's  Lane.     He  was  one 

twenty  men  under  Capt.  Metcalfe,  who,  it  is  alleged,  accomplished 


the  capture  of  eighty  Americans  by  imitating  the  Indian  war-whoop, 
thereby  causing  the  "  Yanks "  to  surrender.  During  the  march  to 
Col.  Talbot's  house  forty  Americans  escaped.  Several  interesting 
stories  of  such  captures  are  told,  with  many  tales  relating  to  the 
march  through  Canada  of  Hull's  unfortunate  garrison. 

The  Delaware  settlers  who  fled  to  join  Harrison's  army  in  1813 
were  never  recaptured ;  but  others  were  not  so  fortunate,  for  in  the 
history  of  the  Quarter  Sessions  Court  references  are  made  to  some 
early  settlers  indicted  for  desertion  or  treason. 

On  January  13,  1818,  Ellis  Buckley  was  indicted  for  deserting  to 
the  enemy  in  1814.  He  was  placed  under  bonds  of  £2,000,  with 
David  and  Daniel  Hoover  in  £1,000  each,  and  ultimately  escaped 
punishment.  The  Emmins  boys  were  also  arrested  on  the  charge  of 

Affairs  in  1837-8. — In  the  political  chapter,  the  troubles  of 
1837-8  are  referred  to.  The  military  condition  of  the  county  at  that 
time  may  be  learned  from  the  following  official  rosters  of  commands 
then  regularly  organized : — The  officers  of  the  first  regiment  of  Middle- 
sex in  1830,  were  Col.  Thomas  Talbot,  commissioned  Feb.  12,  1812  ; 
Captains  Gilman  Wilson  and  Leslie  Patterson,  commissioned  in  1812  ; 
John  Matthews,  James  McQueen,  John  Warren,  Archibald  Gillis, 
Hugh  McCowan  and  James  McKinley,  commissioned  in  1823  ;  Lieu- 
tenants Wm.  Bird  and  Gideon  Tiffany,  commissioned  in  1812 ;  Thos. 
McCall,  Samuel  McCall,  John  G.  Gillies,  Duncan  Mackenzie  and 
Adjutant  J.  M.  Farland,  commissioned  in  1823 ;  and  Ensigns  Daniel 
Mclntyre,  David  Davis  and  Samuel  Harris,  in  1812 ;  and  Quarter- 
Master  Sylvanus  Keynolds,  in  1815. 

The  fourth  division  of  Middlesex  militia  claimed  the  following 
officers : — Colonel,  James  Hamilton ;  Major,  Ira  Schofield ;  Captains, 
Joseph  Harrison,  Simon  Bullen,  Eos  well  Mount,  Duncan  Mackenzie, 
Eichard  Talbot  and  Daniel  Hine,  commissioned  in  1823  ;  Edward  E 
Warren,  Thomas  Lawrason,  Daniel  Doty,  Edward  E.  Talbot,  in  1824  ; 
Wm.  Putnam,  in  1826 ;  John  Ewart,  in  1827 ;  Lieutenants,  James 
Fisher,  John  Siddall,  John  T.  Jones,  Wm.  Gray,  Alex.  Sinclair,  John 
Brain,  Arch.  McFarlane,  Eobert  Webster  and  Nathaniel  Jacobs,  in 
1824 ;  Ensigns,  Henry  B  Warren,  Lawrence  Lawrason,  Daniel  Camp- 
bell, Thomas  H.  Sumner,  George  Eobson,  Wm.  Burgess,  Philip  Hard- 
ing, James  Parkinson  and  John  Talbot,  jr.,  in  1824,  with  Adjutant 
Wm.  Putnam,  in  1826. 

The  militia  officers  of  District  Two  of  Middlesex  in  1830,  were  : — 
Mahlon  Burwell,  Colonel ;  John  Backhouse,  Lt.-Colonel ;  John  Eolph, 
Major  ;  Samuel  Edison,  Wm.  Saxton,  Joseph  Defield,  Abe.  Backhouse, 
Titus  Williams,  Isaac  Draper,  Andrew  Dobie,  Henry  Backhouse  and 
William  Summers,  Captains ;  Gilbert  Wrong,  John  Summers,  James 
Hutchinson,  James  Bell,  Henry  House,  James  Summers  and  Alex. 
Saxton,  Lieutenants,  commissioned  in  1824 ;  Ensigns,  George  Dobie, 
Alexander  Summers,  John  Benner,  John  E.  Kennedy,  Win.  Mclntosh, 


Peter  Defield  and  Thomas  Edison,  jr.,  commissioned  in   1826 ;   and 
Reuben  Kennedy,  Quartermaster. 

The  militia  officers  of  the  Third  District  of  Middlesex  in  1830  were : 
—Colonel,  John  Bostwick,  commissioned  in  1822  ;  Captains,  Benjamin 
Wilson,  James  Nevilles,  John  Conrad  and  Joseph  Smith,  in  1823  \ 
Joseph  L.  O'Dell,  Josiah  C.  Goodhue,  Joseph  House  and  Michael 
McLoughlin,  in  1824;  Lieutenants,  Wm.  Orr  and  Jesse  Gantz,  in 
1823 ;  John  Merlatt,  Joshua  Putnam,  James  Weishuln,  Joshua  S. 
O'Dell,  William  P.  Leard  and  Gardner  Merrick,  in  1824 ;  Ensigns, 
Jonas  Barnes,  John  T.  Doan,  Silas  E.  Curtis,  Nathaniel  Griffiths, 
Lawrence  Dingman  and  Samuel  Summer,  in  1824. 

The  First  Regiment  of  Middlesex  militia  in  1838-9  was  presided 
over  by  Col.  Talbot;  L.Patterson  was  Lieut-Colonel;  J.  McQueen, 
Major;  G.  Wilson,  J.  Warren,  A.  Gillis  and  J.  McKinlay,  senior 
Captains;  Wm.  Shore,  J.  Simes,  J.  Patterson,  J.  Robier,  R.  D.  Drake, 
J.  T.  Airey  and  G.  Munro,  commissioned  Captains  in  1837 ;  W.  Bird, 
G.  Tiffany,  T.  McCall,  J.  Gillis  and  D.  McKinlay,  senior  Lieutenants  ; 
P.  Drake,  R.  Nicholls,  J.  Robier,  R.  Evans,  S.  Harris,  H.  Burwell,  J. 
Blackwood  and  E.  McKinlay,  commissioned  Lieutenants  in  1837 ;  D. 
Mclntyre  and  D.  Davis,  Senior  Ensigns ;  H.  Burden,  T.  Robier,  A. 
Backhouse,  J.  Thayer,  R.  Howard,  J.  B.  Burwell,  William  Spore,  D. 
McGregor  and  J.  Sinclair,  commissioned  Ensigns  in  1837;  J.  Patter- 
son, Quartermaster,  and  J.  Rolls,  Surgeon.  This  regiment  belonged  to 
the  Townships  of  Dunwich,  Southwold  and  Aldborough. 

The  Second  Light  Infantry  of  Middlesex  was  presided  over  by 
Colonel  T.  Radcliff,  commissioned  in  1837,  with  John  Philpot  Curran, 
Lieut-Colonel,  and  W.  McKenzie,  Major ;  W.  Radcliff,  P.  Hughes  and 
Robert  Pegley,  old  Captains;  J.  J.  Buchanan,  T.  Groome,  J.  P. 
Bellairs,  J.  Arthur,  E.  G.  Bowen,  in  1837,  and  R.  H.  Allen  in  1838. 
Of  the  Lieutenants,  William  Collins  was  commissioned  in  1835 ;  H. 
L.  Thompson,  T.  White,  G.  Somers,  R.  L.  Johnston,  H.  G.  Bullock,  K 
Bullock  and  G.  Pegley  in  1837.  Second  Lieutenants,  J.  Philips,  D. 
McPherson,  W.  McKenzie  and  C.  White  were  commissioned  in  1837, 
also  Adjutant  J.  Arthurs.  This  regiment  was  raised  in  Adelaide 

The  Second  Regiment  of  Middlesex  militia  was  presided  over  in 
1838-9  by  M.  Burwell,  commissioned  Colonel  in  1822,  with  John 
Burwell,  Lieut.- Colonel  in  1838,  and  H.  Metcalfe,  Major.  The  old 
Captains  were  Wm.  Stanton,  J.  Defield,  A.  Backhouse,  I.  Draper,  A. 
Dobie  and  W.  Summers.  In  1831  A.  Foster  was  commissioned,  and 
in  1838  G.  Wrong,  James  Hutchinson,  A.  Santon  and  D.  McKenney. 
The  Lieutenants  in  1834-8  were  J.  Summers,  H.  House,  J.  Benner,  T. 
Higginson,  Michael  Crawley.  The  Ensigns  commissioned  in  1826 
were  G.  Dobbie,  J.  R.  Kennedy,  W.  Mclntosh,  P.  Defield,  T.  Edison ; 
in  1832,  A.  McCasland,  N.  Lyon;  in  1838,  B.  Plowman,  G.  W. 
Holland,  T.  Jenkins,  jr.,  and  S.  Livingstone.  A.  Foster  was  Adjutant, 
with  R.  J.  Kennedy,  Quartermaster.  Of  the  cavalry  company,  H. 



Gilbert  was  Major ;  J.  M.  Crawford,  Lieutenant ;  J.  Wright,  Cornet. 
This  regiment  was  raised  at  Malahide  and  Bayham. 

The  Third  Regiment  of  Middlesex  militia  was  raised  in  the  Town- 
ships of  Yarmouth,  Westminster,  Dorchester  and  Delaware.  John 
Bostwick  was  Colonel  in  1832.  In  1838-9  the  following  officers  were 
appointed : — B.  Wilson,  Lt.-Col. ;  J.  Nevilles,  Major ;  D.  Calder,  Wm. 
Orr,  J.  Marlatt,  W.  P.  Secord,  J.  C.  Chrysler,  J.  R.  Bostwick,  M.  Mc- 
Kenzie,  J.  Manning ;  D.  Frazer  and  S.  E.  Curtis,  Captains ;  S.  Sum- 
mer, G.  R.  Williams,  G.  S.  Bostwick,  J.  Miller,  G.  Claris,  T.  Spore,  J. 
McKay,  H.  B.  Bostwick,  T.  Hutchinson  and  J.  Spore,  Lieutenants;  J. 
Rapelje,  L.  Pearce,  S.  Price,  A.  Ackland,  J.  Coughill,  A.  Fortour,  C. 
May  ward,  D.  Marlatt,  F.  Spore  and  R.  Springer,  Ensigns;  W.  Garrett, 
Q.  M. ;  E.  Ermatinger,  Paymaster.  The  Cavalry  company  was  com- 
manded by  Capt.  J.  Ermatinger,  with  J.  R.  Woodward,  Lieutenant, 
and  J.  Bostwick,  Cornet.  Many  of  the  officers  and  men  of  this  com- 
mand served  against  the  Patriots  in  1837-8,  prior  to  the  organization 
of  the  Third  Regiment. 

The  Fourth  Regiment  was  raised  in  Lobo,  London  and  North 
Dorchester  Townships.  In  1838,  T.  H.  Bull  was  appointed  Lieut.- 
Colonel.  In  1835,  S.  Bullen  was  commissioned  Major,  and  in  1823, 
R.  Talbot,  Captain.  The  other  officers  of  this  command  were  all  com- 
missioned in  1838,  viz. : — Captains,  H.  Kellally,  A.  Sinclair,  J.  Wilson, 
R.  Robinson,  J.  B.  O'Connor,  W.  S.  Bullen  and  G.  Robinson.  Lieu- 
tenants, John  O'Neil,  W.  McMillan,  J.  McFadden,  J.  Jennings,  P. 
Harding,  J.  Parkinson,  T.  Howard,  R.  Matthews,  C.  Madden  and  W. 
Crofton.  Ensigns,  W.  Muttlebury,  R.  J.  Handy,  T.  Harding,  S.  L. 
Ball,  T.  H.  Ball,  H.  C.  R.  Becher,  J.  Hawkins,  W.  Warren,  A.  D. 
McLean,  T.  Parkinson  and  D.  Kent.  F.  Talbot,  Quartermaster,  and 
G.  Moore,  Surgeon.  The  Adjutant,  R.  Robertson,  was  commissioned 
in  1835.  The  cavalry  company  was  commanded  by  A.  Robertson, 
appointed  in  1835.  Lieutenant,  J.  Warren,  and  Cornet,  A.  Kier,  in 

After  the  military  organization  of  1824,  a  banquet  was  given  at 
Peter  McGregor's  tavern,  then  opposite  the  waterworks  at  Spring- 
bank,  where  Richard  Thompson  now  lives.  In  the  evening,  Thomas 
Lawrason  said  at  the  table  : — "  I  do  not  want  any  common  men  but  we 
officers  to  sit  at  this  table."  What  ensued  did  away  with  the  pleasures 
of  the  evening,  the  men  descending  on  the  table  and  taking  a  full 
share  in  the  material  part  of  the  banquet. 

The  Fifth  Regiment  of  Middlesex  militia  was  commanded  by  S. 
Craig,  Colonel,  in  1837;  J.  B.  Clench,  Lt.-CoL;  and  F.  Summers, 
Major.  The  Captains  commissioned  in  1832  were  J.  McFarland,  B. 
Springer,  D.  Lockwood  and  C.  Gibbs ;  in  1836,  W.  M.  Johnston,  and 
in  1838,  J.  S.  Cummins.  All  the  Lieutenants  were  appointed  in 
1832  :— J.  McFarlane,  H.  Miller,  A.  D.  Ward,  C.  D.  Sparling  and  T. 
Lantry.  The  Ensigns  were  H.  Anderson,  W.  Sparling,  J.  Miller,  jr., 
in  1832,  and  D.  Lockwood  in  1836.  In  the  latter  year,  W.  M.  John- 

152  HISTORY  OF    THE 

ston  was  commissioned  Adjutant.     The  regiment   was  raised  in  the 
Townships  of  Caradoc,  Ekfrid  and  Mosa. 

In  1837-8,  London  was  selected  as  a  military  station,  the  32nd 
British  Infantry  being  the  first  to  occupy  the  place ;  while  the  85th 
Infantry  occupied  St  Thomas  and  Sandwich,  the  former  commanded 
by  Col.  Maitland,  who  was  to  obey  the  magistrates. 

In  18H7-8,  Dr.  Charles  Duncombe  commanded  a  band  of  Patriots 
from  Yarmouth,  Malahide  and  the  Township  of  Middlesex.  The  fate 
of  this  little  company  was  such  as  the  desperate  odds  might  warrant. 
The  few  who  ventured  to  return  to  their  homes  were  carried  away  at 
once  to  the  London  jail,  until  the  one  strong  room  of  that  institution 
held  forty  political  prisoners,  exclusive  of  the  men  who  were  taken 
out  to  die  or  to  be  sent  prisoners  to  the  seat  of  government. 

A  Few  Soldiers. — Thomas  Carling  served  through  the  trouble  of 
1837-8  in  Captain  Kobinson's  London  Cavalry  Company. 

Alex.  Macdonald,  a  Scotch  commissioned  officer  in  the  59th  British 
Infantry,  sold  his  commission  in  1834,  and,  coming  to  Canada,  served 
against  the  Patriots.  He  was  arrested  at  Buffalo  for  his  supposed 
connection  with  the  "  Caroline  affair,"  but  was  released  through  the 
influence  of  friends.  In  June,  1850,  he  moved  to  London,  where  he 
carried  on  a  land  agency  business ;  was  the  first  appraiser  of  the  Trust 
-and  Loan  Company  of  Upper  Canada  and  the  originator  of  the  London 
Mutual  Fire  Insurance  Company.  He  died  in  1879,  aged  70  years. 

Thomas  Radcliffe,  born  at  Castle  Coote,  Ireland,  and  educated  at 
Dublin,  joined  the  British  army  in  1811,  and,  during  the  squabble  of 
1837-8,  his  command  captured  the  schooner  Anne  at  Maiden,  January 
9,  1838.  After  this  affair  he  was  appointed  a  member  of  the  Legisla- 
tive Council,  and  this  position  he  held  until  his  death  in  1841.  In 
1832  he  sold  his  half-pay,  which  he  had  from  1816,  and  settled  in 
Adelaide  Township,  where  he  was  appointed  magistrate  and  colonel  of 
militia.  In  taking  the  schooner,  the  Patriot  Anderson,  for  whose 
capture  £100  were  offered,  was  so  badly  beaten  that  he  died  next  day. 

In  July,  1838,  a  letter  from  the  Clerk  of  the  Peace  at  London  to 
John  Macaulay,  Secretary  to  the  Lieutenant-Governor,  contained  a 
report  by  the  Justices  of  Quarter  Sessions  on  the  complaint  of  Isaac 
Draper  against  John  Burwell,  a  magistrate.  On  August  1,  the  Clerk 
informed  Mr.  Burwell  that  a  memorial  by  Thomas  Jenkins,  sr.,  Peter 
Clayton,  Thomas  Higginson,  John  Christie,  Dr.  James  Jackson,  R.  N. 
John  M.  Crawford,  James  McKnight,  N.  McKinnon  and  55  others, 
residents  of  Bayham,  Malahide  and  adjoining  townships,  containing 
gave  charges  against  him,  was  received.  A  memorial  signed  by 
TE  Mletcalfe>  MaJ°r  of  the  Second  Regiment  Middlesex  militia, 

>b  others  in  justification  of  Burwell's  conduct  was  also  acknow- 
ledged. Ihis  trouble  grew  out  of  the  outrages  perpetrated  by  the 
loyal  militia  of  the  London  District  in  Norwich  and  other  townships 
in  July,  1838,  and  prior  to  that  date.  The  complaint  of  Joseph  H. 
Ihockmorton,  made  in  October,  1838,  against  the  militia  called  out  in 


Norwich  township  in  July,  was  tabled,  but  subsequently  considered 
and  recommended  to  the  Governor. 

Military  Organizations. — The  first  cavalry  regiment  was  raised 
in  1854 : — No.  1  Troop  at  St.  Thomas,  by  Capt.  Bannerman,  who  was 
succeeded  by  Major  Cole ;  No.  2  at  London,  by  Capt.  Burgess,  later 
commanded  by  Lieut.  Strothers  during  the  Fenian  troubles ;  No.  3,  of 
Courtwright,  by  Capt.  Bridge  water,  later  under  Major  Stewart,  Lieut's 
Day  and  Fitzgerald.  The  Kingsville  company  was  organized  by  Capt. 
Wigle,  also  in  1854,  but  disbanded  shortly,  was  dead  until  1871,  when 
Capt.  Murray  revived  it,  and  later  gave  the  command  to  Wigle.  In 
1872  the  companies  were  organized  as  a  regiment  with  Lieut.- Col. 
Cole,  Major  Dempster,  Adjt.  Neville,  Quartermaster  B.  Higgins,  Sur- 
geon King  and  Veterinary  J.  H.  Wilson. 

In  1856  Major  H.  Bruce  was  appointed  to  command  the  Volunteer 
Eifle  Companies  at  London,  and  Sergeant-Major  W.  Starr  was  appointed 
store-keeper  in  1857.  In  May,  1855,  James  Shanly  was  commis- 
sioned Major ;  J.  G.  Home  and  V.  Croriyn,  Lieutenants  ;  and  V.  A. 
Brown,  Surgeon  of  the  London  Field  Battery.  The  London  Second  Rifle 
Company  was  commanded  by  Capt.  A.  C.  Hammond,  Lieutenants  S. 
Morley  and  W.  C.  L.  Gill,  with  J.  Macbeth,  Ensign.  The  London 
Highland  Rifle  Company  was  commanded  by  Capt.  James  Moffatt, 
Lieut.  D.  M.  McDonald,  Ensign  W.  Muir,  and  Surgeon  D.  McKellar. 

Duncan  Mackenzie,  born  in  Scotland  in  1787,  served  in  the 
British  artillery  at  Waterloo ;  married  in  Scotland  in  1816;  came  to 
Canada  in  1817.  and  Oct.  16,  1818,  settled  on  Con.  4,  London.  In 
1837  he  was  appointed  militia  captain,  and  in  1857  magistrate.  For 
several  years  he  was  Acting  and  Associate  Commissioner  of  the  Court 
of  Bequest.  In  1837  he  commanded  a  battery  at  Chippewa,  was  then 
ordered  to  London,  where,  in  1841,  he  raised  the  London  Independent 
Volunteer  Artillery,  which  he  kept  up  at  his  own  expense  for  fifteen 
years.  In  1856  he  retired,  and  died  Aug.  2,  1875.  Thomas  Peel, 
born  in  Ireland  in  1826,  settled  at  London  in  1842-3.  In  1843,  when 
Squire  Mackenzie  organized  the  first  militia  company  of  artillery,  he 
and  A.  S.  Abbott  were  the  first  to  join.  The  latter  is  the  only  member 
now  living.  In  1841  Peel  established  his  merchant-tailoring  house, 
which  he  conducted  until  his  death  in  1884. 

The  London  Field  Battery  may  be  said  to  be  the  successor  to  Capt. 
Mackenzie's  battery  of  1841,  of  which  A.  S.  Abbott  was  a  member. 
In  1856  the  present  battery  was  organized  by  Col.  Shanly  and  Major 
Starr.  The  field  guns  were  brought  from  England,  being  the  first 
used  by  Canadian  militia.  In  1866  this  command  was  at  Sarnia  for 
two  weeks,  and  in  later  times  appeared  on  the  frontier.  Capt.  Peters, 
who  joined  in  1866,  succeeded  Shanly.  Capt,  John  Williams  has 
served  22  years  with  the  battery. 

Preparing  to  Invade  the  States. — Buckley's  Artillery  Corps  was 
organized  in  December,  1861 ;  also  the  Merchants'  Rifle  Co.,  with 
Oapt.  Taylor  commanding;  also  Major  Bruce's  Volunteer  Corps. 


While  at  Strathroy,  Lt.-Col.  Johnston  was  engaged  in  the  work  of 
military  organization.  Capt.  Macbeth's  company  was  thoroughly 
organized.  In  this. month  also  the  leaders  of  the  militia  assembled  in 
one  of  Lawrason's  large  rooms  for  perfecting  themselves  in  military 
drill.  Among  the  officers  were :— Colonel,  J.  B.  Askin;  Lieut.- 
Colonels,  L.  Lawrason  and  J.  Wilson ;  Captains,  H.  L.  Thompson,  J. 
B.  Strathy,  H.  Chisholm,  W.  Lawrason,  J.  C.  Meredith,  Chas.  G.  Hope, 
A.  G  Smyth;  Lieutenants,  F.  Kerby,  Henry  Long,  Samuel  Peters,  T. 
H.  Buckley,  D.  M.  Thompson,  J.  B.  Smyth ;  Ensigns,  George  Symonds, 
E.  W.  Keid,  J.  L.  Williams  K  Monsarrat,  B.  Cronyn,  Paul  Phipps ; 
Captain  and  Adjutant,  A.  Walsh. 

Major  James  Rivers  of  the  London  Cavalry  was  retired  in  1861 ; 
Capt.  A.  C.  Hammond  of  the  Second  London  Rifle  Co.,  in  1860  ;  Lieut. 
D.  McDonald  of  London  Highland  Rifle  Co.  and  Lieut.  Thomas  O'Brien 
London  Field  Battery,  later. 

In  1862,  James  Moffatt  and  John  I.  Mackenzie  organized  a  High- 
land Scotch  military  company  at  London.  At  their  joint  expense  this> 
company  was  equipped  and  uniformed,  the  clothes  being  purchased  at 
Glasgow,  Scotland.  Mackenzie  was  a  private  and  Moffatt  a  Captain. 
At  the  time  of  the  Trent  affair,  Mackenzie  raised  and  commanded  Co. 
1,  London  Battalion  of  7th  Fusiliers,  but  moved  to  Hamilton  in  1866. 
He  settled  at  London  in  1853. 

In  February,  1862,  a  number  of  British  troops,  including  the  63rd 
Regiment,  arrived  at  London  in  addition  to  the  volunteer  force  of 
Middlesex,  and  excitement  in  re  the  invasion  by  Americans  ran  so 
high  that  the  Phoenix  Fire  Company  was  converted  into  "  a  Home 
Guard  Rifle  Company."  The  illegal  capture  of  Mason  and  Slidell  by  the 
Americans  in  November,  1861,  and  the  general  sympathy  of  Canadians 
with  the  Southern  States,  almost  lead  the  people  of  Canada  into  the* 
mesh  of  British  diplomacy  in  1862.  In  fact,  matters  were  carried  to 
such  extremes  of  indignation  that  the  whole  military  force  of  Canada  and 
Great  Britain  was  ready  to  attempt  the  invasion  of  the  Northern  States. 
Federal  diplomacy  settled  the  trouble  promptly,  repaired  the  illegal 
act  by  surrendering  the  capturing  Southern  Commissioners  and  admit- 
ting the  mistake,  and  local  affairs,  so  far  as  Middlesex  was  concerned,, 
allowed  the  British  Government  to  withdraw  the  troops  without  fear 
of  a  resort  to  arms  with  the  United  States. 

In  the  spring  of  1863  the  question  of  withdrawing  the  troops  from 
London  was  made  more  interesting  by  the  following  paragraph  in  the 
Governor's  letter  to  Major-General  Napier  : — "  I  base  reasons  on  the 
assumption  that  a  majority  of  members  of  this  Council  and  the  citizens 
are  so  constituted  by  nature  that  they  are  without  any  sense  or 
knowledge  of  right  or  wrong,  of  honor  or  justice,  until  it  reaches  their 
understanding  through  their  pocket."  The  Council  denounced  Governor 
Williams  vehemently,  and  contradicted  many  of  his  statements,  and 
attributed  to  him  a  desire  to  gratify  his  own  private  feelings  at  the- 
expense  of  the  Empire.  This  affair  grew  out  of  Mayor  Cornish  beating; 


and  kicking  the  commandant.  He  would  not  apologise,  and  so  the 
garrison  was  removed. 

Military  Affairs  in  1865. — The  sedentary  militia  of  the  Eighth 
District  in  1865  claimed  Colonel  John  B.  Askin,  Commandant ;  Major 
Murdock  McKenzie,  Assistant  Adjutant-General ;  Major  Henry  Bruce, 
Assistant  Quartermaster  General.  The  first  battalion  on  sedentary 
militia  in  London  claimed  Lieutenant-Colonel  L.  Lawrason  as  Com- 
mandant, and  the  second,  Lieutenant-Colonel  John  Wilson.  These 
formed  the  first  battalion  of  Middlesex  militia  formerly.  The  eight 
battalions  of  Middlesex  militia  were  presided  over  respectively  by 
Lieutenant- Colonels  William  McMillan,  appointed  in  1856 ;  Wm. 
Niles,  1852;  William  Orr,  1855;  Benjamin  Springer,  1852;  William 
M.  Johnson,  1855  ;  John  Arthurs,  1852;  Richard  Irwin,  1854;  and 
John  Scatcherd,  1853,  the  latter  ranking  in  militia  since  1848. 

On  November  13,  1865,  Colonel  Shanly  received  an  order  to  hold 
the  volunteers  in  readiness  to  repel  the  Fenian  invaders.  No.  2 
Company  comprised  Captain  McPherson,  Lieutenant  Griffiths,  Ensign 
Ellis,  Color-Sergeant  McGee,  Sergeants  McKenzie,  Fitzgerald  and 
Porte  ;  Corporals,  Yates,  Payne,  Teele  and  Eolson ;  Lance-Corporals, 
Bruce,  Dewar  and  Mclntosh ;  Bugler,  Smart ;  Privates,  Collins,  Neil, 
Kelly,  Winnett,  Blair,  Weir,  Bonthion,  Fortune,  Joe  Kelly,  Dixon, 
Moffat,  McMullen,  Homer,  Parker,  Eolston,  Baker,  Mitchell,  Hawkins, 
Murray,  Eeid,  Foster,  Wilson,  Stewart,  Cranshaw,  Watson,  Templeton, 
Stinson,  Crosby,  Maddover,  Burns,  Cox,  Mclntosh,  Smith,  Patterson, 
Graham,  Shaw,  Ross,  Loftus,  Saunders,  Rogers,  Carter,  Cameron, 
Woodbury,  Alway,  Clark,  Henderson,  Short,  Higby,  Lawrence,  Wright, 
Sticke,  McDowell,  Jackson  and  Cawston.  The  advance  guard  left  for 
Sandwich  November  18. 

On  November  24th  the  60th  British  Rifles  arrived  at  London. 
This  regiment,  known  as  the  King's  Own  Rifles,  was  commanded  by 
Viscount  Gough.  The  4th  Battalion,  600  men,  which  came  to  Lon- 
don was  commanded  by  Col.  Hawley.  On  November  29,  John  Mc- 
Dowell, of  the  London  Service  Co.,  died  at  Windsor. 

The  26th  Regiment  dates  back  to  1866  ;  Capt.  Graham's  Delaware 
Independent  Company  was  the  nucleus  of  this  command.  In  the  fall 
of  this  year  it  was  increased  to  a  battalion,  and  on  September  1,  went 
into  camp  at  Thorold  to  repel  the  Fenians.  On  September  14,  it  was 
received  as  part  of  the  Canada  Militia  with  Col.  Graham,  commanding. 
Col.  Attwood  succeeded  him  in  1870,  and  Col.  English  succeeded  him 
in  1882.  In  1887  this  command  comprised  320  men  and  32  officers. 

The  28th  Regiment  was  organized  in  1866  to  repel  the  Fenians. 
Companies  1  and  2  were  called  out  from  Stratford  in  1865  to  serve  at 
Windsor ;  the  other  companies  being  raised  in  1866,  and  all  placed 
under  Col.  Service.  He  was  succeeded  by  Col.  Smith,  who  accom- 
panied Gen.  Wolseley  to  Manitoba  in  1870.  Col.  Scott  took  command 
in  1872  and  gave  place  to  Col.  McKnight. 

A  Grim  Joke. — The  so-called  invasion  by  the  Fenians  dates  back 

156  HISTORY   OF   THE 

to  June  1st,  1866,  when  a  force  of  about  550  men  crossed  the  Niagara 
river  and  held  Fort  Erie.  On  June  2  they  advanced  eight  miles  to 
Port  Colborne,  where  the  "  Queen's  Own  "  under  Colonel  Booker  was 
encountered.  The  official  report  states  that :— "  On  Saturday  morning 
they  advanced  towards  Port  Colborne  about  eight  miles,  when  they 
met  a  force  of  900  volunteers  under  Colonel  Booker,  who  were  thrown 
into  some  little  confusion,  but  afterwards  retired  in  good  order  some 
two  miles.  This  conflict  was  the  battle  of  Ridgeway,  and  lasted 
about  one  hour.  The  Canadian  loss  was  seven  killed  and  some  fifty 
wounded.  Six  dead  Fenians  were  left  on  the  field.  Some  two  hours 
after,  the  enemy  retired  on  Fort  Erie  to  find  the  place  occupied  by  the 
Port  Robinson  Foot  Artillery,  numbering  thirty-eight  men,  who  came 
in  a  boat  from  Port  Colborne.  The  gallant  little  band  were  soon  over- 
powered. Several  of  our  men  were  wounded  in  this  contest,  but  none 
killed.*  The  captain  of  the  battery  had  his  leg  amputated  yesterday 
in  Buffalo.  The  Fenians  then  rested  themselves,  threw  out  pickets 
along  the  shore,  and  busied  themselves  as  they  thought  best  until 
about  twelve  o'clock  on  Saturday  night,  when  a  lot  of  barges  and 
small  boats  came  alongside.  Into  these  the  Fenians  rushed  pell-mell, 
and  escaped  to  the  other  side,  with  the  exception  of  some  600  or  700 
under  guard  of  the  American  steamer  Michigan.  Thus  ended  the 
invasion  of  Canada,  in  forty-eight  hours  after  its  commencement." 

In  1866  James  A.  Skinner,  of  Hamilton,  was  gazetted  Lieut.-Col. 
of  the  Thirteenth  Regiment,  vice  Col.  Buchanan  retired.  Speaking  of 
this  Fenian  invasion,  he  says  that  he  was  present  at  the  Limeridge 
engagement  with  the  Fenians,  under  Col.  Booker's  command.  He 
was  ordered  to  advance  his  battalion,  and  was  soon  engaged  with 
the  enemy.  On  looking  round,  he  saw,  with  dismay,  that  the  Queen's 
Own  Regiment  and  Col.  Booker  had  disappeared,  and  later  learned 
that  the  whole  outfit  had  fled  by  the  Fort  Colborne  road. 

The  force  sent  forward  from  Middlesex  returned  on  June  4th. 
The  Advertiser's  report  is  as  follows : — "  On  arriving  at  Port  Colborne, 
the  London  companies  were  joined  by  two  from  Woodstock,  one 
from  Drumbo,  one  from  Princeton  and  one  from  Ingersoll,  forming  a 
battalion  of  ten  companies,  under  command  of  Major  A.  McPherson, 
London.  Major  Gregg,  of  Woodstock,  was  appointed  Senior  Major ; 
Captain  Beard,  Junior  Major,  and  Lieutenant  Jas.  A.  Craig,  London, 
acted  as  Adjutant.  At  eight  o'clock  on  Monday  night  the  London 
volunteers  arrived  home,  per  Great  Western  Railway,  all  safe  and 
sound,  not  a  single  casualty  having  occurred  to  any  ot  them.  There 
must  have  been  some  4,000  persons  on  the  platform,  who  sent  up  a 
deafening  shout  of  welcome  as  the  train  of  eighteen  cars  arrived.  The 
following  was  the  force  :— Four  companies  of  the  60th  Rifles ;  two 
companies  of  the  16th  Regiment;  five  companies  of  the  London 
Volunteers  ;  one  company  Drumbo  Volunteers  ;  two  companies  Wood- 

*On  June  6th  a  great  military  funeral  was  held  at  Toronto.    Five  members  of  this, 
regiment,  killed  on  the  field,  were  buried  that  day. 


stock  Kifles;  one  company  Princeton  Eifles.  The  whole  force  was 
headed  by  the  volunteer  band  and  a  number  of  firemen  bearing 
torches,  who  led  the  way  to  the  drill  shed,  where  six  long  tables  were 
spread  with  bread  and  cheese,  hams,  butter,  beer,  etc.  The  men 
attacked  the  edibles  with  a  will,  declaring  it  to  be  the  only  '  good, 
square  meal,'  they  had  taken  since  the  campaign  commenced.  The 
Mayor  proposed  several  loyal  and  patriotic  toasts,  the  most  important 
of  which  was :  '  The  health  of  our  guests,  Her  Majesty's  troops,  and 
the  noble  volunteers  who  have  gone  to  the  front  in  the  hour  of 
danger.'  The  City  Council  deserve  credit  for  recognizing  the  services 
of  the  volunteers  in  this  matter.  Messrs.  Carling,  Glackmeyer, 
McBride,  H.  Fysh  and  J.  B.  Smyth,  were  especially  conspicuous  in 
their  activity.  The  noble  fellows  being  well  tired  out,  the  entertain- 
ment was  not  prolonged." 

The  London  Field  Battery  of  Artillery,  numbering  sixty-eight 
men,  with  guns,  ammunition,  horses,  etc.,  left  on  the  night  of  June  2 
for  Sarnia.  The  Port  Stanley  Marines,  Captain  Ellison,  sixty  men ; 
Vienna  Kifles,  Captain  Treadley,  forty  men  ;  St.  Thomas  Eifles,  Captain 
McKenzie,  sixty  men,  accompanied  the  battery.  This  force  was 
under  the  command  of  Colonel  Shanly.  On  the  evening  of  June  6th 
the  Strathroy  company,  under  Lieutenant-Colonel  Johnston,  arrived 
at  London.  Captain  Attwood,  Lieutenant  Stevenson,  three  sergeants 
and  17  men  of  the  Komoka  Volunteer  Eifles  arrived  on  G.  W.  E.  June 
6  and  proceeded  to  the  Drill  Shed,  the  balance  of  the  company  being 
on  active  service  at  Sarnia,  having  been  amalgamated  with  the 
Delaware  Eifles  in  March,  1866. 

On  Sunday,  June  3,  buglers  and  drummers  are  said  to  have 
entered  St.  Paul's  Church  during  service,  summoning  the  men  to  arms. 

William  Hyman,  who  came  to  London  in  1865  with  the  53rd 
Eegiment,  speaking  of  the  Fenian  scare,  says  : — "  Many  a  Sunday  I 
have  gone  to  St.  Paul's  Church  with  my  rifle  on  my  shoulder  and  forty 
rounds  of  ball  ammunition  in  my  cartridge  pouch,  expecting  to  have 
to  fight  my  way  back  from  the  church  to  the  barracks.  We  came 
from  Malta  by  ship  to  Hamilton,  and  thence  to  London  by  flat  cars. 
The  first  London  man  I  met  was  old  Mr.  Wheeler.  Perhaps  you 
remember  him.  He  had  only  one  arm.  He's  dead  and  gone  now, 
poor  fellow.  Then  the  60th  Eifles,  who  were  stationed  here,  met  us 
at  the  depot  and  gave  us  a  banquet  in  the  evening,  and  we  had  a 
tremendous  time.  The  men  were  quartered  then  down  in  the  old 
O'Callaghan  block,  opposite  the  court-house, — that  is,  one  wing  was, 
and  the  other  was  opposite  in  the  Mackenzie  buildings.  We  married 
men  had  quarters  in  the  Eobinson  Hall.  Col.  Harence  was  our  com 
manding  officer  then,  and  a  fine  fellow  he  was,  too.  Many  a  night  I 
have  seen  him  on  the  streets  until  morning,  ready  at  a  moment's 
warning  to  turn  his  men  out." 

In  June,  1866,  a  meeting  of  the  City  Council  was  held  to  consider 
what  course  should  be  pursued  in  case  the  militia  were  ordered  to  the 



front.  The  Mayor  was  directed  to  consult  with  Col.  Hawley.  Col. 
Bruce,  who  was  -permitted  to  address  the  Council,  recommended  the 
organization  of  a  Home  Guard.  It  appears  the  troops  were  ordered 
out  immediately,  for  on  June  4  refreshments  were  provided,  for  volun- 
teer and  regular  soldiers  were  to  leave  by  the  7  p.  m.  train  for  the 
front.  During  the  excitement  pistols  were  bought ;  Alderman  Glack- 
meyer  purchasing  two  from  Thompson,  which  were  to  be  charged  to 
the  city. 

Col.  Peters,  speaking  on  the  subject,  says: — "In  1866,  during  the 
Fenian  raid,  we  were  ordered  to  Sarnia  three  times.  Once  we  only 
got  back  and  got  our  horses  unhitched,  when  a  telegram  came  to  go  to 
the  front  again.  The  infantry  were  sent  down  to  Fort  Erie.  The 
cavalry  were  attached  to  the  60th  Rifles,  and  stayed  right  here  in  the 
city.  I  tell  you  we  saw  lots  of  fun  then,  if  we  hadn't  any  fighting." 
Col.  Taylor  commanded  the  infantry  then  with  Major  Barber,  while 
Col.  F.  Peters  commanded  the  cavalry. 

On  June  20, 1866,  the  County  Council  granted  $300  to  each  volun- 
teer company,  while  a  motion  to  pay  volunteers  who  "  nobly  responded 
to  the  call  for  the  defense  of  our  lives  and  property,  when  a  band  of 
murderers  and  robbers  invaded  our  country"  twenty-five  cents  per 
day  for  actual  service  after  March  1,  1866,  was  negatived.  In  June, 
1866  the  $300  grant  was  rescinded  and  an  annual  appropriation  for  all 
volunteer  companies  in  the  county  of  $2,500  made. 

On  March  4, 1885,  Mr.  Broder,  of  the  Ontario  House,  with  Messrs. 
Ross  and  Meredith,  of  Middlesex,  presented  resolutions  dealing  with 
the  volunteers  of  1837-8,  and  1866,  asking  for  suitable  recognition  of 
their  services. 

After  the  War.— The  militia  roll  for  1867  shows  a  total  enrolment 
of  9,759  men,  namely : — 

Adelaide 512  Nissouri  West .604 

-Biddulph 636  Strathroy 307 

Delaware 281  Williams  East 526 

Dorchester  North 598  Williams  West . .                                  200 

Ekfrid 513  Mosa '/..'               \    614 

London 1,470  Lobo 552 

Metcalfe 427  Westminster...                                 1031 

Oaradoc 776  McGillivray '.'.'.'.'.'.'.  '712 

The  Queen's  Birthday  of  1868  was  celebrated  at  London  by  Lieut- 
Col.  Harence's  Fifty-third  Infantry,  with  Major  Dalzell  commanding; 
Lieut.-Col.  Simpson's  E.  Battery,  E.  A.;  Lieut-Col.  Lewis'  London 
Light  Infantry;  Lieut.-Col.  Messiter's  Sixty-ninth  Infantry;  Captain 
Dempster's  London  Cavalry  Troop;  Lieut.-Col.  Shanly's  Volunteer 
Field  Battery.  There  were  320  men  in  the  seven  companies  of  the 
London  Infantry  Regiment,  and  thirty-five  in  the  cavalry  troop  In 
June  the  Fifty-third  Eegiment  left  London  for  Quebec 

Red  River  Troubles,  1869-70.—  The  Eed  Eiver  party,  comprisina 
Joseph  Howe,  J.  Turner,  W.  McGregor,  H.  SeweU  and  W.  E  Sandford° 
started  for  Fort  Garry  in  1869. 


On  November  13,  1869,  the  first  news  of  the  movement  to  prevent 
the  entrance  of  Governor  McDougall  to  the  Eed  Eiver  settlement  was 
received  at  London. 

The  strength  of  the  7th  Battalion  London  Light  Infantry,  as 
returned  to  Government  by  1).  A.  G.  Taylor  in  January,  1869,  was 
363  men,  made  up  as  follows : — No.  1  Company,  Captain  D.  C.  Mac- 
donald,  55  men ;  No.  2,  Captain  H.  Bruce,  55 ;  No.  3,  Captain  J. 
Walker,  42  ;  No.  4,  Captain  W.  E.  Meredith,  55 ;  No.  5,  Captain  M. 
D.  Dawson,  49 ;  No.  6r  Captain  J.  A.  Craig,  52 ;  No.  7,  Captain  E. 
Teale,  55.  Total,  363  men.  The  actual  strength  of  the  battalion  was, 
however,  put  down  at  about  380  men,  as  some  of  the  companies  had 
more  than  the  full  complement.  Captain  Dempster's  Cavalry  Troop 
had  re- enrolled  to  the  required  strength,  and  Colonel  Shanly's  Battery 
had  been  numerously  recruited. 

On  the  same  date  the  following  orders  were  issued  from  the 
Militia  Department  at  Ottawa : — "  Major  W.  B.  Phillips,  District 
Quartermaster,  is  appointed  Brigade  Major  of  the  7th  Brigade  Division 
of  Military  District  No.  3,  vice  Shaw,  resigned.  Volunteer  Militia  of 
the  Province  of  Ontario,  7th  Battalion  London  Light  Infantry,  No.  4 
Company,  Captain,  provisionally,  George  Birrell,  vice  W.  E.  Meredith, 
dismissed ;  to  be  Lieutenant,  William  Port,  gentleman,  M.S.,  vice  E. 
Meredith,  resigned ;  to  be  Ensign,  provisionally,  James  Magee  Yates, 
gentleman,  vice  C.  S.  Corrigan,  resigned." 

On  April  6,  1870,  a  statement,  referring  to  the  disruption  of  the 
Seventh  Battalion  of  volunteers,  was  signed  by  a  number  of  the  late 
officers  of  the  organization,  namely : — D.  C.  Macdonald,  W.  E.  Mere- 
dith, James  A.  Craig,  Harry  Bruce,  E.  T.  Teale,  Captains ;  Thomas 
N.  Greene,  E.  M.  Meredith  and  C.  Bennett,  Lieutenants,  and  C.  S. 
Corrigan,  Ensign.  The  statement  was  drawn  out  by  the  reflections 
made  by  the  Minister  of  Militia  in  Parliament  on  the  command. 

On  April  12,  1870,  the  London  Battery  was  ordered  out  to  repel  a 
threatened  invasion  of  Canada  by  the  Fenians,  and  on  the  14th  left 
for  Sarnia  under  Col.  Shanly  and  Capt.  Peters..  On  April  14,  1870, 
the  Dominion  Parliament  suspended  the  Habeas  Corpus  and  adopted 
other  measures  to  meet  the  threatened  Fenian  invasion  of  Canada. 

On  May  26,  1870,  the  right  half  of  the  London  Field  Battery 
returned  to  Sarnia  under  Capt.  Peters,  while  Major  Cole's  St.  Thomas 
Cavalry  troop  of  thirty-five  men,  proceeded  to  Windsor.  On  June 
2nd  Lieut.- Col.  Taylor  recalled  the  battery,  cavalry  and  all,  from  the 
frontier.  A  great  meeting  was  held  at  London  April  9,  1870,  to  con- 
sider the  question  of  the  Eed  Eiver  troubles. 

In  May,  1870,  volunteers  for  the  North-west  flocked  toward  the 
rendezvous  at  London,  and  on  May  5,  left  for  Toronto  in  charge  of 
Colonel  Moffatt.  Among  the  volunteers  were  twenty  men  of  the 
Seventh  Battalion,  namely: — Joseph  F.  Tennant,  Thomas  Bayles, 
George  Taylor,  Joseph  Tuson,  W.  Mills,  William  Patterson,  John 
McDonald,  John  Cotter,  Lawrence  McGovern,  James  Barnes,  Ambrose 


160  HISTORY  OF    THE 

Stock,  Jas.  H.  Cadham,  Eoger  Tuson,  E.  Rousell,  G.  T.  B.,  Joseph 
Tolhurst,  D.  Campbell,  W.  Wilson,  Captain  J.  B.  Campbell,  M.  D., 
John  Cameron,  John  Mitchell. 

In  December,  1874,  Wm.  A.  Farmer,  of  Manitoba,  sent  in  his 
application  for  the  reward  offered  by  Middlesex  for  the  apprehension 
of  Kiel,  who,  it  is  alleged,  ordered  the  execution  of  Thomas  Scott. 

Militia  1870-82.— The  First  Brigade  Division  in  1870-1,  of 
Military  District  No.  1,  comprised  the  regimental  divisions  of  Essex, 
Kent,  Bothwell,  Lambton,  West,  North  and  East  Ridings  of  Middlesex, 
West  and  East  Ridings  of  Elgin,  North  and  South  Ridings  of  Oxford, 
and  London  City.  The  quota  of  the  1st  and  2nd  Brigade  Divisions, 
of  District  No.  1,  was  5,517.  The  officers  comprised  Lieut.-Col.  John 
B.  Taylor,  D.  A.  G. ;  Capt.  F.  B.  Leys,  District  Paymaster ;  Lieut.- 
Col.  James  Moffatt,  Brigade  Major.  The  26th  Middlesex  Battalion  :— 
Lieut.-Col.  Wm.  Graham  and  Major  Peter  H.  Attwood,  had  head- 
quarters at  London ;  No.  1  Company,  Delaware,  was  commanded  by 
Captain  Wm.  Cox ;  No.  2,  Komoka,  John  Stevenson ;  No.  3,  Harriets- 
ville,  John  McMillan;  No.  4,  Thamesford,  Captain  Thomas,  Dawes; 
No.  5,  Lucan,  Captain  John  C.  Frank ;  No.  6,  Parkhill,  Captain  Jos. 
Cornell ;  No.  7,  Strathroy,  Captain  John  English ;  Paymaster,  James 
Johnson ;  Adjutant,  W.  F.  Bullen ;  Quartermaster,  Frank  Hughson ; 
Surgeons,  Geo.  Billiugton  and  James  A.  Sommerville. 

The  26th  Battalion,  assembled  at  Strathroy  in  September,  187o, 
was  made  up  as  follows: — Lieut. -Colonel  Attwood,  Major  English, 
Surgeons  Bilfington  and  Hoare,  Paymaster  C.  Murray,  Quartermaster, 
Cuddy  and  Adjutant  J.  Cameron.  The  26th  Band  was  also,  of  course, 
in  attendance.  The  entire  Battalion  numbered  about  300,  consisting 
of  seven  companies,  as  follows : — No.  1,  Delaware,  Captain  Garnett, 
Lieut.  Harris,  Ensign  Mclntosh;  No.  2,  Napier,  Captain  Lindsay, 
Lieut.  Beer,  Ensign  Dunlap;  No.  3,  Hametsville,  Capt.  McMillan, 
Lieut.  Choate,  Ensign  Nugent;  No.  4,  Thamesford,  Captain  Brown, 
Lieut.  Douglas,  Ensign  Holmes ;  No.  5,  Lucan,  Captain  McMillan  ; 
No.  6,  Parkhill,  Captain  McKellar,  Lieut.  Johnston,  Ensign  Johnson ; 
No.  7,  Strathroy,  Captain  Irwin,  Lieut.  D.  M.  Cameron  and  Ensign 

The  first  regiment  of  Cavalry  was  commanded  in  1882  by  Lieut.- 
Col.  J.  Cole,  with  Major  F.  Peters  in  command  of  troop  No.  2,  and 
Major  Stewart  of  troop  No.  3.  The  London  Field  Battery  was  com- 
manded at  this  time  by  Major  Peters. 

The  7th  Battalion,  or  Fusiliers,  claimed  in  1882  a  force  of  29 
officers  and  301  men,  the  members  present  at  annual  drill  being  24 
and  289  respectively.  Lieut.-Col.  John  Walker  commanded,  with 
Captains  Smith,  Miller,  McKenzie,  Macbeth,  Gartshore,  Peel  and 
Mahon,  all  of  London. 

The  25th  Battalion,  or  Elgin  Infantry,  was  commanded  in  1882  by 
Lieut.-Col.  O'Malley,  of  Wardsville;  Captains  Ellis,  Watt,  Weisbrod, 
Moore  and  Lindsay,  of  St.  Thomas.  The  actual  strength  at  inspection 
was  18  officers  and  170  men. 


The  26th  Battalion,  or  Middlesex  Light  Infantry,  in  1882,  was 
commanded  by  Lieut.-Col.  Attwood,  with  Captains  Garnett,  of  Dela- 
ware, Choate,  of  Harrietsville,  Dreaney,  of  Crumlin,  and  Wood,  of 
Avon.  The  force  present  at  inspection  drill  was  12  officers  and  154 

North-west  Troubles  of  1885.— The  North-west  troubles  of  1885 
were  in  some  respects,  so  far  as  the  evils  complained  of  by  the  half- 
breeds,  similar  to  those  of  Ontario  of  1837-8.  They  had  grievances, 
some  sentimental,  some  real,  for  which  they  sought  redress.  Instead 
of  obtaining  any  of  the  favors  looked  for,  they  beheld  the  mounted 
police  force  strengthened  and  preparations  made  for  reducing  them  to 
what  they  considered  a  state  of  servitude.  In  May,  1885,  the  follow- 
ing named  thirty-one  men  left  London,  Wyoming  and  Komoka,  to  join 
this  force : — James  Armstrong,  J.  F.  Forbes,  W.  McCallum,  J.  W. 
Stilson,  E.  McKenzie,  H.  H.  Ellerton,  G.  W.  Steele,  J.  Barber,  D.  A. 
McCallum,  H.  Bertram,  H.  A.  Fletcher,  J.  Johnston,  McCall,  H. 
Green,  E.  C.  Curry,  W.  C.  Maker,  H.  Craig,  J.  Lancaster,  Pat  Naven, 
H.  Woodward,  Pain,  Stansfield,  Short,  McLellan,  W.  H.  Mason,  A. 
Arbuckle,  D.  Steel,  W.  E.  Heron,  A.  Heron,  J.  Collins.  Before  their 
arrival  this  petty  insurrection  took  place.  Eiel,  the  leader,  intended 
to  carry  on  this  agitation  without  the  shedding  of  blood. 

The  half-breeds,  Eiel  maintained,  had  struggled  unsuccessfully  for 
years  for  the  attainment  of  their  rights,  and  as  a  last  resort  determined 
to  capture  Major  Crozier  and  the  Mounted  Police  of  Prince  Albert, 
before  addressing  themselves  to  the  authorities  at  Ottawa.  In  con- 
formity with  this  plan,  the  half-breeds  assembled  at  Duck  Lake,  never 
anticipating  firing  a  shot,  but  were  confident  that  the  handful  of  police 
would  gladly  lay  down  their  arms.  Unfortunately,  however,  Crozier 
forced  the  fighting,  and  without  a  word  of  warning,  poured  a  murderous 
volley  into  the  concealed  foe.  Smarting  under  the  loss  of  a  companion,, 
the  enraged  and  now  uncontrollable  half-breeds  returned  the  compli- 
ment and  defeated  the  volunteers  and  police  in  short  space.  Eiel,  who- 
admitted  that  he  participated  in  the  engagement,  added  that  Crozier 
needlessly  left  the  dead  upon  the  field.  He  subsequently  sent  a  mes- 
senger to  Prince  Albert,  assuring  the  authorities  that  the  bodies  could 
be  removed  without  molestation  on  his  part.  Sanderson,  the  man  who 
bore  the  message,  met  with  ill  success,  and  in  camping  with  another 
individual  days  after,  conveyed  the  bodies  to  Prince  Albert.  Eiel 
added  that  a  number  of  Indians  participated  and  displayed  great 
bravery.  He  also  maintained  that  the  wounded  on  the  field  would 
have  been  slaughtered  but  for  his  interference.  The  result  of  the  first 
fight  was  that  fighting  was  pushed  upon  the  half-breeds,  who  had  no- 
other  alternative  than  to  defend  themselves.  Throughout  the  entire 
campaign,  the  principle  of  self-defense  was  advocated,  and  the  half- 
breeds  unanimously  agreed  to  act  only  in  the  preservation  of  their 
families.  When  the  near  approach  of  Middleton  was  learned,  Gabriel 
Dumont  was  sent  out  to  reconnoitre,  with  positive  instructions  not  to 

162  HISTORY   OF    THE 

give  battle.  The  impetuous  half-breed,  however,  disobeyed,  and  with 
only  sixty  followers,  held  several  hundred  volunteers  and  artillerymen 
at  bay.  'His  entire  force  at  Batoche  never  exceeded  four  hundred  and 
fifty,  'not  including  one  hundred  and  fifty  others  stationed  on  the  oppo- 
site bank  of  the  river  in  anticipation  of  an  attack  from  that  point. 

Although  the  police  and  volunteers  were  signally  defeated,  their 
organization  carried  them  through  to  success  until  the  half-breeds  and 
Indians  were  scattered.  Subsequently  many  of  the  leaders  were  made 
prisoners,  and  ultimately  Louis  Kiel  himself  was  captured,  tried  for 
high  treason  and  hanged.  During  his  imprisonment  he  was  denied 
all  intercourse  with  the  world  outside  his  cell,  even  the  press  reporters 
being  denied  admittance. 

It  is  said  that  Gen.  Middleton  would  have  lost  his  artillery,  had 
not  a  Connecticut  man,  named  Howard,  opened  on  the  half-breeds 
with  the  Gatling  gun. 

In  April,  1885,  the  7th  Fusiliers  left  London  for  the  North-west. 
The  staff  comprised  W.  De  Eay  Williams,  Lieut.-Colonel ;  Majors 
Smith  and  Gartshore,  Adjutant  Reid,  Quartermaster  Smyth  and  Surgeon 
Fraser.  The  Captains  were  Ed.  McKenzie,  Frank  Butler,  Thomas  H. 
Tracy,  Captain  Dillon  and  S.  Frank  Peters.  The  Lieutenants  were 
Bapty  and  Bazan,  Chisholm  and  Gregg,  Cox  and  Payne,  Hesketh, 
Jones  and  Pope.  The  Staff-sergeants  were  Sergeant-Major  Byrne, 
Paymaster-Sergeant  W.  H.  Smith,  Quartermaster-Sergeant  J.  Jury; 
Sergeant  of  Ambulance,  A.  Campbell;  Sergeant  of  Pioneers,  M.  Cotter. 
The  private  troops  were  Color-Sergeant  A.  Jackson,  Sergeant  James 
Becroft,  Corporal  C.  G.  Armstrong;  Privates  Geo.  Chapman, ' Edward 
Harrison,  A.  Leslie,  Charles  Pugh,  H.  Pennington,  George  Rogers,  W. 
Schabacker,  C.  F.  Williams,  Walter  Wright,  Frank  Sadler  and  Lang- 
ford  ;  Color-Sergeant  Thos.  Goold,  Sergeants  McClintock,  John  Harris, 
Joseph  O'Roake,  Corporals  A.  E.  Walker,  W.  Dyson  and  James 
Ooold ;  Lance- Corporals  Joseph  Amor  and  Wm.  Brown ;  Privates 
Hugh  McRoberts,  James  Ford,  H.  Arbuckle,  J.  1.  Walker.  James 
Johnston,  J.  F.  Gray,  H.  Westaway,  Patrick  Neil,  Charles  Potter,  W. 
D.  Crofts,  A.  Davis,  A.  McRoberts,  James  Lozier,  T.  R.  Hardwood,  F. 
Young,  Thos.  Livesey,  W.  Beaver,  W.  Andrews,  W.  Ferguson,  George 
Davis,  A.  Somerville;  Sergeants  Anundson  and  Anglin ;  Corporal 
McDonald;  Privates  Wanless,  Jones, Pennington,  Fysh,  Burns,  Atkin- 
son, Dignan,  Kidder,  Burke,  Hanson,  McCoomb,  Graham,  Mercer, 
Kirkendale,  Ryan,  Caesar,  Pettit,  Wright,  Smyth  and  J.  A.  Muirhead ; 
Sergeant  Borland,  Corporals  Richards,  McDonald  and  Bayley ;  Privates 
Lister,  Moore,  Mills,  Smith,  McCarthy,  Pennington,  Macbeth,  Webb, 
R.  Smith,  Lowe,  McCormick,  G.  Westland,  Benson,  Cowan,  Ironsides, 
Allen,  Mitchell,  Howard,  Davis,  Smith,  Labatt,  E.  P.  Dignan,  C.  D. 
Gower,  Carey,  Gregg,  Carnegie  and  W.  Owen;  Sergeants  Jacobs, 
Summers  and  Neilson;  Corporals  Field,  Rowland  and  Opled ;  Pri- 
vates Jacobs,  Tennant,  Best,  Dickenson,  Walton,  Martin,  Johnson 
Moriarity,  Peden,  Keuneally,  Cassidy,  Norfolk,  Hayden,  A.  McNamara 


Hall,  Quick,  W.  Wright,  Cowie,  Appleyard,  Richardson,  Northy, 
Stinchcomb,  Thwaite,  Ralph,  Beetham,  Walton,  Sinnott,  Rowason 
and  McNamara ;  Sergeant  Line,  Privates  H.  Mills,  T.  Mills,  Stansfield, 
Black,  Collins,  Copper,  George  Clark,  Connell,  Dunkin,  Flavin,  Harri- 

fm,  Keenan,  Land,  Lalley,  Lovell,  Morkin,  Thomas,  Wright,  Wilson, 
rown,  Crawford,  W.  Wright  and  J.  Clark ;  Color-Sergeant  Borland, 
Sergeants  Lynch  and  Fuller ;  Corporals  Harrison  and  Lyman ;  Privates 
Allison,  Barrell,  Bigger,  Borland,  Brazier,  Blackburn,  Dickens,  Duval, 
Essex,  Hicks,  Hood,  Hutchinson,  McCutcheon,  McCoy,  McPherson, 
Macdonald,  Parkinson,  Pickles,  Pate,  Robertson,  Steele,  W.  Smith, 
Terry,  Whittaker  and  Woodall. 

On  the  return  of  this  command  a  streamer  was  stretched  across 
the  street  from  Hyman's  shoe  factory.  On  this  was  printed  the  motto, 
in  honor  of  one  of  the  volunteers  who  worked  there,  whose  name 
is  given  in  this  list — "  Are  you  there,  Moriarity  ? "  The  regiment  re- 
turned in  July,  1885,  when  a  great  reception  was  tendered  to  the 
officers  and  men. 

In  1873  Major  Albert  M.  Smith  was  commissioned  Ensign  of 
the  7th  Fusiliers,  and  since  that  time  has  been  connected  with  the 
command.  Evan  Evans,  who  settled  at  London  in  1849  as  a  dis- 
charged soldier,  died  July  3,  1882.  In  1851  he  was  commissioned 
Lieutenant  in  the  12th  Middlesex  Battalion,  and  in  1856,  when  Col. 
Moffatt  raised  the  Highland  Rifle  Company,  he  was  Drill-master.  He 
was  caretaker  of  military  stores  for  the  District  up  to  1882,  and  was 
Sergeant-Major  and  Drill-master  for  the  7th  Fusiliers. 

Mayor  William  Starr,  born  in  Ireland  in  1812,  came  to  Canada 
with  Royal  Artillery,  and  to  London  in  1840,  when  he  was  known  as 
"  the  veteran  storekeeper  of  No.  1  District."  His  death  occurred  in 
February,  1884. 

Captain  A.  McRae,  who  accompanied  the  Canadian  Voyage urs  to 
Egypt,  returned  to  London  in  May,  1885. 

In  November,  1888,  it  was  reported  that  the  7th  Battalion  would 
pass  out  of  existence  prior  to  the  close  of  the  year,  and  that  a  new 
regiment  would  be  formed.  Colonel  Williams  places  the  onus  of  the 
Battalion's  present  condition  upon  the  shoulders  of  one  of  the  officers. 

Military  School — The  new  Military  School  was  opened  March  31, 
1888.  In  1886  an  order  was  issued  establishing  a  school  here,  and 
building  begun  May  5,  1886.  Col.  Henry  Smith  was  commissioned 
Commandant.  The  two  million  bricks  used  were  manufactured  by 
Walker  Bros.,  while  Hook  &  Toll  were  the  main  contractors. 

The  sale  of  the  Military  Grounds  was  conducted  June  1,  1888,  by 
Auctioneer  McElheran,  when  twenty-three  lots  realized  $35,414.50. 
The  remaining  part  of  the  Ordnance  Lands,  facing  Victoria  Park  and 
Princess  avenue,  was  sold  in  lots  by  auction,  and  brought  very  good 
prices,  exceeding  the  expectations  of  the  London  Trust,  in  whose  hands 
the  matter  rested.  The  total  amount  realized  from  the  sale  of  these 
lands  has  been  nearly  $52,000.  This  was  the  block  of  land  which  the 



Dominion  Government  gave  to  London  in  exchange  for  that  portion  of 
the  Carling  farm  now  occupied  by  the  Military  School  and  Parade 
Ground.  The  price  paid  for  the  latter  was  $40,000,  so  that,  as  the 
matter  now  stands,  the  Corporation  of  London  has  cleared  within  a 
fraction  of  $12,000  cash  by  the  transaction. 




The  first  newspaper  printed  in  English  in  Canada  was  the  Gazette, 
at  Quebec,  in  1776,  the  press  being  brought  from  Philadelphia  by  a 
Mr.  Brown.  The  Quebec  Herald  followed  in  1788  and  the  Montreal 
Gazette,  printed  in  French,  was  issued  the  same  year  by  M.  Mesplet, 
while  Le  Temps,  in  French  and  English,  was  its  contemporary.  Thomas 
Carey  established  the  Mercury  at  Quebec  in  1804.  The  Canadien 
was  issued  in  1806,  and  continued  publication  until  the  office  was 
confiscated  by  the  Government  in  1810,  two  years  after  the  Canadien 
Courant  was  founded  at  Montreal.  In  1807  the  Royal  Gazette  and 
Newfoundland  Advertiser  was  issued,  and  the  pioneer  press  circle  of 
the  Lower  Provinces  and  of  Newfoundland  was  placed  on  an  enduring 

The  pioneer  journal  of  Upper  Canada  was  The  Upper  Canada 
Gazette  or  American  Oracle,  issued  April  18,  1793,  with  Gideon 
Tiffany  editor,  and  Governor  Simcoe  proprietor.  The  extent  of  the 
popularity  of  the  Oracle,  outside  the  official  circle,  may  be  learned 
from  the  fact  that  when  Rochefoucault  visited  Kingston  in  1795  there 
was  not  a  single  subscriber  to,  or  reader  of,  it  in  that  settlement. 
In  1807  an  Irish  Tory  (Joseph  Wilcox)  established  at  Newark  the 
Upper  Canada  Guardian.  This  Wilcox  was  Sheriff  of  the  Home 
District,  who,  on  account  of  some  irregularity  in  office,  was  dismissed. 
Later  he  was  a  member  of  Parliament  in  opposition  to  the  Govern- 
ment; fought  against  the  Americans  at  Queenston  in  1812,  but  later 
deserted  to  the  enemy,  taking  with  him  his  command,  and  served  the 
young  Union  until  killed  at  Fort  Erie.  The  York  Gazette  was  issued 
by  Cameron  &  Bennett  at  York  as  early  as  1801.  The  Kingston 
Gazette,  issued  by  S.  Miles  and  C.  Kendall,  Sept.  25,  1810,  was  the 
only  Upper  Canada  paper  from  April,  1813,  to  1816,  when  the  Govern- 
ment Gazette  was  revived.  In  1820  the  Recorder  was  founded.  In 
March,  1819,  the  Kingston  Chronicle  and  also  the  Upper  Canada 
Herald  appeared,  and  in  May  the  Kingston  Gazette  and  Religious 
Advocate.  In  May,  1824,  the  Colonial  A dvocate  appeared.  The  next 
papers  issued  were  the  Christian  Guardian  and  the  Patriot  in  1829, 
then  the  Chronicle  and  News,  next  the  Hallowell  Free  Press  in  1830, 
the  Canadian  Watchman,  August  13,  1830,  and  then  the  London 
Sun  in  1831.  The  British  Whig  was  the  first  daily  journal  published 
in  Upper  Canada,  but  its  influence,  like  itself,  was  small,  and  its  dura- 
tion short. 

The  pioneer  papers  named  contained  very  little  local  information. 
Many  of  the  pioneers  wanted  news  from  the  States,  from  which  they 
were  driven  by  laws  which  could  not  recognize  the  rights  a  native 

166  iflSTOKY   OF   THE 

enemy  of  his  country  possessed ;  men  of  the  governing  class  wanted 
news  from  Ireland  or  from  England.  Canada  was  a  waste,  a  haven, 
where  both  governor  and  governed  found  refuge  from  the  political  or 
financial  storms  which  drove  them  across  the  lakes  or  the  ocean. 
Local  news  was  not  sought  for,  and  the  pioneer  publishers  had  just 
sufficient  sense  to  satisfy  their  few  readers.  With  the  year  1831, 
however,  came  a  change.  The  Colonial  Advocate  of  1824  suggested 
some  new  ideas,  but  the  action  of  the  government  party  of  1826,  in 
having  the  press  and  type  taken  from  the  office  and  dumped  into 
Lake  Ontario,  taught  a  general  lesson  which  was  learned  by  the  people 
slowly,  and  five  years  later  began  to  bear  fruit.  To  counteract  or  sup- 
port this  lesson,  to  further  the  growing  idea  of  responsible  government, 
or  check  it  in  its  youth,  ^several  papers  were  brought  into  existence, 
and  Canadian  politics  became  a  department  of  newspaper  work.  How 
the  department  did  increase  from  1831  to  1837,  when  the  Liberal 
newspapers  were  silenced !  It  was  a  continuous  war  of  written  words 
between  the  advocates  of  principles,  which  resulted  in  the  temporary 
overthrow  of  the  Eeformers,  and,  five  years  later,  in  the  total  rout  of 
the  Compact-Tory  Conservatives  of  the  old  school.  Then  the  pioneers 
of  Upper  Canada  realized  for  the  first  time  the  power  of  the  press, 
and  the  people,  comparatively  unshackled,  exclaimed . — 

Mightiest  of  the  mighty  means, 

On  which  the  arm  of  progress  leans, 
Man's  noblest  mission  to  advance, 
His  woes  assuage,  his  weal  enhance, 
His  rights  enforce,  his  wrongs  redress — 
Mightiest  of  mighty  is  the  Press  ! 

The  first  newspaper  published  in  the  London  District  was  the  Lon- 
don Sun,  issued  in  1831,  from  the  primitive  building  which  then 
stood  just  east  of  Abraham  Carroll's  hotel,  on  Dundas  street.  The 
credit  of  establishing  this  pioneer  journal  is  given  to  Edward  A.  Talbot, 
a  native  of  Tipperary  County,  Ireland,  who  came  to  Canada  in  1818, 
when  seventeen  years  old,  as  a  member  of  the  Talbot  colony.  A  Mr. 
Keel  had  some  undetermined  connection  with  the  Sun,  but  young 
Talbot  was  editor.  The  old  hand-press  was  the  wonder  of  the  village 
as  well  as  of  the  Thames  country,  and  it  is  related  that  on  day  of  issue, 
the  office  would  be  crowded  with  a  sight-seeing  crowd. 

Mr.  Bousted  started  a  paper  in  1833,  and  in  the  fall  of  that  year, 
Kobert  Summers  advertised  Gilbert  Showers'  notes  as  fraudulent. 
The  office  was  on  the  south  side  of  King  street,  opposite  the  square ; 
but  the  name  of  the  paper  and  the  dates  of  its  beginning  and  end  can- 
not be  stated  positively. 

The  Gazette  is  said  to  have  been  published  in  1837,  by  G.  H 
Hackstaff.     William  Thompson,  of  Dorchester,  states  that  his  father 
was  a  subscriber  at  the  time.     W.  H.  Niles  remembers  the  location 
of  the  office  on  the  west  side  of  Ridout,  north  of  Dundas. 

The  London  Freeman's  Journal  was  founded  in  1839,  by  Edward 


A.  Talbot,  whose  name  is  mentioned  as  introducing  the  first  newspaper 
in  the  Erie  Peninsula.  In  1836  his  brother  John  inaugurated  the  St. 
Thomas  Liberal,  which  he  carried  on  until  the  defeat  of  the  Patriots 
at  Galla's  Hill,  when  he  fled  to  the  United  States.  It  would  be  very 
natural  to  suppose  that  the  office  became  the  property  of  his  youngeV 
brother  Edward,  and  that  the  latter  brought  the  material  to  London" 

The  Western  Globe,  by  George  Brown,  was  printed  at  Toronto  in 
1845,  but  dated  at  London,  when  it  was  distributed  by  W.  H.  Niles 
from  the  office  at  the  north-east  corner  of  Dundas  and  Eidout.  Gordon 
Brown  had  charge  in  1845-6,  before  Mr.  Niles  was  appointed  agent. 

The  Canada  Inquirer  was  issued  in  August,  1838,  and  the  first 
"  Carrier's  New  Year's  Address"  was  issued  Jan.  1,  1841.  The  village 
printing  of  1843  was  contracted  for  by  G.  H.  Hackstatf,  at  £14,  his 
bond  being  £100.  His  office  was  then  on  the  west  side  of  Eidout, 
north  of  Dundas,  but  far  back  on  the  building  lot. 

London  Enquirer,  Vol.  5,  No.  50,  bears  date  July  19,  1844.  It 
was  then  published  by  Geo.  H.  Hackstaff,  whose  office  was  at  the 
corner  of  Eichmond  and  North  Streets,  nearly  opposite  the  English 

The  Times,  in  1844,  was  published  by  H.  Lemon  and  D.  W.  Hartv 
the  latter  dying  recently  near  Brantford,  Ont.  Dr.  John  Salter  came 
to  London  in  1835,  and  engaged  as  clerk  in  Lyman,  Farr  &  Co.'s  drug 
store,  then  near  the  court-house.  Subsequently  he  opened  on  Eidout 
street;  was  surgeon  to  the  London  garrison  during  the  rebellion  of 
1837-8  ;  was  burned  out  in  the  fire  of  1845  ;  later  was  editor  of  the 
London  Times  under  Mr.  Cowley,  but  through  all  was  known  as  the 
"  Patriarch  of  Druggists  "  until  his  death,  April  13,  1881.  An  entry 
in  the  records  of  the  Council,  bearing  date  1847,  states  that  Joseph 
Cowley  was  paid  £5  13s.  9d.  for  county  advertising  in  the  London 
Times.  In  1853  the  Times  office  was  in  a  frame  building  on  the  west 
side  of  Talbot  street,  on  the  corner  of  North,  or  Carling  street,  Mr.  Hart 
being  still  editor,  with  Joseph  Morey  foreman. 

The  Gospel  Messenger  was  published  here  in  1848  by  John  E. 
Lavell,  but  shared  the  fate  of  nearly  all  such  periodical  journals 

The  Canadian  Free  Press  was  founded  by  William  Sutherland 
(now  a  resident  of  Ekfrid  township),  January  2,  1849.  The  prospectus 
was  issued  December  20,  1848,  and  from  this  document  is  the  follow- 
ing extract : — "  Its  character,  as  its  name  implies,  will  be  Liberal.  It 
will  advocate  those  principles  and  measures  which  aim  at  the  safe, 
progress  of  Legislation  and  Government  towards  their  true  end :  '  The 
greatest  possible  good  to  the  greatest  possible  number.'  This,  it  is 
assumed,  can  be  gained  only  by  maintaining  the  Provincial  Constitu- 
tion, which  by  bringing  the  increasing  intelligence  of  the  community 
to  bear  upon  the  administration  by  means  of  their  representatives,  con- 
stitutes Parliamentary  or  Eesponsible  Government ;  by  the  indepen- 
dent and  unfettered  exercise  of  the  elective  franchise ;  by  an  enlight- 
ened system  of  popular  education ;  by  securing  on  all  political  and 


economical  questions  liberty  and  equality,  in  opposition  to  all  exclusive 
aims  of  parties,  classes  or  religious  denominations ;  and  by  setting  free 
our  commerce,  enterprise  and  intelligence  from  all  those  obstructions 
by  which  their  development  has  been  hitherto  so  long  and  so  greatly 

The  early  issues  were  printed  weekly,  on  sheets  26x40  inches. 
The  price  was  fifteen  shillings  per  annum,  or  twelve  shillings  and  six 
pence,  if  paid  in  advance.  Local  news  was  entirely  a  secondary  con- 
sideration, and  should  be  of  marked  importance  to  receive  any  notice 
whatever.  General  political  news,  both  Canadian  and  British,  occupied 
much  space.  The  history  of  the  Press  since  1852,  is  the  history  of  its 
second  proprietor  from  1852  to  the  present  time. 

The  editor  of  the  Free  Press,  Josiah  Blackburn,  born  at  London, 
England,  in  1823,  came  to  Canada  in  1850  ;  was  connected  with  the 
Star,  of  Paris,  Orit.,  in  1851,  and  in  1852  purchased  the  Free  Press 
office.  Shortly  after,  he  assisted  in  the  establishment  of  the  Chronicle, 
at  Ingersoll ;  in  1855  inaugurated  the  Daily  Free  Press,  which  he 
conducted  on  his  own  party  principles — then  Eeform.  In  1858  he 
was  defeated  by  Marcus  Talbot  in  the  contest  for  parliamentary  honors. 
In  1862  he  was  called  to  conduct  the  Mercury,  a  Government  organ, 
and  ten  years  later  was  asked  to  aid  in  establishing  the  Mail,  at 
Toronto.  In  1884  he  was  a  member  of  the  committee  sent  to  Wash- 
ington to  report  on  the  system  of  public  printing.  When  Geo.  Brown 
opposed  the  Coalition  Government,  Mr.  Blackburn  cast  off  his  Reform 
dress  and  assumed  that  of  the  Conservatives,  the  same  which  the  Free 
Press  of  to-day  wears. 

The  early  years  of  the  Free  Press  after  it  became  the  property  of  the 
Blackburns  are  well  portrayed  by  Harry  Gorman  in  his  newspaper 
reminiscences.  He  says: — "My  newspaper  experience  in  London 
dates  back  to  1853,  when  I  engaged  with  Josiah  Blackburn,  of  the 
Free  Press,  as  an  apprentice.  At  that  time  the  Free  Press  office  was 
in  a  small,  one-story  brick  building  on  Talbot  street,  immediately  in 
rear  of  what  was  then  the  R  &  D.  Macfie's  dry  goods  store,  now 
Somerville's  grocery,  I  believe.  Its  rival,  the  Times,  occupied  a  frame 
building  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  street,  at  the  corner  of  Carling 
street,  then  called  North  street.  It  was  edited  by  a  Mr.  Hart,  and  Joe 
Morey,  well  known  to  old-time  London  journalists,  was  foreman. 
When  I  entered  the  Free  Press  office  the  whole  force  consisted  of  Mr. 
Pierson,  foreman ;  Jim  Sisterson  and  Mel.  Dawson  (now  Col.  Dawson), 
journeymen;  and  Bill  Quinton,  Jack  Sparling  and  myself,  apprentices. 
Blackburn  was  editor,  reporter,  proof-reader,  book-keeper,  collector  and 
canvassing  agent,  and  knows  what  it  is  to  run  a  country  newspaper 
when  money  is  scarce  and  roads  bad.  I  assisted  at  the  setting  up  of 
the  first  power  press  used  in  a  London  printing  office.  It  was  a  North- 
rup  stop-cylinder,  with  a  capacity  of  probably  600  an  hour,  and  a 
regular  corn-crusher.  Prior  to  its  erection  the  Free  Press  weekly,  for 
it  had  then  only  a  weekly  edition,  was  worked  off  on  a  Washington 


hand  press,  an  athletic  colored  man,  Hayden  Watters  by  name,  manipu- 
lating the  lever,  Sparling  and  I  responding  to  the  call  of  'color/ 
flying  the  sheets  and  folding.  In  '54  or  '5  the  first  daily  was  issued 
in  London  from  the  Free  Press  office.  I  set  type  on  it.  I  cannot 
recall  the  names  of  all  who  worked  on  it  at  that  particular  time,  but  I 
think  the  late  Tom  Neil  was  among  the  number,  also  Thomas  Coffey, 
and  very  probably  Sisterson  and  Dawson.  E.  P.  Roden,  now  a  civic 
officer  in  Toronto,  was  one  of  the  early  compositors  on  the  daily  Free 

In  October,  1851,  a  banquet  closed  the  fair,  and  at  this  reunion  a 
toast — 'The  Press,  the  Palladium  of  Liberty — was  given.  A  Mr. 
Thomson,  of  the  Free  Press,  responded.  He  said  that  he  regarded 
agriculture  as  the  noblest  occupation  of  man.  It  was  indeed  a  divine 
injunction  to  "  till  the  garden  and  to  keep  it."  He  referred  to  the 
extent  of  the  Provinces — larger  than  Europe — to  their  agricultural 
capacities  and  great  natural  resources,  and  the  place  of  Empire  which 
Canada  is  destined  to  hold  among  the  nations  of  the  earth.  He  gave 
as  a  sentiment : — Agriculture  and  an  Independent  Press,  may  they 
both  prosper  till  Canada  shall  be  celebrated  for  her  national  wealth 
and  her  free  institutions. 

The  editorial  staff  of  the  Free  Press  comprises  managing  director  and 
editor-in-chief,  Josiah  Blackburn ;  assistant-editor,  Malcolm  S.  Bremner ; 
city  editor,  John  S.  Dewar ;  night  editor,  Fred.  T.  Yealland ;  agricul- 
tural editor,  Wm.  L.  Brown ;  reporters,  Chas.  F.  Winlow  and  George 
Millar.  The  business  department  comprises  Henry  Mathewson,  secre- 
tary-treasurer :  Gilbert  E.  Coombs,  accountant ;  J.  C.  Markle,  assistant 
book-keeper ;  A.  C.  Peel,  day  mail  clerk ;  Chas.  Norman,  night  mail- 
clerk  ;  W.  J.  Blackburn,  manager  advertising  department ;  H.  B. 
Coombs,  advertising  department,  arid  Thomas  Orr,  manager  of  mechani- 
cal department.  In  the  news  department,  Alex.  J.  Bremner  is  day 
foreman,  and  James  Lindsay  and  P.  J.  Quinn,  night  foremen.  In  the 
book  and  job  departments  the  following  named  are  the  overseers : — 
T.  H.  Warren  (foreman),  Harry  Ferns,  J.  W.  Thorpe  and  Charles  Doe. 
Charles  Brown  is  foreman  of  press  room ;  George  Taylor  and  Walter 
Pinnell,  engineers.  The  travellers'  department  comprises  Samuel  H. 
Muirhead,  Robinson  J.  Orr  and  Geo.  H.  Mathewson,  with  Frank  H. 
W  better,  collector.  The  lithographic  department  is  presided  over  by 
John  A.  Muirhead,  with  W.  H.  Margetts,  foreman  of  artists'  depart- 
ment; Hugh  E.  Ashton,  of  transfer  department;  James  Filby,  of 
press  department,  and  H.  V.  Mevius,  of  engraving  department.  T.  W. 
Elliott  is  foreman  of  the  wood  engraving  division ;  Geo.  Webster, 

The  Prototype. — In  January,  1861,  the  Council  passed  resolutions 
of  thanks  to  the  editors  of  the  Press  and  Prototype,  and  to  reporters 
Siddons  and  Wilson,  for  excellent  reports  during  the  year.  In  1863 
the  London  News  was  included  in  this  vote  of  thanks. 

In  February,  1870,  the  Prototype  ceased  to  be  a  morning  paper, 

170  HISTORY   OF   THE 

and  was  issued  as  an  evening  newspaper,  under  the  name  Herald  and 
Prototype.  Melville  D.  Dawson  became  interested  in  the  paper  at 
this  time.  Harry  Gorman,  speaking  of  this  journal  in  1861,  says  :— 
"  London  had  then  two  morning  papers — in  name  only — the  Free  Press 
and  Prototype.  Neither  of  them  received  the  midnight  telegraphic 
reports,  and,  as  a  consequence,  were  little  better  than  evening  papers 
published  the  following  morning."  The  Herald  office  was  burned 
September  10,  1878,  and  much  valuable  property  destroyed,  includ- 
ing the  Synod  journal  of  the  English  Church. 

The  Semi- Weekly  Herald  was  a  favorite  newspaper  in  1856-7,  by 
Elliot  &  Cooper,  but  its  duration  was  only  for  a  few  years.  The  office 
was  then  in  the  old  Commercial  block,  better  known  as  the  Coote  block. 

The  Evangelical  Witness  was  the  predecessor  and  contemporary 
of  the  News  with  Eev.  J.  H.  Eobinson,  editor.  This  paper  was  the 
organ  of  the  New  Connexion  Methodists,  and  continued  in  existence 
until  the  union.  After  the  collapse  of  the  News,  Mr.  Robinson  con- 
tinued the  Witness  at  the  old  office  on  Dundas  street  west,  about 
where  the  Parisian  Laundry  now  is,  but  eventually  found  the  work  too 
heavy,  and  wanted  to  get  rid  of  it.  John  Cameron,  who  had  served 
his  time  in  the  Free  Press,  and  afterwards  worked  for  Gemmill,  in 
Sarnia,  came  one  day  and  asked  him  if  he  did  not  want  some  one  to 
take  charge.  It  occurred  to  him  that  Cameron  was  the  man  he 
wanted,  and  he  was  given  charge.  Mr.  Eobinson's  health  seemed  to 
to  get  worse  rather  than  better,  and  so  one  day  he  proposed  to  Cameron 
that  he  should  buy  the  establishment,  paying  therefor  by  printing  the 
Evangelical  Witness.  This  arrangement  was  carried  out,  and  Mr. 
Cameron  shortly  after  proposed  to  start  a  daily  paper — a  paper  Liberal 
in  its  tendencies,  moral  in  its  tone  ;  and  from  that  time  Mr.  Eobinson 
ceased  to  have  any  personal  or  practical  interest  in  the  place,  although 
he  occasionally  wrote  articles  for  it  and  always  hoped  for  its  welfare. 
When  the  Evangelical  Witness  was  published  on  Dundas  street  east, 
where  Dr.  Flock  now  lives,  Miss  Eobinson,  John  Cameron  and  Eobert 
Fulford  were  the  typesetters.  The  latter  went  to  California,  and  while 
there  went  on  the  stage  and  married  a  woman  who  is  now  one  of  the 
most  popular  actresses  of  the  day — Annie  Pixley.  On  the  Methodist 
union  of  1 874  being  perfected  there  was  no  more  need  for  the  Witness. 
Eev.  David  Savage  edited  it  for  four  years  before  it  died.  Eev.  Mr. 
Eobinson  was  sent-to  England  about  1870  and  was  given  the  editorial 
control  of  the  two  Methodist  magazines  in  old  London  and  the  charge 
of  the  two  book  concerns.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  he  was  really  sent  over  to 
endeavor  to  stop  the  union,  which  then  seemed  imminent.  The  N.  C. 
Methodists  had  some  8,000  members  in  Canada,  and  it  was  thought  he 
might  have  some  influence,  but  when  he  got  over  there  he  found  he 
might  as  well  try  to  stop  the  waters  of  Niagara.  At  one  time  he  had 
$11,000  of  his  own  money  sunk  in  the  Witness  before  he  saw  a 
prospect  of  a  return,  and  it  preyed  on  his  mind.  He  feared  he  would 
die  and  leave  the  debt  a  burden  to  his  family.  But  friends  in  England 


came  to  the  rescue,  advanced  some  money,  and  then  he  turned  the 
paper  over  to  the  Camerons. 

The  London  Evening  News. — This  journal  was  issued  from  the 
office  of  the  Witness.  Harry  Gorman  says  : — "  I  assisted  at  the  birth 
of  another  London  daily  in  the  years  before  the  Advertiser  saw  the 
light.  It  was  the  Evening  News,  and  was  the  predecessor  of  the 
Advertiser.  It  was  printed  by  Thos.  Evans,  who  afterwards  went  to 
Buffalo,  and  edited  by  Mr.  Moncrieff.  The  News  was  a  Liberal  paper, 
and  did  much  towards  securing  the  election  of  Elijah  Leonard  to  the 
Senate  for  the  Malahide  Division.  By  the  way,  my  lot  was  nearly 
always  cast  on  the  Liberal  side  in  politics.  The  Free  Press  was  an 
out-and  out  Grit  paper  when  I  worked  on  it,  and  it  was  not  till  after  I 
left  it  that  it  strayed  from  the  paths  of  political  rectitude.  The  News 
was  soundly  Liberal  under  Mr.  MoncriefFs  editorship,  and  later  under 
that  of  John  McLean.  Mr.  Moncrieff,  1  believe,  afterwards  lapsed 
into  Toryism,  and  Mr.  McLean  became  one  of  the  apostles  of  high 
protection,  and  helped  Sir  John  and  Tilley  to  frame  the  National 
Policy  tariff.  Among  those  who  were  employed  in  the  News  office 
were  John  Cameron,  founder  of  the  Advertiser ;  M.  G.  Bremner,  now 
of  the  Free  Press  editorial  staff ;  Harry  Clissold,  proprietor  of  a  print- 
ing establishment  in  Chicago;  James  Mitchell,  now  editor  and  pro- 
prietor of  the  Goderich  Star ;  John  Hooper  and  his  father — the  '  Old 
Guv./  as  he  was  affectionately  called — John  McLean,  the  veteran 
pressman,  and  myself.  With  the  collapse  of  the  News  in  1863,  the 
office  and  plant  with  which  it  was  printed  reverted  to  Eev.  J.  H. 
Robinson,  who  either  owned  it  in  his  own  right  or  held  it  as  a  trustee 
for  the  New  Connexion  Methodist  Church  in  Canada.  The  Evan- 
gelical Witness,  official  organ  of  the  church,  was  printed  there,  and  it 
became  necessary  to  make  new  arrangements  for  its  publication. 
Proposals  to  that  end  were  made  by  Eobinson  to  Harry  Clissold  and  to 
me,  but  both  of  us  had  made  up  our  minds  to  go  to  Chicago,  and  the 
inducements  offered  were  not  sufficient  to  change  our  intentions.  Mr. 
Cameron  applied  for  the  position,  and  his  offer  was  accepted  by  Mr. 

The  Advertiser  was  established  in  1863,  and  on  October  27,  of 
that  year,  the  first  number  sold  was  purchased  by  J.  W.  Jones,  i  Thos. 
Ooffey,  now  proprietor  of  the  Record,  was  one  of  the  first  workers  on 
this  journal.  He  relates  the  story  of  its  beginnings  as  follows:— 
"  There  was  a  paper  called  the  Daily  News,  published  shortly  before 
that  time  by  Thomas  Evans.  In  the  same  office  was  also  printed 
the  Evangelical  Witness.  Both  this  paper  and  the  office  had  been  for 
some  years  the  property  of  the  New  Connexion  Methodist  Conference. 
The  Daily  News,  after  a  precarious  existence  of  a  few  years,  succumbed 
to  hard  times,  and  a  large  and  well-equipped  establishment  was  left 
without  any  other  means  of  keeping  it  in  operation  but  the  publication 
of  the  weekly  religious  paper  referred  to.  In  the  office  at  that  time 
were  employed  John  and  William  Cameron,  Harry  Gorman,  now  of 

172  HISTORY  OF    THE 

the  Sarnia  Observer,  myself  and  a  few  others.     You  must  remember 
that  the  American  war  had  broken  out,  and  was  well  under  way  then, 
and  a  great  desire  seemed  to  take  possession  of  the  public  mind  to 
obtain  possession  of  every  item  of  news  pertaining  to  that  bloody 
conflict.     John  Cameron  saw  his  opportunity,  leased  the  establishment 
from  the  Eev.  J.  H.  Eobinson,  and  conceived  the  idea  of  establishing 
a  live  evening  paper.     So  small  was  this  paper,  that  the  proprietors 
of  a  rival  establishment  termed  it  a  *  bantling ;'  but  the  *  bantling/ 
as  it  was   called,  at  once  succeeded  in  establishing  itself  in  public 
favor.     So  successful,  indeed,  was  this  attempt,  that  the  managers  of 
a  morning  paper,  then  in  existence,  rushed  out  another  evening  sheet 
to  try  and  counteract  the  influence  which  the  new-comer  seemed  so 
suddenly  to  become  possessed  of.     Public  sentiment,  however,  was 
unanimously  on  the  side  of  the  Advertiser,  and  in  a  very  short  space 
of  time  the  Evening  Telegraph,  as  it  was  called,  was  forced  to  cease 
publication.       Then,   when  the  Advertiser  came   out,   Mr.  Cameron 
introduced  a  novelty  into  London  in  the  shape  of  newsboys.     There 
were  none  here  before  that  time.    Day  after  day,  and  week  after  week, 
the  little  evening  paper  became  more  and  more  engrafted  in  public 
favor.     John  Cameron,  young,  enterprising,  full  of  integrity  and  good 
purpose,  a  model  young  man  in  every  sense  of  the  word,  made  it  his 
constant  study  to  produce  a  paper  that  would  in  every  way  merit  the 
most  encouraging  patronage.     The  Advertiser  at  that  time  was  printed 
on  a  Hoe  drum-cylinder  press,  and  the  power  was  supplied  by  a 
stalwart  African.     At  the  start,  John  Cameron  associated  with  him  his 
brother  William,  who  became  business  manager,  assisted  by  his  father, 
while  John  devoted  his   time   to  the  management  of  the  editorial 
department.      About  this  time,  too,  the  able  assistance  of  Mr.  Harry 
Gorman  was  secured  for  the  same  branch.      In  March,  1864,  he  took 
a  position  at  the  case  with  C.  D.  Barr.     When  C.  F.  Colwell  came  in 
1866,  John  Cameron  was  sole  proprietor;  his  father  paymaster;  his 
brother  William  filled  minor  positions ;  John  Hooper  was  foreman  of 
news  room ;  Joseph  Morey  of  job  room,  while  Archie  Bremner,  Harry 
Gorman,  Win.  Egleton  and  himself  were  at  the  case.      John  Cameron, 
it  is  well-known,  is  the  prosperous  manager  of  the  Toronto  Globe ;    Mr. 
Cameron,  sen.,  and  his  son  William  are  both  dead ;  Harry  Gorman  is. 
the  successful  proprietor  of  the  Sarnia  Observer-,  John  Hooper  is  still 
working  in  the  city;     Bill    Egleton  works  at    Toledo,    O  ;    Archie 
Bremner,  considered  the  best  paragraph  writer  in  Canada,  is  assistant 
editor,  while  Charles  D.  Barr,  who  has  been  so  successful  in  building 
up  the  Lindsay  Post  since  he  held  a  position  at  the  case  in  this  office 
in  1863-4,  is  now  editor-in-chief."     Harry  Gorman,  in  his  reminis- 
cences, says:— "The  Advertiser's  progress  was  always  a  matter  of 
pride  to  me.     I  was  so  thoroughly  identified  with  its  interests  while 
on  its  staff,  that  its  triumphs  and  successes  elated  me  as  much  as  if 
they  were  my  own.     The  old  feeling  still  lingers  in  my  heart,  and  I 
am  pleased  at  being  asked  to  contribute  to  its  silver  anniversary." 


In  the  Victoria  disaster  of  1881,  there  were  among  the  passengers 
Chas.  A.  Matthews,  night  editor,  wife  and  two  children ;  Miss  Bailey, 
a  sister  of  one  of  the  pressmen ;  Wm.  Wonnacott,  brother  of  Chas. 
Wonnacott,  rounds  collector ;  a  sister  of  Frank  La wson,  reporter ;  Wm. 
Thompson,  reporter;  and  a  young  brother  of  Eddie  Harrison,  appren- 
tice ;  Mrs.  Matthews  and  one  child ;  Miss  Bailey,  Miss  Lawson, 
Charley  Gorman,  one  of  the  carriers ;  Wonnacott  and  the  lad  Harrison 
were  among  the  victims.  Mr.  Matthews  succeeded  in  saving  one 
child.  William  Thompson  also  escaped  and  wrote  the  first  report  of 
the  disaster. 

The  Editorial  Staff  is  as  follows  :— Editor-in-Chief— Chas.  D.  Barr. 
Managing  Editor — Arch.  Bremner.  City  Editor  and  Conductor  Weekly 
Agricultural  Department,  1880 — Wm.  Thompson.  Telegraph  and  News 
Editor— E.  Clissold.  City  Reporting  Staff— E.  A.  Hutchinson  and  A. 
P.  Fawcett.  Conductor  Educational  Department — John  Dearnessr 
I.  P.  S.  Conductor  Legal  Department — W.  H.  Bartram,  barrister. 

The  Business  Department  comprises : — Lud.  K.  Cameron,  President 
and  Manager.  Robert  D.  Millar,  secretary-treasurer.  Wm.  Magee, 
accountant.  Frank  Adams,  cashier.  J.  M.  Symonds,  collector. 
George  Elliott,  collector.  T.  A.  Workmen  and  H.  C.  Allison,  adver- 
tising agents.  M.  W.  Cummiford,  traveling  agent.  Weekly  Sub- 
scription Department — H.  C.  Symonds,  manager.  Stereotype  room — 
Thos.  Bland,  superintendent ;  Henry  Bartley,  William  Corbin.  Press- 
room— Jas.  T.  Archer,  superintendent;  William  Bay  ley,  E.  Johnston. 
Engineer — William  Neil. 

John  Cameron,  born  in  Markham  Township,  Ont.,  Jan.  22,  1843,. 
learned  the  printing  trade  at  London  in  the  Free  Press  office,  and  on 
Oct.  27,  1863,  he,  with  his  brother  William,  issued  the  Evening 
Advertiser.  This  venture  was  attended  with  such  success  that  within 
a  few  years  it  took  a  very  leading  place  among  the  newspapers  of  the 
Dominion.  In  December,  1882,  David  Mills  became  editor,  with 
William  Cameron,  manager.  At  that  time  John  Cameron  assumed 
the  editorial  and  business  management  of  the  Globe,  converting  this 
old  paper  into  a  modern  news  journal  and  leading  exponent  of  Liberal 
ideas  in  "Canada.  Mr.  Cameron's  father  was  a  native  of  Argyleshire, 
Scotland,  and  his  mother  a  native  of  Ireland. 

William  Cameron,  born  in  London  in  1844,  died  in  January,  1884. 
He,  with  his  brother,  John  Cameron,  of  Toronto,  established  the 
Advertiser  twenty  years  before  death  removed  him  from  the  manage- 
ment of  that  journal. 

The  Huron  Recorder  was  first  issued  in  October,  1874,  as  a 
journal  devoted  to  the  interests  of  the  English  Church  Diocese.  Rev. 
H.  F.  Darnell  was  editor,  and  Rev.  J.  Hurst  secretary-treasurer.  This, 
journal  changed  its  title  to  the  Western  Churchman,  June  6,  1877. 
In  August,  1875,  Geo.  F.  Jewell  was  assistant  editor.  In  1877  Rev. 
J.  W.  P.  Smith  was  secretary ;  Rev.  W.  F.  Campbell  treasurer,  and 
G.  F.  Jewell,  advertising  agent.  On  August  29,  1877,  it  ceased 


174  HISTORY   OF   THE 

The  Catholic  Record  was  issued  at  388  Richmond  street,  October 
4,  1878.  The  salutatory  of  the  publisher,  Walter  Locke,  appears  on 
page  one,  followed  by  a  letter  from  Bishop  Walsh,  approving  of  this 
journalistic  venture.  A  few  months  later  the  office  was  purchased  by 
"Thomas  Coffey,  who  very  soon  established  the  Record  on  a  firm  basis, 
and  who  has  conducted  this  journal  with  marked  ability  down  to  the 
present  time.  Rev.  Fathers  Northgraves  (author  of  the  "  Mistakes  of 
Modern  Infidels  "),  of  Ingersoll,  and  Flannery,  of  St.  Thomas,  are  the 
chief  editors.  The  present  office  was  erected  by  the  owner  in  1882, 
adjoining  Weston's  store  on  Richmond  street  and  Pufferin  Avenue. 
The  latter  building  he  purchased  at  that  time.  The  Record  is  an 
eminently  respectable  denominational  weekly  paper,  partaking  of  the 
quality  of  a  magazine.  The  historical  and  other  subjects  are  clearly 
treated,  while  the  editorials  form  an  excellent  exposition  of  what 
religious  liberty  means,  and  of  what  the  welfare  of  Canada  calls  for. 
The  tenth  anniversary  of  the  Record  drew  forth  from  the  secular 
press  of  Western  Canada  many  high  testimonials. 

The  Standard,  a  weekly  and  evening  journal,  suspended  publica- 
tion after  a  four  months'  existence,  March  25,  1878,  the  Free  Press 
filling  the  subscription  roll. 

The  Echo  is  an  advertising  paper  issued  regularly. 

The  Farmer's  Advocate,  an  agricultural  periodical,  is  published  at 

The  Speaker,  an  afternoon  newspaper,  was  established  in  1888,  and 
issued  from  the  Speaker  Steam  Printing  House,  344  Richmond  street. 
On  November  12th  Mr.  Butcher,  manager  of  this  journal,  obtained 
possession  of  the  Times  office  material,  and  on  the  evening  of  that  day 
made  an  effort  to  assume  the  name  of  the  Times  and  cast  aside  that 
of  the  Speaker ;  but  one  or  more  of  his  associate  owners  objected,  and 
so  the  old  name  was  retained.  It  is  now  defunct. 

The  London  Evening  Times  was  issued  from  the  office,  201  Dundas 
street,  Aug.  28,  1888,  by  Paul  &  Harris.  The  proprietors  in  their 
salutatory  omit  much  conventional  phraseology,  and  content  them- 
selves with  assuring  the  public  that  "the  interests  of  the  city  of 
London  and  Western  Ontario  it  will  always  be  our  object  to  further  in 
ever  manner  possible,'  knowing  as  we  do  that  they  are  closely  and 
inseparately  linked  with  our  own.  All  public  questions  will  be 
•discussed  fearlessly  on  their  merits,  irrespective  of  from  what  party  or 
person  they  may  emanate.  The  news  of  the  day,  both  local  and  from 
a  distance,  will  be  presented,  in  crisp,  readable  form,  and  our  readers 
can  depend  upon  being  kept  fully  posted  on  all  that  transpires  up  to 
the  minute  of  publication."  During  its  existence  this  journal  more 
than  observed  the  promises  made,  but  the  fact  that  there  was  no  room 
for  a  fourth  daily  paper  at  London  soon  became  manifest,  and  on  Nov. 
10,  1888,  the  last  issue  of  the  Times  appeared.  On  Nov.  12,  Manager 
Butcher,  of  the  Speaker,  purchased  the  heading  and  subscription  list  of 
the  defunct  Times,  and  no  doubt  believing  that  the  name  was  more 


popular  with  the  reading  public  than  that  under  which  the  Company 
was  formed,  he  undertook  to  place  the  heading  The  Times  over  the 
matter  prepared  for  the  Speaker — an  act  which  caused  a  small-sized 
rebellion  in  the  office.  Director  Gahan  ordered  the  pressman  to  stop, 
while  Manager  Butcher  insisted  that  the  Times  should  be  published, 
the  upshot  being  that  Butcher  was  "  fired  "  out  of  the  building  by 
Gahan,  who  dismissed  the  employe's  for  the  night,  turned  off  the  gas 
and  locked  the  office  door. 

Printers'  Union. — London  Typographical  Union,  No.  133,  was 
chartered  by  the  National  Typographical  Union,  United  States,  Novem- 
ber 22, 1869,  which  has  since  changed  its  name  to  International  Typo- 
graphical Union,  of  which  London  Union  is  still  a  member.  The  charter 
members  were  Thomas  Coffey,  James  Mitchell,  William  Evans,  Henry 
Durnan,  Thomas  Ferguson,  Kobert  O'Connor,  H.  C.  Symonds.  The 
presidents  of  the  Union  from  that  period  to  the  present  day  are  named 
as  follows : — Thomas  Coffey,  John  S.  Dewar,  William  Hooper,  Benj. 
S.  Gates,  Thomas  Bland,  Thomas  Orr,  E.  H.  Yealland,  J.  B.  Jennings, 
C.  H.  Chatterton,  Charles  Sterling,  G.  Coghlan,  A.  J.  Bremner,  H.  A. 
Thompson,  J.  W.  Thorpe,  Andrew  Denholm,  H.  D.  Lee,  James  Dren- 
nan,  W.  A.  Clarke,  Charles  Doe,  Ed.  W.  Fleming  and  Charles  Mel- 
bourne. The  present  secretary  is  Frank  Plant. 

Newspapers  Outside  of  London. — The  Advocate  was  published 
by  Geo.  Brown  in  1856-7,  but  ceased  in  the  spring  of  1857,  when  its 
projectors  moved  away.  Mr.  Dell  states  that  the  first  paper  started 
at  Strathroy  was  by  twin  brothers  named  Johnston.  The  journal  was 
continued  weekly  for  six  months  when  the  boys  moved  to  Michigan, 
where  they  studied  medicine,  and  died  at  Bad  Axe.  Geo.  E.  Brown 
had  an  interest  in  this  journal. 

The  Strathroy  Times  and  West  Middlesex  Advertiser  was  issued 
in  June,  1859,  but  ceased  publication  within  a  few  months.  In 
October,  1869,  another  journal,  bearing  the  same  name,  was  issued  by 
Editor  Magin.  The  Home  Guard  succeeded  the  Times,  and  continued 
publication  until  1865,  when  C.  H.  Mackintosh  purchased  the  office. 

The  Dispatch. — Charles  H.  Mackintosh,  son  of  William  Mackintosh, 
of  Wicklow  County,  Ireland,  was  born  at  London,  Ont,  in  1843,  when 
his  father  was  county  engineer  of  Middlesex.  Young  Mackintosh 
was  the  contributor  to  the  Free  Press  of  "  Hurry  Graphs ;"  later 
became  city  editor ;  in  1864  was  editor  of  the  Times,  of  Hamilton, 
and  in  1865  purchased  the  Home  Guard  office  and  began  the  publica- 
tion of  the  Dispatch,  continuing  until  1874.  In  1873  he  became 
managing  editor  of  the  Chicago  Journal  of  Commerce,  and  in  1874 
of  the  Ottawa  Citizen.  In  1870  he  founded  the  Parkhill  Gazette, 
moved  to  Ottawa,  and  in  1882  was  chosen  to  represent  that  city  with 
Mr.  Tasse.  In  April,  1868,  he  married  Gertrude,  daughter  of  T.  Cook, 
of  Strathroy. 

In  October,  1874,  A.  Dingman  resigned  the  principalship  of  the 
Petrolea  public  schools,  came  to  Strathroy  and  purchased  the 




from  C.  H.  Mackintosh.  Up  to  the  close  of  1873  A.  Dingman  had 
been  for  many  years  a  leading  and  successful  teacher  in  the  public 
schools  of  the  town  of  Sarnia.  Under  his  control  the  paper  advanced, 
being  enlarged  in  1877  to  the  quarto  page  form,  in  which  it  is  now 
issued.  In  1876  J.  H.  Mclntosh  resigned  his  position  on  this  paper 
to  take  control  of  the  Watford  Advocate,  but  returning  to  Strathroy, 
resumed  the  position  of  assistant  editor,  and  is  now  on  the  staff.  In 
1882  Mr.  Dingman  was  appointed  to  the  important  position  of  Inspec- 
tor of  Indian  Agencies  and  Eevenues  under  the  Dominion  Govern- 
ment, which  office  he  yet  holds.  His  family  residence  is  now 
Stratford,  whither  he  moved  his  family  in  the  fall  of  1887.  On  his 
acceptance  of  the  office  mentioned,  Mr.  A.  Dingman  was  succeeded  in 
the  proprietorship  of  the  Dispatch  in  1882  by  his  son,  W.  S.  Dingman, 
who  controlled  the  paper,  taking  his  brother,  L.  H.  Dingman,  into 
partnership  in  1886,  until  1887  (with  the  exception  of  one  year, 
1884-5,  which  W.  S.  D's  part  at  Port  Arthur  as  editor  and  manager  of 
the  Port  Arthur  Daily  Sentinel),  when  it  was  sold  to  Kichardson 
Bros.  (George  and  Kobt.  F.  Richardson,  the  latter  of  whom  had  long 
been  connected  with  the  office  as  foreman).  W.  S.  and  D.  H.  Ding- 
man are  now  in  Stratford  publishing  the  Herald.  W.  S.  preceded  his 
brother  there,  going  in  December,  1886,  and  having  the  honor  of 
issuing  the  first  number  of  the  Daily  Herald,  the  pioneer's  daily  of 
Stratford,  on  March  17,  1887.  They  publish  both  daily  and  weekly 
editions,  and  the  Herald  deservedly  enjoys  the  lead  in  Stratford. 

Among  the  old  newspaper  men  of  Strathroy  mention  is  made  of 
the  following  named : — W.  F.  Luxton,  now  of  the  Winnipeg  Free 
Press,  former  owner  of  the  Age ;  John  S.  Saul,  former  owner  of  the 
Age,  now  publisher  of  the  Daily  News,  Ashland,  Wis. ;  Hugh  McColl, 
former  owner  of  the  Age,  now  Strathroy  Postmaster;  A.  Dingman, 
former  owner  of  the  Dispatch,  now  Inspector  of  Inland  Agencies ;  W. 
S.  and  L.  H.  Dingman,  his  sons,  now  publishers  of  the  Stratford  Daily 
Herald ;  E.  Edwards  and  W.  D.  Wiley,  who  worked  in  the  Dispatch 
office,  issued  the  Wingham  Times  Nov.  24,  1881,  but  the  paper  has 
since  passed  out  of  their  possession,  and  Edwards  is  now  on  a  news- 
paper in  Winnipeg.  Wiley  is  still  a  resident  of  Huron  County.  J. 
H.  Ward,  who  in  years  long  past  resided  in  Middlesex,  is  now  con- 
nected with  the  Deseret  News,  Salt  Lake  City.  He  is  the  author  of 
several  works,  such  as  "  The  Hand  of  Providence,"  "  Gospel  Philoso- 
phy," and  "  Ballads  of  Life." 

Hugh  McColl,  editor  of  the  Age,  writing  in  August,  1871,  states, 
that  three  years  have  passed  since  he  assumed  control  of  the  paper. 
In  that  time  the  paper  was  twice  enlarged,  and  the  circulation  doubled. 

The  Review  was  published  at  Ailsa  Craig,  in  1867-8. 

The  Wardsville  Post  was  established  in  1882  by  William  Kay, 
who  continued  to  publish  it  for  about  a  year,  when  it  suspended. 

The  Ontario  Teacher  was  conducted  by  Mr.  McColl  and  Geo.  W. 
Ross,  at  Strathroy ;  and  the  latter  was  at  one  time  owner  of  the  Age. 


The  Glencoe  Mail  was  issued  in  December,  1871,  by  Neil  Mc- 
Alpine,  who  sold  this  pioneer  journal  to  Samuel  and  Lorenzo  Frederick, 
who  continued  the  publication  of  the  Mail  until  its  sale  to  C.  B. 
Slater  in  April,  1873.  He  changed  the  title  to  The  Transcript,  and 
sold  the  office  to  Wm.  Sutherland,  the  founder  of  the  London  Free 
Press.  In  1881  Mr.  Sutherland  sold  The  Transcript  to  his  son,  A.  E. 
Sutherland,  who  in  July,  1885,  took  his  brother  Robert  into  partner- 
ship. The  Transcript  was  not  issued  the  last  week  in  1884,  owing  to 
the  fact  that  the  office  was  undergoing  repairs  and  a  new  press  being 
placed  in  position.  The  editor  assured  his  readers  that  this  was  the 
first  holiday  in  thirteen  years. 

In  the  history  of  Wardsville,  reference  is  made  to  the  newspapers 
which  at  one  time  were  published  there. 

In  1868  E.  Pinton  succeeded  in  establishing  the  Lucan  Enterprise 
at  Lucan,  in  a  building  which  stood  where  Hodgins'  livery  stable  now 
is ;  but  the  name  of  the  journal  has  escaped  even  the  memory  of 
William  Porte.  This  paper  continued  for  about  eighteen  months.  In 
May,  1879,  F.  E.  Spalt  established  a  journal  here,  and  on  September 
11,  that  year,  an  entry  for  postage  on  the  Enterprise  appears  on  the 
postmaster's  records.  In  June,  1879,  Mr.  Spalt,  of  the  Enterprise, 
was  charged  by  some  persons  at  Genoa  with  holding  his  printing  press 
illegally.  The  case  was  presented  at  Ailsa  Craig,  but  Spalt  was 
acquitted  and  allowed  to  take  the  press  to  Lucan.  The  present  journal 
of  that  name  was  established  by  W.  B.  Abbott,  now  a  physician  of 
Pinconning,  Mich.  On  February  7,  1883,  J.  W.  Orme,  the  present 
proprietor,  issued  No.  1  of  the  new  series.  In  his  salutatory  he  calls 
the  journal  the  North  Middlesex  Advertiser,  although  the  heading  is 
Lucan  Enterprise.  J.  B.  Abbott  was  manager  at  this  time.  On 
April  30  the  first  issue  of  the  weekly  Enterprise  is  recorded,  when  Mr. 
Abbott  ceased  connection  with  the  office. 

The  Parkhill  Gazette  dates  back  to  1870.  Late  in  the  fall  of  that 
year,  C.  H.  Mackintosh,  of  Strathroy,  established  an  office  with  the 
intention  of  issuing  a  weekly  journal.  This  intention  was  carried  out,, 
but  the  office  was  leased  to  Wallace  Graham  for  one  year  from  the  1st 
of  November.  Graham  conducted  the  paper  and  office  with  consider- 
able ability,  and  the  business  prospered  well  under  his  management, 
As  the  year  drew  to  a  close,  Mackintosh  made  overtures  to  him  to  buy 
it,  but  the  price  demanded  was  not  satisfactory  to  Graham,  who  at 
once  made  arrangements  to  purchase  the  plant  of  an  old  office  in 
another  part  of  the  country,  and  removed  to  Parkhill,  leaving  Mac- 
kintosh to  do  as  he  pleased  with  his  own  material.  Graham  continued 
to  publish  the  Gazette,  which  for  some  time  was  printed  in  Stratford, 
but  Mackintosh  claiming  that  he  (Graham)  had  no  right  to  publish 
the  Gazette  under  that  name,  or  retain  the  subscription  list,  and  com- 
menced legal  proceedings.  Of  course  the  original  projector  of  the 
enterprise  had  no  rights  in  the  case,  and  the  Gazette  continued  to  be 
published  by  Mr.  Graham  down  to  1887,  when  he  sold  his  interests  to 


178  HISTORY   OF    THE 

the  present  editor,  Mr.  Green.  In  this  office  was  the  old  press  used  by 
Wm.  L.  Mackenzie  during  the  troublous  times  of  1837-38,  and  which 
was  thrown  by  an  excited  populace  into  Toronto  harbor.  It  had  been 
in  several  offices  since,  but  at  last  found  a  lodgment  at  Parkhill,  where 
it  was  used  down  to  1887,  when  it  was  destroyed  by  fire.  This  was  a 
calamity  in  every  way.  The  files  of  the  Gazette  as  well  as  the  vener- 
able old  press  were  given  up  to  the  flames 

The  Parkhill  Review  was  established  December  10,  1885,  by  John 
Darrach.  In  his  salutatory  he  says : — "  It  shall  be  our  highest  aim  to 
promote  the  growth  of  Canadian  patriotism,  and  to  aid  in  the  develop- 
ment of  those  true  British  institutions  which  our  fathers  planted  here." 
Geo.  M.  Winn,  who  set  the  first  type  on  the  Review,  and  continued  in 
the  office  until  the  fall  of  1887,  is  now  editor  of  the  Alymer  Sun. 

In  1886  the  prize  of  $30,  offered  by  the  Montreal  Star  for  the  best 
poem,  was  won  by  Mrs.  John  H.  Fairlie,  of  Parkhill ;  her  "  Little 
Sweethearts  "  taking  the  prize  from  twenty  competitors. 




The  first  English  school  in  Upper  Canada — in  fact,  the  first  in  the 
Province  outside  the  old  French  school  at  Sandwich  and  the  schools 
established  at  Bay  Quinte  by  D'Urfe — was  that  presided  over  in  May, 
1786,  by  John  Stewart,  while  studying  for  the  ministry  of  the  English 
Church,  at  Cataraqui.  About  this  time  Jonathan  Clark,  a  Scotchman, 
opened  a  school  in  the  district,  where  also  an  Irishman  named  Donavan 
drew  around  him  a  large  class  of  adult  pupils.  This  Donavan  spelled 
his  name  D'Anovan,  and  was  known  in  the  settlement  as  "  The  Count." 
At  Niagara  the  garrison  school  was  in  full  operation,  and  Dick  Cockrell 
also  taught  there.  About  this  time  (1791-2)  Daniel  A.  Askins  presided 
over  a  class  at  Napanee,  while  later  at  Kingston  Messrs.  Blaney, 
Irish,  Michael  and  Myers  competed  with  Donavan  and  Clark  for 
teachers'  honors.  As  settlements  spread  westward  the  school  in  some 
form  appeared. 

On  July  12,  1819,  the  School  Acts  of  former  years  were  amended 
and  extended.  At  this  time  it  was  enacted  that  the  Public  School  of 
the  London  District  should  be  opened,  and  kept  at  Vittoria,  in  the 
Township  of  Charlotteville.  John  Eolph,  J.  B.  Askin,  Jas.  Mitchell 
and  Geo.  C.  Salmon  formed  the  Board  of  Education  for  London 
District  in  1831,  and  A.  Mclntosh  and  Wm.  Hands  for  the 
Western.  The  School  Trustees  for  London  District  were  Mahlon 
Burwell,  John  Bostwick,  Joseph  Eyerson,  James  Mitchell,  John  Eolph 
and  John  Harris,  with  E.  Chadwick,  district  school-master.  The 
Trustees  for  the  Western  District  were  James  Baby,  A.  Mclntosh, 
Alex.  Duff,  James  Gordon  and  Charles  Elliott,  with  Eev.  William 
Johnson,  district  school-master.  In  this  year  John  Talbot  presided 
over  St.  George's  School,  Lot  14,  Con.  6,  London  Township,  and  in 
1832  opened  a  school  on  Eidout  Street. 

John  Askin,  Esq. : —  Vienna,  in  Bayham,  Oct.  7,  1833. 

DEAR  SIR, — As  I  have  again  commenced  the  arduous  task  of  school-keeping,  I 
beg  the  favor  of  you  to  let  me  know  to  whom  I  should  send  my  reports,  as  I  intend  on 
the  first  of  December  next  ensuing  to  report  a  six  months'  school.  Wherefore,  you 
will  confer  a  favour  by  advising  me  on  the  proper  way  to  proceed,  as  I  have  been 
informed  that  you  have  settled  (or  now  reside)  in  the  village  of  London.  Please  to 
answer  this  by  the  bearer,  Capt.  Foster,  and  you  will  oblige. 

Your  obedient  servant,  JOHN  BIGGAR. 

Stephen  Van  Every  was  appointed  jailer  in  1827,  pending  the 

acceptance  of  that  position  by  Samuel  H.  Parke.  He  was  permitted 

to  open  a  school  in  the  old  building,  and  there  the  present  James 
Williams,  of  London,  attended. 


180  HISTORY   OF    THE 

The  common  school  system  dates  back  to  1841,  when  a  bill,  intro- 
duced by  S.  B.  Harrison,  was  passed  and  approved.  In  1843  the 
Francis  Hincks  amendments  were  adopted,  and  in  1846  the  W.  H. 
Draper  amendments.  In  1849  J.  H  Cameron's  bill,  providing  for  the 
establishment  of  schools  in  cities  and  towns,  became  law,  and  from  that 
period  up  to  1871,  when  the  general  school  law  was  approved,  it  seems 
to  have  been  the  object  of  the  Legislature  to  cure  every  little  defect  in 
the  system. 

A  petition  to  Sir  Charles  Bagot,  the  Governor-General  of  British 
North  America,  made  February  11,  1842,  represented  that,  owing  to 
the  peculiar  situation  of  several  townships  in  the  London  district,  "  it 
is  inconvenient  to  make  school  district  divisions  in  townships  ex- 
clusively by  their  own  limits,"  and  asked  for  legislation  providing  for 
the  division  of  the  whole  district  into  school  divisions  without  regard 
to  township  lines. 

In  September,  1842,  J.  B.  Strathy,  District  Clerk,  made  a  return 
of  the  number  of  schools  in  actual  operation  in  the  London  District 
since  Jan.  1,  1842.  In  Ekfrid  there  were  7  schools  open  and  5 
vacant ;  in  Mosa,  then  not  divided  into  districts,  there  were  4  schools 
in  operation;  in  London,  then  unsubdivided,  there  were  16  schools 
open ;  in  Aldborough,  4  open  and  2  vacant ;  in  Adelaide,  2  open  and  7 
vacant :  in  Lobo,  6  in  operation,  but  the  township  was  not  districted ; 
in  Caradoc,  2  open  and  6  vacant ;  in  Delaware,  2  open  and  6  vacant. 
It  appears  commissioners  were  appointed  and  met  once,  but  owing  to 
the  Council  not  having  divided  the  township  into  school  districts,  the 
officers  did  not  organize.  In  Westminster  there  were  3  schools  open 
and  15  legally  vacant,  as  the  teachers  never  came  before  the  Commis- 
sioners to  be  examined.  There  were  no  returns  received  from 
Malahide,  Bayham,  Yarmouth,  Dorchester,  Dunwich  and  Southwold, 

The  legal  teachers  in  Adelaide  in  1842-3  were  : — J.  Kinney,  Anne 
Abernethy,  Eobert  Campbell,  Duncan  McCallum  and  Malcolm  Camp- 
bell. In  Ekfrid,  Samuel  P.  Stiles,  Donald  Mclntyre,  Kenneth  Thom- 
son and  Hector  McFarlane.  In  London,  Henry  W.  Milne,  James 
Eutledge,  James  Howard,  Henry  Kirby,  W.  J.  O'Mulvenny,  William 
Evans,  Arthur  D.  Garden,  Thomas  Boyd,  Wm.  Webb,  Kobert  Wilson, 
Win.  Taylor,  Henry  Eigney,  George  Monaghan,  Humphrey  Taylor^ 
Thomas  Stanley  and  Jane  Summers  In  Mosa,  Wm.  Holliday,  Kobert 
Shearer,  Finley  Munroe  and  D.  Sinclair.  In  Caradoc,  L  0.  Kearney 
and  Wm.  Moore.  In  Aldborough,  Arch.  Currie.  Donald  Currie,  Eobert 
Mowbray  and  Daniel  McVicker.  In  Westminster,  Lewis  M.  Covert, 
Adam  Murray,  James  Aiken,  Wm,  Crinklaw  and  Edward  Potts.  In 
Lobo,  John  Campbell,  Donald  McCrae,  Wm.  Munro,  John  Jefferson 
and  Harriet  Eastwood.  Of  the  two  schools  in  Delaware,  M.  S.  Ayres 
presided  over  one  of  35  pupils  for  193  days,  his  pay  being  £9  8s.  2d., 
or  about  $47,  out  of  the  school  fund,  together  with  subscriptions. 
Among  the  teachers,  of  what  is  now  Middlesex,  in  1842-3,  who  did  not 
receive  moneys  from  the  school  fund  that  year,  were  John  Eoss  and 


Nelson  Eastwood,  of  Lobo ;  Arthur  L.  Triller  and  Wra.  Livingstone, 
of  Caradoc ;  William  McClary,  Hiram  Schenick,  A.  Dunbar,  Sabina 
Manning,  Leonard  Bisbee  and  Joseph  Hodgson,  of  Westminster; 
Launcelot  Waller,  Joseph  E.  Smith,  Stephen  J.  Lancaster,  Augusta 
Brewster,  0.  N.  Donbe  and  Mr.  Willis,  of  Dorchester,  and  John 
Downer,  of  Adelaide.  John  Wilson,  afterward  Justice  Wilson,  was 
General  Superintendent  of  the  District  Schools  in  1844,  but  he  resign- 
ing in  May,  1845,  and  William  Elliot,  present  County  Judge,  was 
appointed  by  the  Council,  and  held  the  position  until  its  abolition 
under  the  school  law  of  1850. 

The  first  appointments  of  school  superintendents  appear  to  have 
been  made  Feb.  15,  1844.  They  are  named  as  follows: — John  Beck- 
ton,  Mosa ;  Daniel  McFarlane,  Esq.,  Ekfrid ;  Eev.  D.  E.  Blake,  Ade- 
laide ;  Crowell  Wilson,  London ;  James  Campbell,  Aldborough ;  Alex. 
Strathy,  Westminster ;  Ben.  Springer,  Delaware ;  Daniel  Harvey, 
Yarmouth ;  Duncan  McKellar,  Caradoc ;  Wm.  Veitch,  Bayham  ;  David 
Abel,  Malahide ;  Wm.  Benson,  Dunwich  ;  Thomas  Hussey,  Southwold  ; 
W.  H.  Niles,  Dorchester,  and  Alex.  Sinclair,  Lobo. 

In  1847  there  were  seven  public  schools  in  Adelaide,  the  teachers 
of  which  received  £190;  five  in  Caradoc,  £210;  five  in  Delaware, 
£156 ;  sixteen  in  Dorchester,  £348  ;  seven  in  Ekfrid,  £202  ;  eleven  in 
Lobo,  £472 ;  five  in  London  town,  £450 ;  twenty-five  in  London 
Township,  £760  ;  four  in  Metcalfe,  £120;  six  in  Mosa,  £264;  seven-, 
teen  in  Westminster,  £656 ;  eight  in  Williams,  £130. 

In  1847  the  office  of  Township  School  Superintendent  was  abol- 
ished, but  revived  in  1851,  and  continued  until  1871. 

In  1850  Edmund  Sheppard  was  appointed  Local  School  Superin- 
tendent for  North  and  South  Dorchester  on  recommendation  of  Judge 
Elliot,  who  was  then  District  Superintendent.  In  1850  the  Board  of 
Public  Instruction  for  Middlesex  and  Elgin  was  organized,  with  Messrs. 
French,  Bishop  Cronyn  and  John  Wilson,  of  London ;  Silcox,  of  South- 
wold,  and  Edmund  Sheppard  members. 

Under  the  law  reviving  the  office  of  Township  Superintendent, 
Eevs.  J.  Skinner,  J.  Gunn,  W.  A.  Clarke,  W.  Sutherland,  E.  Flood,  C. 
C.  Brough,  J.  Gordon  and  G.  Grant,  with  Messrs.  James  Armstrong, 
Geo.  W.  Eoss,  William  Taylor,  Adam  Murray,  and  few  others,  named 
in  the  list  of  1855-6  were  appointed. 

In  1852  the  school  population  was  9,482 ;  the  number  of  schools 
133 ;  average  attendance,  3,314 ;  number  of  teachers,  137 ;  average 
salary  of  male  teachers,  $235 ;  of  female,  $116  ;  and  total  amount  ex- 
pended, $20,235.  In  1862  there  were  16,280  pupils,  entailing  a  total 
expenditure  of  $49,497 ;  and,  in  1872,  19,454  pupils,  the  expenditure 
being  $99,205. 

The  school  superintendents  in  1855  were  Joseph  Spettigue,  Eev. 
W.  K.  Sutherland,  A.  Campbell,  Eev.  James  Skinner,  Adam  Murray, 
Eevs.  C.  C.  Brough  and  John  Gunu,  with  E.  P.  Toothe,  John  Johnson 
and  Charles  Hardie. 


During  the  January  Session  of  1856  the  following  superintendents 
of  schools  were  appointed : — A.  Campbell,  Rev.  Skinner,  Rev.  C.  C. 
Brough,  Adam  Murray,  Rev.  Sutherland,  Rev.  Wm.  Ames,  George 
Richardson,  Charles  Hardie,  Rev.  Richard  Saul  and  Donald  Cameron. 
In  1857  John  Cameron,  Revs.  Flood  and  Deese,  John  Carey  and 
William  McClutchey,  with  the  ministers  above  named,  and  Messrs. 
Hardie  and  Murray  were  superintendents. 

From  the  list  given  in  1858,  it  appears  that  Rev.  Edward  Sullivan 
presided  over  Lobo  and  London ;  Rev.  A.  S.  Falls,  Strathroy ;  Rev. 
McEwen,  Westminster;  Robert  Stevenson,  of  Williams  East,  and 
John  A.  Scoone,  Williams  West.  The  names  of  Reverends  Deese,. 
Flood,  J.  Skinner,  Gunn  and  Inglis,  with  Messrs.  A.  Campbell,  D. 
P.  Aylesworth,  R.  Campbell  and  Charles  Hardie  are  also  given.  In 
1859-60  the  only  change  made  in  school  superintendents  was  the 
appointment  of  Alexander  Levie  over  the  schools  of  Williams. 
Among  the  school  superintendents  of  1861  were  Edward  Handy,  of 
Caradoc;  Rev.  N.  McKinnon,  of  Mosa,  in  opposition  to  Rev.  Gunn, 
James  Burns,  of  Westminster,  and  Rev.  A.  S.  Falls  of  Metcalfe. 
Otherwise  the  list  of  1859-60  was  unchanged. 

The  list  of  1862  gives  the  following  names : — Wm.  Deese,  Edward 
Handy,  Rev.  R.  Flood,  James  *  Yenning,  R.  Campbell,  sr,  Rev.  J. 
Skinner,  E.  Sullivan,  A.  S.  Falls,  John  Gunn,  Charles  Hardie,  J.  A. 
Scoone,  Rev.  R.  Stephenson,  James  Armstrong,  Dr.  Cowan.  In  1863 
Dr.  Francis  was  appointed  school  superintendent  of  Delaware ;  John 
Atkinson,  of  Biddulph ;  Wm.  Fletcher,  of  McGillivray ;  Thomas  Urer 
of  Lobo,  and  John  P.  Du  Moulin,  of  London.  Otherwise  the  list  of 
1862  was  the  same. 

The  superintendents  of  1864  were : — John  A.  Scoone,  Rev.  E. 
Saunders,  Ed.  Handy,  Dr.  Francis,  Rev.  Debarre,  Rev.  W.  R.  Suther- 
land, Rev.  J.  Skinner,  J.  P.  DuMoulin,  Rev.  A.  Stewart,  Rev.  J.  Gunn, 
Rev.  W.  Fletcher,  C.  Hardie,  James  Armstrong,  R.  Stephenson  and  A. 

The  school  superintendents  in  1865  appointed  were: — Reverends 
A.  S.  Falls,  E.  Saunders,  G.  Grant,  of  Delaware ;  L.  Debarres,  W.  R. 
Sutherland,  James  Skinner,  Wm.  Taylor,  A.  Stewart,  Wm.  Fletcher, 
John  Gunn,  Charles  Hardie,  James  Armstrong,  James  Campbell,  and 
Robert  Stephens. 

The  local  school  superintendents  appointed  in  January,  1866,  are 
named  as  follows :— Rev.  John  Gunn,  Mosa;  Rev.  W.  R.  Sutherland, 
Ekfnd ;  James  Campbell,  East  Williams ;  Rev.  Geo.  Grant,  Delaware  ; 
R.  P.  Toothe,  and  Rev.  A.  S.  Falls,  Adelaide ;  Rev.  Wm.  Fletcher,  Mc- 
Gillivray ;  Edward  Handy,  Caradoc ;  Charles  Hardie,  Nissouri ;  Wm. 
Taylor,  London;  Dr.  McCaw,  West  Williams ;  James  Armstrong, 
Westminster ;  Rev.  T.  E.  Sanders,  Biddulph  ;  Rev.  E.  Walker,  Lobo ; 
Hanson  Thompson,  Metcalfe  ;  Rev.  James  Gordon,  North  Dorchester ; 
and  m  1867,  Rev.  A.  S.  Falls,  Rev.  E.  Sanders,  Edward  Handy,  Rev. 
Geo.  Grant,  T.  D.  Keffer,  Rev.  W.  R.  Sutherland,  J.  T.  A.  S.  Fayett, 


Wm.  Taylor,  Harrison  Thompson,  Rev.  A.  Stewart,  Eev.  W.  Fletcher, 
Charles  Hardie,  Rev.  J.  McLeod,  Dr.  McCaw  and  J.  Armstrong. 

The  changes  in  school  superintendents  in  1868  were  : — Rev.  James 
Gordon  of  Dorchester ;  James  Young,  of  London ;  Rev.  W.  Fletcher, 
of  McGillivray  and  Lobo ;  Dr.  M.  Foster,  of  Nissouri ;  Geo.  W.  Ross,, 
of  East  Williams  ;  and  A.  M.  Ross,  of  Westminster. 

The  school  superintendents  for  1869,  in  the  order  of  township,  are 
named  as  follows : — Rev.  James  Donaldson ;  Rev.  E.  Sanders  ;  E. 
Handy,  Rev.  Geo.  Grant,  Rev.  James  Gordon,  Rev.  W.  R.  Suther- 
land ;  G.  W.  Ross,  Joseph  Young,  Harrison  Thompson,  Rev.  A.  Stew- 
art, Dr.  McKinnon,  Dr.  Foster,  G.  W.  Ross,  Charles  Munroe,  and  Rev. 
Geo.  Simpson. 

The  only  changes  from  1869  in  the  list  of  school  superintendents 
for  1870  are  Duncan  Leitch,  of  Metcalfe ;  Dr.  McAlpin,  of  McGilliv- 
ray, and  Rev.  R.  Hall,  of  Nissouri  W.  The  superintendents  of  1869 
in  the  other  townships  were  re-appointed.  The  only  changes  from 
1870  in  the  list  of  school  superintendents  for  1871  are  as  follows : — 
J.  R.  Armitage,  appointed  for  Biddulph;  Rev.  Mr.  Davis,  for  Mc- 
Gillivray ;  and  Rev.  J.  Pritchard,  for  Williams  West. 

The  Eastern  School  Circuit,  established  under  the  act  of  February 
15,  1871,  by  the  Council  in  June  that  year,  embraced  Biddulph,  Nis- 
souri, Dorchester  N.,  Westminster,  London  and  Delaware.  The 
Western  Circuit  then  established  comprised  Lobo,  Caradoc,  'Ekfrid, 
Mosa,  Metcalfe,  McGillivray,  Adelaide,  East  and  West  Williams,  with 
Wardsville  and  Strathroy  villages.  S.  P.  Groat  was  elected  inspector 
for  the  Eastern  and  J.  C.  Glashan  for  the  Western  Circuit,  each  claim- 
ing 77  schools.  S.  P.  Groat,  School  Inspector  of  Division  No.  2,  re- 
signed Dec.  1,  1874,  and  John  Dearness  was  appointed  temporarily, 
and  the  same  day  was  appointed  regularly. 

In  the  East  Middlesex  District,  of  which  John  Dearness  reported  in 
June,  1874,  the  enrollment  was  9,425,  54  male  and  40  female  teachers. 
Westminster  paid  the  highest  salary,  $520,  the  other  townships  pay- 
ing $500 ;  but  the  highest  average  salary,  $448,  was  paid  by  Bid- 
dulph. He  speaks  of  $59,485.57,  representing  the  expenditure  for 
school  purposes  in  his  district  in  1877,  as  being  $336.96  less  than  the 
amount  expended  in  1876,  and  further  states  that  the  only  teachers 
presiding  over  the  same  schools,  in  1878  as  in  1875,  were  Alex. 
McMillan  and  Kate  Sproat,  of  Biddulph;  J.  A.  Lyman  and  Flora, 
McCall,  of  Westminster,  and  W.  D.  Eckert  and  A.  Stock,  of  London 
East.  In  his  report  for  1879  he  points  out  the  total  expenditures 
as  $59,494.28 ;  the  total  enrollment.  9,548. 

Inspector  J.  S.  Carson,  of  the  West  Middlesex  School  District,  re- 
porting in  1878,  speaks  harshly  of  the  poor  qualifications  of  Middlesex, 
teachers  of  1877.  The  97  schools,  employing  110  teachers,  claimed 
five  teachers  holding  first  class  old  county  board  certificates,  38  pro- 
vincial and  67  the  lowest  legal  grade.  Lobo  paid  the  highest  salaries, 
$400  annually  to  female  and  $575  to  male  teachers.  There  were- 

184  HISTORY   OF    THE 

43  brick  school  buildings  and  54  frame  ones.  The  denominational 
character  of  the  teachers  shows  47  Presbyterians,  33  Methodists,  12 
English  Church,  10  Baptists,  five  Catholics  and  three  Disciples.  In 
his  report  of  June,  1879,  he  places  the  expenditure  in  1878  at 
$62,77*4.41,  including  charges  to  capital  account,  or  $48,450.08,  being 
$5.38  per  registered  pupil.  There  were  56  provincial  teachers,  47 
third  class,  and  seven  old  county  board  teachers  employed,  the  aver- 
age salary  being  $291  for  female  teachers. 

Mr.  Carson,  reporting  for  the  year  ending  December  31,  1879, 
states,  that  the  nine  townships  and  five  incorporated  villages  in  his 
division  had  43  brick  and  55  frame  buildings ;  72  male  and  40  female 
teachers  presiding  over  8,232  pupils.  The  total  sum  paid  teachers  was 
$41,253.39,  and,  for  other  items,  $6,916.84.  He  complained  bitterly 
of  the  extent  and  obscenity  of  inscriptions  and  caricatures  on  the  walls 
of  school  buildings.  Inspector  Dearness,  of  East  Middlesex,  reported 
an  enrollment  of  9,260  pupils,  and  a  total  expenditure  of  $53,643.71. 
At  the  close  of  1874  there  were  two  of  the  old  log  school  buildings  in 
London  Township  and  three  in  Biddulph.  No.  10  was  replaced  by  a 
frame  house,  and  old  15,  in  London,  was  unused  in  1879.  In  Biddulph 
the  Langford  log  school-house  was  broken  up,  the  Atkinson  log  school- 
house  was  boarded  on  the  outside,  while  the  Donnelly  school,  then 
the  largest  log  house  in  the  county,  was  burned.  The  school  law  of 
1871  is  responsible  for  such  improvement. 

Inspector  Carson  reported  in  1881  an  enrollment  of  8,248  pupils 
in  his  district,  at  a  cost  per  capita  of  $6.20  for  the  year  1880,  the  total 
outlay  being  $51,155.50.  Of  the  99  school  buildings,  not  one  was 
erected  that  year.  There  were  112  teachers,  70  males  and  42  females, 
presiding  over  3,760  pupils,  or  46  per  cent,  of  the  enrollment. 

John  Dearness,  of  Division  No.  2,  reported  a  total  expenditure  of 
$51,790.81,  of  which  teachers  received  $42,084.43.  The  number  of 
pupils  enrolled  was  9,228,  showing  a  male  majority  of  834. 

The  report  of  Inspector  Carson  for  1881  gives  $51,148.48  as  the 
amount  expended  for  school  purposes  in  the  Western  Division  and  the 
number  of  schools  97.  Of  7,923  pupils  enrolled,  only  3,619  attended 
school  over  100  days.  There  were  113  teachers  employed,  at  an  aver- 
age salary  for  males  of  $429  and  for  females  of  $300. 

The  report  on  the  Eastern  Division  by  Inspector  Dearness  shows 
an  expenditure  of  $50,727.39.  There  were  63  male  teachers  and  27 
female  teachers  employed,  where  in  1874  there  were  47  male  and  42 
female  teachers.  The  enrollment  of  9,177  shows  a  male  majority  of 

Inspector  Carson,  in  his  report  for  the  year  ending  Dec.  31,  1882, 
shows  $53,302.94  expended  in  the  Western  School  Division,  or  $6.70 
per  capita.  He  fails  not  to  notice  that  Middlesex  expended  more  on 
schools  in  1882  than  any  other  county  in  Ontario,  $114,622.82,  of 
which  the  sum  of  $85,378.71  was  expended  on  teachers'  salaries,  being 
#5,432.69  over  the  highest  sum  paid  by  any  other  county.  In  his 



division  7,701  pupils  were  enrolled,  of  whom  3,603  attended,  or  47 
per  centum.  There  were  51  frame  and  45  brick  school  buildings. 
Inspector  Dearness  shows  a  total  expenditure  of  $62,184.80  in  the 
Eastern  Division  on  an  enrollment  of  9,026.  There  were  57  male 
teachers  employed  at  an  average  salary  of  $384  and  54  female  teachers 
at  $240,  while  the  average  attendance  was  about  47.9. 

In  1883,  $54,591.04  were  expended  on  the  schools  of  the  Western 
Division,  of  which  $43,615.83  represented  teachers'  salaries.  The 
number  of  pupils  enrolled  was  7,340,  or  3,837  boys  and  3,503  girls. 
Seventy  male  and  40  female  teachers  were  employed.  In  this  year  a 
new  house  was  erected  in  McGillivray.  In  the  Eastern  Division  the 
enumeration  was  8,715,  4,703  boys  and  4,012  girls,  and  the  cost  of 
education  was  $6.08  per  capita.  The  total  expenditure  was  $55,684  31. 
Inspector  Carson's  report  on  the  Western  Division  schools  for  1884 
gives  $55,065.72  as  total  expenditure,  or  $7.71  per  capita,  based  on  an 
enumeration  of  7,145,  3,767  boys  and  3.378  girls.  One  hundred  and 
eleven  teachers  were  employed.  In  the  Eastern  Division  a  total 
expenditure  of  $60,345.27  was  reported.  The  enumeration  shows 
8,610  pupils,  of  whom  49  per  cent,  attended.  The  Western  District 
report  for  1885  shows  an  expenditure  of  $50,949.50,  or  a  cost  per  pupil 
of  $7.07.  In  Strathroy  and  Mosa  the  cost  was  $6.32  and  $5.57 
respectively.  The  average  salary  paid  male  teachers  was  $442  and 
female  teachers  $319.  The  school  population  was  8,002,  while  the 
average  attendance  was  4,073  ;  Strathroy  showing  478,  of  800  enrolled, 
attending.  During  the  year  131  teachers  were  employed.  In  the 
Eastern  District  the  enrollment  was  7,550,  while  the  attendance  was 
50.44  per  cent.  The  total  expenditures  amounted  to  $51,746  50,  The 
average  salary  paid  male  teachers  was  $447  and  female  teachers  $308. 
The  highest  salary  paid  any  teacher  was  $600  in  Nissouri.  The 
expenditure  for  1886  in  the  Western. District  was  $68,561.74,  Strath- 
roy contributing  $8,987.51  and  Parkhill  $2,588.22  of  the  total.  There 
were  122  teachers  employed  at  an  average  cost  of  $561.98,  and  an 
average  salary  of  $435.40  for  male  teachers  and  $320.90  for  female 
teachers.  The  enrollment  was  7,884  while  the  attendance  was  over 
51  per  cent.  In  the  Eastern  District  the  total  expenditure  amounted 
to  $58,814.55.  The  number  of  pupils  enrolled  was  7,644  while  the 
attendance  was  a  little  over  one-half.  The  number  of  rural  school- 
buildings  was  88.  The  average  salary  paid  male  teachers  was  $444 
and  female  teachers  $308.  One  of  the  events  of  the  year  worthy  of 
note,  was  the  establishment  of  a  kindergarten  (the  first  in  this  part 
of  the  Province)  in  London  South  (S.  S.  No.  2,  Westminster). 

In  1799  Mr.  Strachan,  afterwards  Bishop  Strachan,  arrived  from 
•Scotland,  with  the  object  of  taking  charge  of  the  college  which 
Governor  Simcoe  desired  to  establish  in  connection  with  the  English 
Church.  Simcoe  was  gone,  and  the  subject  of  the  college  slept.  A 
.year  after,  Richard  Cartwright,  referred  to  in  the  political  history,  gave 
Mr.  Strachan  charge  of  the  education  of  his  four  sons,  with  the  privi- 


lege  of  taking  ten  more  pupils  at  the  rate  of  $50  each  per  year.  In 
1803  Mr.  Strachan  moved  to  Cornwall,  whither  thirteen  of  his  pupils 
followed.  Educational  matters  claimed  much  of  his  attention,  and  on 
March  15,  1827,  the  University  of  King's  College  was  chartered,  with 
nine  officers,  members  of  the  Church  of  England.  This  denominational 
feature  was  removed  in  1842-3,  and  a  Secular  College  established. 
The  Eoyal  Grammar  School  became  incorporated  with  the  Upper 
Canada  College  in  1829.  From  such  beginnings  spread  forth  the  several 
Collegiate  Institutes  which  are  now  found  in  Western  Ontario.  Insti- 
tutions for  the  higher  education  of  women  were  begun  at  Sand- 
wich by  the  Sisters  of  the  Sacred  Heart  early  in  the  fifties,  and,  later, 
continued  at  London,  where,  still  later,  Hellmuth  Ladies'  College  was 
established.  In  the  history  of  London  City,  sketches  of  the  common 
schools  and  higher  educational  institutions  are  given. 




The  building  of  a  road  through  the  district  where  London  now 
stands  was  ordered  in  1817.  The  line  had  previously  been  surveyed 
by  Government  officials,  and  it  remained  then  for  men  to  turn  out  and 
lay  down  the  rude  "  corduroy,"  over  which  the  settler's  cart  rattled  and 
bumped  for  twenty  years  afterwards.  The  first  entry  in  the  road 
register  was  made  by  John  B.  Askin,  under  an  order  of  Session,  dated 
January  12,  1822.  The  entry  shows  an  examination  by  A.  A.  Rapelje, 
surveyor  for  the  Townships  of  Walpole  and  Rainham,  of  a  road  from 
the  bank  of  Lake  Erie,  on  the  eastern  line  of  Rainham  Township  to  the 
western  limits  of  the  Township  of  Walpole.  Richard  Bristol,  deputy 
surveyor,  laid  out  a  road  January  11,  1821,  from  the  line  between  lots 
5  and  6  Talbot  street,  to  the  conflux  of  Otter  Creek  and  Lake  Erie. 
On  March  20,  1822,  a  road  in  the  Township  of  Bayham  was  surveyed 
on  land  granted  to  His  Majesty  by  William  Hatch,  Thomas  Neville, 
&nd  Nathan  Gas  well,  residents  of  Bayham,  then  in  the  County  of 
Middlesex.  On  this  date  John  Bostwick,  surveyor,  reported  that  a 
road  from  the  mouth  of  Kettle  Creek  to  Talbot  road,  surveyed  in  1821, 
was  impracticable,  at  least  from  Goodhue's  mill  to  their  still  house, 
and  lie  asked  the  magistrates  to  alter  said  road  so  as  to  run  from  the 
mill  by  the  house  of  Daniel  Rapelje,  and  thence  to  the  summit  of  the 
hill,  keeping  along  the  brow  across  the  lands  of  William  Drake.  Later 
in  1822,  John  Saxton,  of  Bayham,  presented  the  following  letter  to  the 
magistrates  of  Quarter  Sessions  : — "  Whereas,  James  Hutcheson  has 
made  application  to  me  to  look  over  the  ground  that  Col.  Burwell 
surveyed  from  No.  16  to  Big  Otter  Creek,  and  the  line  that  Mr. 
Hazen  run  :  I  do  hereby  certify  that  I  find  the  Hazen  line  to  be  on 
the  best  ground  and  easiest  made  a  comfortable  road." 

In  September,  1822,  Samuel  Smith,  surveyor,  recommended  altera- 
tion of  the  road  on  the  West  Branch  of  Kettle  Creek,  so  as  to  pass 
through  the  lands  of  John  Mitchell,  the  Hamiltons,  J.  Warren  and 
Henry  Reamy  to  the  Talbot  road  east.  In  July,  1823,  Surveyor  Jos. 
Lemon  laid  out  a  road  along  the  Charlotte ville  town  line. 

Peter  Lossing  explored  a  road  from  the  front  of  the  3rd  Conces- 
sion of  Norwich  to  Cromwell  and  Schooley's  Mills.  In  September, 
1824,  Timothy  Kilbourn  examined  the  Proof  Line  in  London  from  the 
north-east  corner  of  the  12th  Concession  to  the  mill  creek  crossing  of 
the  llth  Concession  line.  On  December  3,  1824,  John  Saxton  sur- 
veyed a  road  in  the  Townships  of  Bayham  and  Malahide,  from  lot  7 
on  the  oth  Concession  and  No.  6  on  the  4th  to  Joel  Tyrrell's,  via  Henry 
Ribble's,  John  Coil's  and  Aaron  Tyrrell's.  Surveyor  James  Carroll 
laid  out  roads  in  Dereham  and  Norwich  in  1825.  Roswell  Mount 



surveyed,  in  March,  1826,  a  road  nearly  parallel  with  an  allowance  for 
a  road  between  the  3rd  and  4th  Concessions  of  London,  one  beginning 
in  the  centre  of  the  4th  Concession  and  one  beginning  in  the  eastern 
limit  of  the  road  allowance  between  lots  8  and  9  in  the  3rd  Concession. 
At  this  time  there  was  a  bridge  across  the  North  Branch. 

In  Nov.  1827,  Surveyor  Mount  laid  out  a  road  commencing  on  the 
west  side  of  the  East  Branch  bridge,  near  the  south-east  angle  of 
London  Township,  and  also  other  roads  in  London,  Carradoc  and  Lobo. 
He  reported  the  line  of  a  road  in  Lobo  impracticable  by  reason  of  its 
crossing  Silver  Creek  several  times.  In  October,  1827,  John  Bostwick 
examined  a  road  from  the  Dereham  furnace  to  the  Talbot  road,  so  as 
to  intersect  that  road  between  lots  15  and  16  in  Bay  ham.  In  Decem- 
ber, 1827,  a  petition  was  presented  representing  the  necessity  of  a  new 
road  from  the  Commissioners'  Eoad  to  the  bridge  at  the  forks  of  the 
Thames.  In  November,  1827,  Mr.  Mount  surveyed  a  road  from  a 
point  near  the  centre  of  the  3rd  Concession  of  Lobo,  beginning  on 
the  bank  of  a  large  creek  and  along  the  bank  to  the  front  of  the  con- 

In  November,  1827,  a  petition  to  the  Justices  represented  the 
necessity  of  a  road  from  Burleigh  Hunt's  store,  on  the  Commissioners' 
Road  in  Westminster,  to  the  side-road  between  lots  24  and  25,  on  the 
Thames  in  London,  across  the  bridge,  and  over  the  river  at  Gardiner's 
mill  in  Westminster,  and  again  from  the  bridge  to  the  Government 
road  at  Frank's  place.  This  was  surveyed  by  Roswell  Mount.  In 
December,  1827,  a  road  was  surveyed  between  lots  18  and  19,  in 
Westminster,  to  Watters  &  Lamore's  mill,  on  the  rear  part  of  lot  18, 
1st  Concession.  There  was  a  road  surveyed  from  the  mill  along  the 
south  side  of  the  pond ;  also  a  road  from  Tiffany's  mill  in  Delaware  to 
the  north  branch  of  Talbot  road,  to  come  out  near  Dingman's  farm  on 
that  road.  Sylvanus  Reynolds,  foreman  of  a  jury  to  examine  the 
ground  donated  for  a  Government  road  through  the  Township  of  Dela- 
ware, declared  that  the  route  is  impracticable,  and  asked  for  re-location. 
In  July,  1828,  Surveyor  John  Bostwick  laid  out  roads  in  the 
Catfish  Creek  neighborhood,  in  Malahide  and  Yarmouth,  while  Peter 
Lossing  made  re-surveys  in  Burford,  Wingham  and  Norwich,  to  facilitate 
travel  to  and  from  the  Norwich  saw  and  grist  mill.  Wm.  K.  Cornish 
surveyed  a  road  from  the  centre  of  Townsend  Township  to  the  Indian 
lands  at  the  mouth  of  Patterson's  Creek.  In  March,  1829,  a  road 
from  the  4th  Concession  of  London,  to  the  Thames  bridge  at  B.  Wood- 
hull's  mills,  in  Lobo,  was  laid  out  by  Roswell  Mount,  part  of  it  follow- 
ing the  old  Mill  Creek  Road.  In  April,  1829,  a  street  was  laid  out  by 
Mr.  Mount  for  Dr.  Tiffany  near  his  mills  in  Delaware  village.  About 
this  time  a  road  from  Woodhull's  mill,  in  Lobo,  to  the  Longwoods 
Road,  in  Caradoc,  at  a  point  near  James  Craig's  farm,  was  surveyed 
by  Mount. 

On  January  13,  1830,  the  Court  of  Quarter  Sessions  resolved  :— 
'  If  the  members  of  each  division  of  roads  were  to  furnish  for  their 


divisions  a  proper  scraper  for  furrowing  and  repairing  the  roads  (to  be 
kept  in  possession  of  the  roadmasters  for  the  time  being),  it  would  add 
greatly  to  the  effect  of  the  statute  labor,  as  well  as  to  the  ease  and 
comfort  of  the  inhabitants.  This  might  be  carried  into  complete  effect 
by  small  subscriptions  in  wheat  delivered  to  persons  who  would  get 
the  scrapers  made  in  the  course  of  the  winter,  and  the  court  strongly 
recommends  this  measure  to  the  adoption  of  the  inhabitants  generally.'* 

The  act  of  March  6,  1830,  granted  £1,100  to  the  London  District 
to  be  expended  on  roads  and  bridges.  The  Commissioners  named  were 
Daniel  McCall,  Ezekiel  Foster,  Jacob  Potts,  jr.,  Wm.  Lymburner, 
Elial  Martin,  Thomas  J.  Homer,  Eobert  Alway,  Jacob  Kain,  John 
Hatch,  Hiram  D.  Lee,  Capt.  Marvel  White,  Thomas  McCall  and  Geo. 

On  March  16,  1831,  £2.000  were  granted  by  Pa.rliament  to  the 
London  District  to  be  expended  on  roads  and  bridges.  The  several 
Commissioners  were  Leslie  Patterson,  of  Dunwich ;  Ewen  McKinley; 
of  Aldborough  ;  George  Wilson,  Andrew  Dobie  and  Isaac  Draper,  of 
what  is  now  Elgin ;  John  O'Neil  and  Henry  Sherwick,  of  Westminster ; 
Duncan  McKenzie,  Wm.  Kobertson  and  James  Parkinson,  of  London ; 
Dudley  Merrill  and  Linus  Forbes,  of  London  ;•  Eoswell  Mount,  James 
Craig  and  Singleton  Gardiner,  of  Caradoc,  Ekfrid  and  Mosa;  Benj. 
Wilson  and  James  Neville,  of  St.  Thomas  and  Port  Stanley ;  Finlay 
Malcolm,  John  Kelly  and  Peter  Sackrider,  of  Norwich;  G.  W.  White- 
head,  Geo.  Higson  and  Michael  Stover,  for  road  from  Whitehead's,  in 
Burford,  to  the  Quaker  meeting-house  in  Norwich ;  John  Weir,  Richard 
Brawn  and  John  Kern,  for  road  in  Burford ;  John  Hatch,  Jacob  Kern 
and  Hugh  McDermid,  of  London  and  Oxford ;  Daniel  Carrol  and  Jas. 
Ingersoll,  North  Oxford ;  S.  Huckett,  P.  Hayle  and  Wm.  Reynolds,  for 
the  Dereham  furnace  road ;  John  Phalan,  L.  Charles,  J.  Smith,  Thos. 
Roach,  J.  M.  McLeod,  Michael  Showers,  Peter  Bastedo,  D.  Burns,  H. 
Graham,  J.  Austin,  P.  Beemer,  R.  Potts,  F.  Sovereen,  R.  Richardson, 
Elijah  Doan,  0.  Maybee,  C.  Dederick,  G.  Culver  and  M.  Tisdale. 

On  April  2, 1830,  a  road  from  the  west  side  of  Ridout  street,  in  the 
northern  limit  of  the  allowance  for  road  north  of  the  town  plot  of 
London,  to  the  Proof  Line  of  London  Township,  was  surveyed  by  Ros- 
well  Mount. 

In  April,  1831,  Peter  Carroll  re-surveyed  the  road  between  the 
llth  and  12th  Concession  of  Nissouri,  extending  from  a  point  opposite 
the  bridge  over  the  middle  branch  of  the  Thames.  At  this  time  a  road 
from  the  Commissioners'  Road,  on  a  line  between  lots  44  and  45  to 
Stillman  Old's  tanyard,  and  thence  to  McMillan's  bridge,  was  surveyed 
by  Wm.  K.  Cornish. 

In  June,  1831,  the  road  through  the  long  woods  was  altered  in 
Ekfrid,  so  as  to  avoid  the  six  old  fords  on  the  Ten-mile  Creek  and  the 
two  long  fords  on  Eighteen-mile  Creek.  In  Mosa  Township  the  road 
was  changed  from  the  bridge  over  Twenty -mile  Creek  to  the  old  road 
in  front  of  lot  6,  thus  avoiding  two  hills  and  two  fords. 


Wharncliff  road  was  surveyed  by  Peter  Carroll  early  in  1831,  but 
re-surveyed  on  a  new  route  in  September  that  year  by  M.  Burwell, 
shortening  the  old  route  two  and  three-quarter  miles,  and  avoiding  the 
hills  on  the  old  road. 

In  early  years  the  Government  opened  a  road  on  the  survey  of 
B.  B.  Brigham,  from  a  point  between  lots  22  and  23  on  the  first  range 
north  of  the  Longwoods  road  in  Caradoc  to  the  town  of  Adelaide. 

In  July,  1833,  Richard  Brown  surveyed  a  road  from  the  north  side 
of  Forbes'  bridge  over  the  Thames  westward  through  Forbes'  orchard, 
Willson's  house  and  orchard,  to  the  south-west  corner  of  Concession  4, 
A,  in  the  broken  front,  Township  of  London  ;  thence  diagonally  across 
numbers  5  and  6,  in  Concession  A,  keeping  the  height  of  land  to  D. 
Merrill's  saw  mill  darn ;  thence  up  the  hill  to  Concession  B  in  London. 
A  road  was  also  surveyed  through  the  1st  Concession  of  Westmin- 
ster, south  between  lots  9  and  8  to  the  Commissioners'  Road,  and  one 
from  the  south  side  of  the  bridge,  east  along  the  river  bank  to  Norton's 
grist  mill ;  thence  round  the  pond  and  across  the  lands  of  Hiram 

In  November,  1842,  the  Council  petitioned  Hamilton  H.  Killaly, 
President  of  the  Board  of  Works  of  the  Province  of  Ontario,  drawing 
his  attention  to  the  dangerous  state  of  the  bridge  over  the  Thames  at 
the  stage  road  crossing  in  Delaware  Township.  This  improvement 
was  asked  for  in  view  of  the  proposed  Provincial  Plank  Road,  which,  it 
was  alleged,  would  be  built  along  that  route. 

Toll  Roads.— On  Sept.  1,1850,  £3,700  were  paid  to  the  Provincial 
Government  for  the  Port  Stanley  Road.  In  December,  1850,  a  lease 
of  tolls  on  the  system  of  government  roads  was  issued  to  Nov.  30, 
1851,  for  £824.  The  county  also  purchased  the  Delaware  bridge  for 
£100,  and  the  Brantford  roads  for  £700,  the  sum  being  payable  in 
ten  years  at  five  per  cent. 

In  response  to  a  motion  by  Richard  Tooley  and  John  Kearns, 
made  December  10,  1869,  the  following  statement  of  the  length  in 
miles,  amount  of  income  derived  from  tolled  roads,  and  county  rate 
paid  from  January  1, 1852  to  December  31, 1868,  inclusive,  was  made  : 


Adelaide 6        Sarnia  road $    2,460  97  $  58,698  76 

Caradoc 6        Longwoods  road 7, 282  34  71,187  80 

Delaware 4        Longwoods  road 4,44885  44,87114 

Delaware 2  Delaware  and  Lobo  br.  road.  336  58  ... 

Dorchester  North..  2§  Westminster  &  Dorchester  rd.  1,93299  92,25455 

Dorchester  North . .  3        Governor's  road 2,615  70             

Dorchester  North . .  9£       Brantford  road 11, 184  14             

Dorchester  North . .  11       Elgin  road 1,737  56             

Lobo , 8        Sarnia  road 12,56374  91,60696 

Lobo 7  1-7  Lobo  and  Williams  road 1,32176             

Lobo 1£  Delaware  and  Lobo  br.  road..  336  58             

London 6        Sarnia  road 29,32066  266,72331 

London 14£  Adelaide  st.  &  between  8  &  9.  6,96061             

Carried  forward $82,502  48 



Brought  forward $  82,502  48 

London 5  Governor's  road 14,11869             

London 5J  Brantford  road 14,38106             

Mosa 5  Haggarty  road 6,282  63  68,575  75 

Nissouri  West 7|  Wyton  road 3,54096  76,66698 

Nissouri  West 3  Governor's  road 2,615  69 

Westminster 2£  Brantford  road 14,14090  195,19217 

Westminster 2  Longwoods  road 9,15656             

Westminster 14  Port  Stanley  road 64,002  21             

Westminster 2§  Westminster  &  Dorchester  rd.  1,932  98             

Westminster 5|  Wellington  bridge  road 12, 525  87             

Williams  East 2|  Lobo  and  Williams  road 816  46  34, 706  96 

$226,015  59 

In  addition  to  the  sums  paid  the  local  municipalities  given  above, 
Ekfrid  paid  $58,535.09;  Metcalfe,  $41,045.15;  Williams  East  $27,- 
583.09  ;  Williams  West,  $24,629.89;  Biddulph,  1863-68,  $6,230.55 ; 
McGillivray,  1863-68,  $8,117.70;  Strathroy,  1860-68,  $9,983.56; 
and  Wardsville,  $447. 

In  June,  1851,  Freeman  Talbot,  County  Engineer,  reported  on  a  road 
from  the  Proof  Line  of  London  Township  to  the  western  boundary  of 
Adelaide.  In  view  of  a  successful  charcoal  road  built  in  Michigan 
that  year,  the  Engineer  recommended  a  similar  road  for  Adelaide,  and 
a  gravel  road  for  London  and  Lobo.  In  concluding  his  report,  he  says : 
— "  The  whole  distance  through  the  Townships  of  London  and  Lobo  is 
about  sixteen  miles,  and  could  be  made  for  about  £300  per  mile,  includ- 
ing a  number  of  new  culverts  and  a  bridge  across  the  Medway,  which 
is  now  in  a  dilapidated  state.  Thus  the  work  would  cost  £4,800,  on 
which  three  toll  gates  might  be  erected,  from  which  the  sum  of  £500 
net  might  at  once  be  collected." 

The  work  of  grading  and  graveling  was  at  once  entered  upon,  and 
that  year  witnessed  the  improvement  of  the  old  Government  roads 
and  the  completion  of  new  highways. 

K.  Johnson,  of  the  Committee  on  County  Eoads,  in  his  report  of 
December  19,  1851,  refers  to  George  Cavanaugh,  who  purchased  gate 
No.  6  on  the  Port  Stanley  road ;  to  the  building  of  Westminster 
bridge ;  to  Henry  Sifton,  who  claimed  £150  damages  for  being  denied 
the  privilege  of  taking  gravel  from  lands  adjoining  a  road  for  which 
he  was  contractor;  to  I.  McCutcheon,  who  was  allowed  £54  for  loss 
sustained  through  the  bridge  being  swept  away  in  the  spring. 

From  a  statement  submitted  in.  November,  1852,  it  appears  that 
up  to  that  day  there  were  £13,776  expended  on  the  Port  Stanley 
road,  £5,021  on  the  Brantford  road,  £1,426  on  the  Delaware  road,  and 
£161 J  on  the  Delaware  bridge,  showing  a  total  of  about  £20,384.  Of 
this  sum  tolls  on  Port  Stanley  road  returned  £4,072 ;  on  Brantford 
road,  £1,583,  and  on  Delaware  bridge,  £165,  leaving  a  debt  on  account 
of  roads  of  about  £14,564.  The  Delaware  road  was  not  completed  at 
that  date. 

In  December,  1853,  the  Finance  Committee   recommended   the 



issue  of  debentures  for  £11,000,  payable  in  sums  of  £550  annually, 
commencing  in  1854  and  ending  in  1874.  At  this  time  the  deben- 
tures outstanding  were  £4,500,  due  the  Provincial  Government  in 
1860 ;  debentures  under  By-law  No.  6,  maturing  in  1854-5,  £2,000 ; 
debentures  under  By-law  No.  10,  due  in  1855-7,  £6,000  ;  debentures 
under  By-law  No.  22,  payable  in  1863,  £20,000,  and  the  debentures 
proposed  as  above  for  £11.000.  At  this  time,  November,  1853,  there 
were  £27,984  8s.  5d.  expended  on  county  roads,  and  £8,427  8s.  8d. 
required  to  complete  the  roads  then  under  way. 

On  Jan.  26,  1354,  Donald  Eraser,  of  the  Committee  of  Public 
Improvements,  reported  in  favor  of  appropriating  £59,039  to  be 
expended  on  roads  opened  in  1853,  as  following  : — £5,000  on  the 
Delaware  and  Chatham  roads  ;  £4,926  on  Governor's  road ;  Welling- 
ton Bridge  road,  £3,499 ;  Elgin  road,  £4,158 ;  Currie  road,  £7,225 ; 
Hagarty  road,  £3,200 ;  Adelaide  road,  £3,835 ;  London  and  Sarnia 
road,  £4,800;  Lobo  and  Williams  road,  £5,819;  Westminster  and 
Dorchester  townline,  £5,097  ;  Delaware,  south  of  the  gravelled  road, 
£5,435;  London,  Wyton  and' St.  Marys  road,  £6,045. 

The  total  amount  expended  on  toll  roads  in  each  township  between 
January  1,  1852,  and  December  31,  1868,  is  set  forth  as  follows : — 
Adelaide,  $25,143.24;  Caradoc,  $47,493.19 ;  Delaware,  $21,315.80 ; 
Dorchester  N.,  $86,674.46 ;  Ekfrid,  $14,833.73  ;  Lobo,  78,196.88  ; 
London,  $144,097.51 ;  Mosa,  $30,542.78 ;  Nissouri  W.,  $40,802.40 ; 
Westminster,  $101,327.38,  and  E.  Williams,  $8,770.03,  aggregating 
$599,197.40.  The  sum  received  during  the  sixteen  years  was  less 
than  half  the  amount  expended,  so  that  on  the  face  of  the  account 
the  toll  road  appears  to  have  proved  itself  an  expensive  luxury,  as 
well  as  a  vexatious  improvement.  The  total  sum  expended  on  all 
other  roads  in  the  county  during  the  sixteen  years  amounted  to 
$739,458.50,  of  which  the  city  granted  $14,500. 

The  expenditure  on  county  roads,  from  1859  to  1864  inclusive, 
was  $49,037.87,  the  year  1862  claiming  the  greatest  outlay,  $11,071. 10. 
The  total  receipts  for  road  fund  during  the  six  years  amounted  to 
$78,911.22,  thus  leaving  a  balance  of  $29,873.35.  The  sum  of  $3,011 
was  expended  on  roads,  from  which  revenue  was  not  derivable.  From 
Dec.  1,  1851,  to  Jan.  1,  1872,  the  townships  expended  on  toll  roads 
$626,863.73,  and  on  common  highways  $779,828.68.  The  first  item 
amounted  to  $654,272.19,  and  the  second  to  $807,707.39,  by  Jan.  1, 
1873.  The  amount  expended  on  tolled  roads,  from  Dec.  31,  1872,  to 
Jan.  1,  1878,  was  $92,291.90;  while  $27,840.67  were  expended  on 
common  highways  and  their  bridges ;  $8,180,  county  grants,  expended 
for  township  boundary  lines;  $21,014.49  for  tolled-road  bridges,  and 
$3,205  for  plank  and  work  on  various  county  roads.  From  Dec.  31, 
1851,  to  Jan.  1,  1872,  the  sum  expended  on  tolled  roads  was  $626,- 
863.73;  on  common  roads,  $133,039.95;  county  grant  to  township 
lines,  $19,925 ;  total,  $779,828.68.  The  total  revenue  from  toll  roads, 
from  1869  to  1873  inclusive,  amounts  to  $74,199.53.  The  total  amount 


of  tolls  received  from  county  roads,  from  1874  to  1880  inclusive,  was 
$99,699.71,  and  the  expenditure  for  repairs,  &c.,  $133,471.88,  being 
an  excess  of  expenditure  over  revenue  of  $33,772.17. 

John  Levie,  Chairman  of  a  Committee  appointed  by  the  Council  in 
1872  on  the  abolition  of  tolls,  reported  on  December  6,  that  year,  as 
follows  : — "  That  the  gross  amount  received  annually  at  toll-gates  is 
$18,500;  that  the  average  annual  repairs  and  renewals  amount  to 
$9,000 ;  that  the  lessees  and  gate-keepers  receive  annually  $4,500 ; 
that  the  City  of  London  offers  to  abolish  market  fees  as  soon  as  the 
county  abolishes  tolls."  The  report  recommends  the  aboli- 

tion of  tolls,  but  under  plans,  which  could  not  bring  a  total  abolition 

A  Committee  appointed  in  1873  to  devise  an  equitable  scheme  for 
the  abolition  of  tolls  upon  the  county  roads  reported,  through  J.  Arm- 
strong, March  5,  1874,  that  in  order  to  abolish  tolls  and  do  justice  to 
the  municipalities  which  have  not  received  their  equal  share  of  road 
moneys,  the  payment  of  debenture  debt  should  be  so  apportioned  to 
each  municipality  in  proportion  to  the  amount  expended  by  each  for 
road  and  bridge  improvement,  thus  decreasing  the  amounts  such  town- 
ships will  have  to  pay  in  the  future,  as  compared  with  rate  of  payment 
in  1874.  Thus  the  debenture  debt  of  1874,  $517,000  (exclusive  of 
the  amount  which  London  City  had  to  pay),  would  be  apportioned 
as  follows  :— Adelaide,  $24,982.91 ;  Caradoc,  $44,575.31 ;  Delaware, 
$28,103.36;  Dorchester,  $60,685.28;  Ekfrid,  $18,661.02;  London, 
$101,254.95;  Lobo,  $53,716.80;  Metcalfe,  $20,092.38;  Mosa.  $24,074; 
Nissouri,  $33,565.93  ;  Westminster,  $78,631.23  ;  East  Williams, 
$11,653.89;  West  Williams,  $8,188.93 ;  Strathroy,  $3,271.27 ;  Wards- 
ville,  $2,410.07;  Parkhill,  $569.67;  Newbury,  $1,563.  Such  pay- 
ments spread  over  fourteen  years  at  six  per  cent.,  the  amount  of 
annual  payments  to  be  decided  upon  by  the  Council,  and  each  muni- 
cipality have  the  privilege  of  paying  the  whole  or  any  portion  of  such 
amount  apportioned  at  will.  This  Committee  also  recommended  that 
the  toll  bridge  at  Wardsville  and  the  toll  roads  of  the  county  cease  to 
solicit  toll  after  January  1,  1875.  In  August,  1874,  a  resolution  of 
the  Council  directed  the  Warden  and  Solicitor  to  have  a  bill  presented 
to  the  Ontario  Legislature  on  the  basis  of  the  above  recommendations. 
At  this  time  the  London  City  Council  agreed  to  abolish  market  fees  sa 
long  as  the  county  roads  were  free,  and  this  agreement  was  ordered  to 
be  noticed  in  the  special  bill  to  be  presented  to  the  Legislature.  In 
June,  ]  875,  the  same  chairman  reported  a  series  of  amendments  to  the 
first  report. 

In  December,  1874,  James  Armstrong,  John  Waters  and  Simon 
McLeod  were  appointed  delegates  to  the  Provincial  Legislature  to> 
advocate  the  passage  of  a  bill  for  adjusting  the  debt  and  abolishing 
toll  roads  in  this  county.  The  tolls  on  county  roads  were  abolished 
June  7,  1881,  the  by-law  taking  effect  Jan.  1,  1882.  At  this  time 
there  were  21  leased  toll  gates  and  13  hired  under-keepers. 

194  HISTORY   OF    THE 

In  January,  1882,  a  communication  from  Street  &  Becher,  barris- 
ters, pointed  out  the  illegality  of  the  by-law  352  of  Sept.  26,  1881, 
ordering  the  issue  of  debentures  for  effecting  the  abolition  of  tolls. 
This  letter  also  pointed  out  that  should  the  Council  carry  out  the 
proposition  to  issue  similar  debentures,  the  barristers  named  were 
authorized  to  bring  the  matter  before  the  courts. 

Tn  December,  1865,  the  toll  gates  on  the  several  roads  were  rented 
to  the  following  buyers : — 

Gate  No.  1,  Dorchester  Town  Line,  to   Ralph  Simpson. 
2,         "  "         "      "    Samuel  Wilson. 

4,  Elgin  Road,  to  Wm.  Thompson. 

1,  Lobo  and  Williams  Road,  to  Robert  Laird. 

2,  "  "  "          Wm.  Grayson. 

1,  Wyton  Road,  to  W.  F.  Howard. 

3,  Sarnia  Road,  to  A.  Me  Arthur. 

2,  Longwoods  Road,  to  M.  A.  Langtry. 

3,  T.  Langtry. 

1,  Hagarty  Road,  to  R.  Dixon. 

2,  "  "  J.  Martin. 

In  1882  the  gates  and  buildings  were  sold  outright. 

Early  Bridges. — In  the  history  of  London  reference  is  made  to  the 
first  bridges  built  in  the  county.  In  1829  a  bridge  was  built  over  the 
Thames,  in  Caradoc  and  Delaware,  on  the  road  leading  from  York  to 
Sandwich.  In  January,  1830,  a  sum  of  £87  10s  was  still  due,  and 
this  sum  the  magistrates  asked  the  Legislature  to  grant,  as  the  bridge 
was  a  provincial  rather  than  a  district  work.  In  the  spring  of  1830, 
£50  were  granted  toward  building  a  bridge  on  the  north  branch  of  the 
Thames,  on  the  new  road  from  the  court-house.  Statute  labor  was 
ordered  to  be  expended  on  the  bridge  near  Dingman's  Creek.  From 
this  period  forward  bridges  multiplied,  and  a  few  years  later  fording 
the  creeks  and  rivers  was  something  that  had  passed  away  for  ever. 

James  Cull,  District  Surveyor  in  1843,  suggested  the  building  of 
a  bridge  over  the  Thames  in  Ekfrid  at  the  Tyrconnell  road  crossing. 
He  pointed  out  the  value  of  a  good  road  to  Tyrconnell,  as  their  goods 
could  be  shipped  or  landed  with  as  much  convenience  as  at  any  part 
of  the  lake,  except  in  a  harbor.  In  his  report  he  refers  to  the  Delaware 
and  Kil worth  bridges,  and  states,  that  during  the  winter  of  1842-3  the 
ice  piled  up  several  feet  above  the  railing  of  the  former,  and  in  both 
cases  caused  serious  injury.  With  the  exception  of  the  two  broken 
bridges,  there  was  not  (in  May,  1843,)  a  bridge  over  the  Thames-in 
150  miles,  the  distance  by  river  from  London  to  Chatham. 

In  August,  1843,  the  old  Delaware  bridge  was  taken  down,  and 
one  Leynard,  a  contractor,  Adam  Douglass  and  John  Lloyd,  black- 
smiths, John  Breaker,  Wm.  Jones,  John  Lee  and  Geo.  Lockyer,  were 
accused  before  Magistrate  G.  J.  Goodhue  of  appropriating  the  iron, 
and  he  ordered  them  to  pay  the  District  £15. 

In  January,  1854,  a  bridge  at  Lobo  Station,  on  the  G.  W.  R.  R., 
and  a  large  number  of  new  roads,  were  recommended  to  be  constructed. 

In  a  communication  addressed  to  the  Council,  December  3,  1887, 


by  F.  B.  Talbot,  Bridge  Commissioner,  it  is  stated  that  the  Sylvan 
bridge  erected  in  1868  is  believed  to  be  the  oldest  one  within  the 
county.  He  recommended  the  removal  of  the  old  Delaware  bridge ; 
also  one  at  Wardsville,  instead  of  the  twenty-year-old  structure,  and 
one  on  the  county  line  in  North  Dorchester,  instead  of  the  existing 
structure.  The  bridges  leading  into  London,  referred  to  in  the  history 
of  the  city,  are  all  modern,  time  or  flood  having  removed  the  primitive 
structures  and  their  successors.  From  end  to  end  of  the  county  large 
and  small  bridges  are  well  constructed.  The  Komoka  bridge  was 
swept  away  March  21,  1886,  by  an  ice  flow.  In  June,  1886,  con- 
tracts for  rebuilding  this  bridge,  one  at  Delaware  and  that  at  Waubuno, 
was  sold. 

In  1883  Government  engineers,  under  G.  F.  Austin,  made  a  survey 
of  the  Thames  from  Chatham  to  London  to  ascertain  the  practicability 
of  its  navigation.  Among  other  suggestions  he  reported  in  favor  of  a 
canal  from  the  river  at  Middlemiss  to  Lake  Erie,  via  lona. 

Railroads. — The  London  and  Gore  Eailroad  Co.  was  incorporated 
March  6,  1834,  with  the  object  of  building  a  road  from  London  to 
Hamilton  or  Burlington  Bay,  and  one  to  the  navigable  waters  of  the 
Thames  and  Lake  Huron.  This  company  comprised  : — Miles  O'Eielly, 
Edward  Allan  Talbot,  Thomas  Parke,  Geo.  J.  Goodhue,  A.  N.  McNab, 
C.  C.  Ferrie,  John  McFarlane,  Wm.  Eobertson,  Thomas  Gibbons,  L. 
Lawrason,  Dennis  O'Brien,  John  Scatcherd,  James  Hamilton,  Joseph 
Cowley,  Nicholas  Gaffney,  Joseph  L.  0'  Dell,  John  O'Neil,  James 
Farley,  John  Jennings,  Harvey  Shepherd,  John  Kent,  Albert  S. 
O'Dell,  Henry  Shennick,  Hiram  D.  Lee,  Wm.  B.  Lee,  Burley  Hunt, 
Nathan  Griffith,  Andrew  Drew,  Kobert  Alway,  Peter  Carroll,  Dr. 
Charles  Duncombe,  Thomas  Horner,  Oliver  Turner,  E.  A.  Spalding, 
Geo.  W.  Whitehead,  Peter  Bamberger,  Manuel  Over-field,  James  Mc- 
Farlane, James  B.  Ewart,  Thomas  J.  Horner,  Joseph  Greer,  G.  W. 
Bremner,  Nathan  Jacobs,  Charles  Goulding,  T.  U.  Howard,  T.  J.  Jones, 
James  Ingersoll,  John  Young,  John  Weir,  A.  McDonnell,  Wm.  B. 
Sheldon,  Ebenezer  Stinson,  Samuel  Mills,  Peter  Hunter  Hamilton, 
Abram  K.  Smith,  Jos.  Eoleston,  T.  Taylor,  H.  Carroll,  C.  Martin, 
James  Eitchie,  E.  Jackson,  Jedediah  Jackson,  Welcome  Yale,  Luke 
V.  Spur,  Ira  Schofield,  Mahlon  Burwell,  Andrew  Miller,  D.  A.  Mc- 
Nab, Wm.  Notman,  M.  Crooks,  Oliver  Tiffany,  P.  Burley,  Geo.  T. 
Tiffany,  Ed.  Vanderlip,  Wm.  Case,  A.  Smith,  and  John  Law. 

As  far  back  as  1837  it  appears  that  the  idea  of  constructing  a  rail- 
road from  the  Niagara  to  the  Detroit  Eiver,  passing  through  St.  Thomas, 
was  entertained.  A  notice  in  the  Liberal  calls  upon  stockholders  in 
the  "  Niagara  and  Detroit  Eivers  Eailroad  Company  "  to  pay  up  their 
first  installment  of  2J  per  cent.  This  is  signed  "  John  Prince,  Presi- 
dent; Park  Farm,  Sandwich,  U.  C."  The  scheme  has  slept  for  a 
number  of  years,  however,  and  the  dreams  of  the  ambitious  settlers 
along  the  line  of  the  proposed  road  have  been  since  carried  out  by 
their  more  enterprising  neighbors  to  the  north. 


On  March  29,  1845,  the  act  incorporating  the  London  &  Gore 
Railroad  Co.  was  revived,  but  the  name  was  changed  to  that  of  '  The 
Great  Western  Railroad  Go."  On  June  9,  1846,  another  act  confer- 
rin<*  powers  on  a  corresponding  committee  at  London,  Eng.,  was 
pasted,  and  on  May  30,  1849,  the  charter  was  further  amended. 
A  branch  road  to  Gait  was  authorized  in  August,  1850,  and  on  April 
22,  1853,  an  act  to  anglicize  the  name  into  "  The  Great  Western  Rail- 
way Co."  became  law. 

The  building  of  a  main  trunk  line  was  provided  for  in  the  act 
approved  August  30.  1851,  and  in  November,  1852,  further  legisla- 
tion to  facilitate  railroad  building  was  adopted.  The  act  to  incor- 
porate the  Grand  Trunk  Railway  was  passed  Nov.  10,  1852.  This 
provided  for  a  road  from  Toronto  to  Montreal.  On  the  same  day  the 
Hamilton  &  Toronto  Railroad  was  authorized. 

The  act  incorporating  the  London  &  Port  Sarnia  Railway  Co. 
was  assented  to  April  22  1853.  Among  the  subscribers  or  share- 
holders were  a  number  of  English  capitalists,  a  few  residents  of 
Hamilton,  Niagara  and  Dundurn.  The  road  was  to  be  built  from 
the  foot  of  Lake  to  intersect  the  Great  Western  Railroad  at  or  near 

On  December  10,  1869,  the  following  motion,  showing  the  attitude 
of  the  Council  toward  railway  companies,  was  proposed  by  S.  McLeod, 
and  seconded  by  R.  Tooley,  "  Whereas,  it  is  contemplated  by  the  Legis- 
lature of  Ontario  to  grant  a  charter  to  the  Great  Western  Railroad  Co. 
to  enable  them  to  build  an  air  line  from  Dunville  to  Glencoe,  the  pas- 
sage of  such  an  act  we  deem  prejudicial  to  the  commerce  and  agricul- 
tural interest  of  western  Canada,  and  extending  and  confirming  the 
present  monopoly  held  by  the  Great  Western  and  Grand  Trunk  Com- 
panies ;  also  that  the  Warden,  etc.,  be  instructed  to  telegraph  immedi- 
ately to  the  county  members  not  to  support  the  western  bill,  but  to 
advocate  the  granting  of  a  charter  to  an  independent  company. 

The  fusion  of  the  Grand  Trunk  and  Great  Western  Railroads  was 
announced  April  28,  1882.  In  January,  1883,  the  work  of  connecting 
the  Great  Western  division  and  main  line  of  the  Grand  Trunk  between 
Sarnia  and  Point  Edward,  was  begun,  and  the  new  railroad  depot  at 
Strathroy  projected. 

The  act  to  incorporate  the  London  and  Port  Stanley  Railroad 
was  assented  to  May  23,  1853.  The  stockholders  named  were  Mur- 
ray Anderson,  G.  W.  Boggs,  W.  D.  Hale,  G.  R.  Williams,  Robt.  Thom- 
son, Wm.  H.  Higman,  J.  M.  Batt,  Boyce  Thomson,  Lawrence  Lawra- 
son,  Lionel  Ridout,  S.  S.  Pomeroy,  E.  Jones  Parke,  Elijah  Leonard, 
Wm.  Smith,  S.  Morrill,  Freeman  Talbot,  Ellis  W.  Hyman,  Thomas 
C.  Dixon,  Alex.  Anderson,  Thomas  Cariing,  Edward  Adams,  Samuel 
Peters,  John  K.  Labatt,  Wm.  Barker,  Daniel  Harvey,  Murdoch  Mc- 
Kenzie,  Crowell  Willson  and  Cyrenius  D.  Hall.  The  capital  stock 
was  placed  at  £150,000. 

The  London  &  Lake  Huron  Railroad  Co.  was  incorporated  June 


10,  1857.  This  act  provided  for  a  road  from  London  to  Port  Franks, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Aux  Saubles.  The  incorporators  were  Elijah 
Leonard,  John  Carling,  David  Glass,  Marcus  Holmes,  John  Birrell, 
Daniel  Lester,  Francis  Smith,  James  Cousins,  Wm.  McBride,  Patrick 
Y.  Norris  and  John  Wilson. 

The  last  rail  was  placed  on  the  London,  Huron  &  Bruce  Eailroad 
December  11,  1875,  and  the  road  opened  for  traffic. 

In  October,  1886,  the  Michigan  Central  Eailroad  Co.  obtained  the 
the  right  to  run  their  trains  into  London  over  the  London  &  Port 
Stanley  Kailroad.  The  by-law  granting  a  loan  or  bonus  of  $75,000  to 
the  London  &  South-eastern  Kailway  Co.  was  carried  by  1,957  to  329, 
a  majority  of  1,628,  in  1887. 

June  20  and  21  were  the  two  days  of  1887  devoted  to  the  cele- 
bration of  the  entrance  of  the  Canadian  Pacific  and  the  Michigan 
Central  Kailroads  to  London,  and  in  October,  1888,  the  extension  of  the 
Canadian  Pacific  Railroad  westward,  between  Waterloo  street  and  the 
river,  was  begun. 

The  London  City  Street  Railway  Company's  franchise  has  been 
given  out  gradually,  and  on  Feb.  8,  1885,  the  by-law  granting 
privileges  to  the  City  Railway  Co.  for  50  years  on  Richmond  from 
York  to  Dundas,  and  thence  on  Dundas  to  Adelaide,  was  approved ; 
Scatcherd  and  Meredith  being  the  legal  examiners.  The  road  now 
extends  to  the  eastern  and  the  northern  limits. 

Railroad  Accidents. — In  1853-4  a  number  of  serious  accidents 
marked  the  opening  of  the  Great  Western  Railroad.  Strong  complaints 
were  made,  and  the  system  improved  a  little,  but  still  the  work  of 
railroad  murder  was  carried  on.  In  May,  1859,  a  Mrs.  Rafferty  was 
killed  near  Grafton  by  a  Grand  Trunk  train.  Isaac  Heysette,  a 
brakeman,  was  killed  at  Mt.  Brydges,  Sept.  2,  1859,  while  coupling 
cars.  Benj.  Harding,  son  of  Wm.  Harding,  of  the  City  Arms  Hotel, 
King  street,  was  killed  near  Princeton  while  returning  from  Niagara, 
in  September,  1861.  The  London  &  Port  Stanley  Railroad  accident  of 
March  23, 1872,  resulted  in  the  death  of  E.  Tonkin  and  Robert  Fletcher, 
engine  drivers,  and  injury  to  a  number  of  persons.  The  deaths  on  the 
rail  within  the  city  of  London  in  1872  numbered  six;  the  collision  at 
the  race  course  resulting  in  the  killing  of  three  persons.  The  accident 
of  June  20,  at  the  Adelaide  Street  crossing,  in  London,  caused  the 
death  of  George  Thomas.  Daniel  Ward's  head  was  severed  from  his 
body,  and  several  men  were  seriously  crushed.  In  November,  1872, 
an  accident  on  the  Port  Stanley  Railroad,  north  of  St.  Thomas,  and  one 
on  the  Grand  Trunk  Railroad,  three  miles  south  of  Thorndale,  were 
recorded.  William  T.  Brown,  of  London,  a  brakeman  on  a  freight  train, 
was  torn  to  pieces  by  an  express  train  at  Appin,  July  18, 1873.  It  appears, 
while  engaged  in  cooling  a  journal  of  his  train,  he  left  his  lamp  on  the 
main  track.  Seeing  the  express  coming,  he  reached  for  the  lamp,  was 
struck  instantly,  and  carried  under  the  train.  The  railway  collision  at 
Thamesville,  Aug.  30,  resulted  in  serious  injury  to  fourteen  persons. 


Mrs.  Groves  and  her  three  children;  Mrs.  Nichols,  of  London,  and 
Mrs.  Black,  of  Strathroy,  were  among  the  injured.  Christopher 
Gardiner,  a  youth  residing  near  Glencoe,  was  run  over  by  a  train  of 
seventeen  flat  cars  in  November,  and  his  body  cut  into  two  parts. 

The  destruction  of  a  passenger  coach  near  Komoka,  February  29, 
1874,  resulted  in  the  incineration  of  nine  human  beings  and  fatal 
injuries  to  three  others.  A  coroner's  inquisition  was  held  at  Komoka, 
when  witnesses  related  that  the  train,  composed  of  the  engine,  three 
oil-tank  cars,  one  baggage,  one  second-class  and  one  first-class  cars 
the  last  containing  about  fifty  passengers,  left  London  at  6.28  p.  m. 
When  within  three  or  four  miles  of  Komoka,  the  saloon  in  the  forward 
end  of  the  passenger  car  was  discovered  to  be  on  fire,  from  the  lamp 
therein  having  fallen  or  having  been  knocked  down.  The  conductor 
hurried  forward  from  the  rear  end  of  the  car,  and  told  the  brakeman 
to  go  over  the  cars  and  get  the  engine  stopped,  as  the  bell-rope  did  not 
extend  over  the  oil-cars,  and  there  was  no  means  of  signalling  to  the 
engineer.  The  brakeman  returned  and  said  that  he  could  not  get 
over.  The  conductor  then  went  himself.  The  brakeman  had  at  the 
first  sight  of  the  fire  applied  his  brake,  which  prevented  the  success  of 
the  attempts  made  to  detach  the  burning  car  from  the  others.  The 
conductor  had  succeeded  in  reaching  the  engineer  and  stopping  the 
train,  and  by  that  time  the  train  going  at  twenty- five  miles  an  hour, 
had  made  over  a  mile  from  the  time  the  fire  was  discovered. 

Eev.  S.  Hooper,  of  Woodstock,  said : — "  All  pressed  to  get  out 
behind,  as  far  as  I  could  see ;  I  sprang  with  the  rest,  and  was  taken 
with  the  press  out  the  rear  door.  I  tried  to  get  down  the  steps,  on  the 
south  side  of  the  car.  They  were  full  of  people  hanging  on  for  life.  I 
did  what  I  could  to  push  them  off  the  steps,  but  found  it  quite  impos- 
sible, they  clung  so  tenaciously  to  the  rails.  Being  close  to  the  door, 
I  was  getting  suffocated  with  the  smoke  and  flame,  and  fell  down. 
One  leg  got  between  the  brake  rod  and  the  centre  one,  and  was 
pinioned  there  till  the  fire  removed  those  pressing  on  me.  The  noise 
of  the  people  gasping  for  breath  was  terrible.  Some  were  groaning  on 
the  track,  and  others  shrieked  as  they  fell  off.  A  few  only  fell  oft'  the 
step,  but  many  were  pushed  off  or  fell  off  the  end.  The  flame  and 
smoke  coming  out  the  door  was  so  great  that  no  one  could  last  long  on 
the  platform.  As  soon  as  I  could  disentangle  my  leg,  I  threw  myself 
from  the  car.  People  were  lying  on  every  hand,  and  those  I  could 
reach  I  assisted  as  I  could.  Only  one  man,  that  I  saw,  was  taken  off 
the  car^ when  it  stopped;  the  rest  that  were  not  dead  got  off  them- 
selves." The  daughter  of  Conductor  Mitchell  is  said  to  have  cast  her- 
self out  of  the  window,  while  others  state  that  the  conductor  flung  the 
f  ?  T?U£  Among  the  dead  wh°se  bodies  were  identified  were  John 
McKellar,  of  the  Strathroy  school;  Miss  Purves,  of  Petrolea;  a  son 
ot  Oreo.  Burnham,  of  Strathroy;  an  Indian  woman  and  her  infant;  J. 
H  Breathwick,  of  London,  with  Miss  Scarcliff  and  Miss  Harriett  Dunn, 
inose  who  received  serious  injuries  were  John  Hay,  a  merchant  of 


Toronto ;  Daniel  McKellar,  of  Komoka ;  John  B.  Harsden,  who 
resided  three  miles  from  Simcoe  ;  John  C.  Robinson,  of  Watford ; 
Augustus  Blessing,  of  Strathroy  ;  Neil  McGugan,  of  Strathroy ;  Mrs. 
Crawford,  wife  of  Samuel  Crawford,  agricultural  implement  manufac- 
turer, of  London ;  Geo.  Moncrief,  Mayor  of  Petrolea ;  Mrs.  Lawrence, 
of  Petrolea ;  Miss  Martha  Donaldson,  of  Komoka ;  W.  H.  Murray,  of 
Strathroy ;  Miss  Mitchell,  of  Sarnia ;  Mrs.  Ryan,  John  Zavitz  and 
wife,  of  Lobo ;  Mrs.  Freeman,  of  Ingersoll ;  Dr.  Smith,  of  Komoka ; 
Rev.  Mr.  Collamore,  of  London  ;  Rev.  S.  Hooper,  of  Woodstock  ;  two 
men  named  Graham,  of  Lobo ;  Arthur  Orton  and  Messrs.  Dearness 
and  Miller. 

The  railroad  accident  of  July  25,  1874,  occurred  near  the  scene  of 
the  train  burning  of  March  previous,  at  the  entrance  to  Sifton's  Cut, 
about  four  miles  east  of  Komoka.  It  appears  that  some  malcontent 
removed  the  rail  plates,  so  that  when  the  locomotive  struck  the  loose 
rails,  the  engine,  tender,  baggage,  second  and  two  first-class  cars  were 
hurled  from  the  track  down  the  embankment.  David  Osborne,  en- 
gineer, was  instantly  killed. 

Robert  Scott,  a  drover  of  Lobo,  was  killed  at  Colborne  street  rail- 
way crossing  in  November,  1875.  In  the  railroad  accident  near 
Princeton,  at  Goble's  Swamp,  Oct.  5, 1876,  William  Cooper,  the  driver, 
and  Andrew  Irving,  of  London,  were  killed ;  also  G.  Wright,  baggage- 
master,  James  Andrews,  express  man,  Wm.  Leggatt  and  Thomas  Mc- 
Bride,  of  Detroit. 

In  June,  1878,  the  body  of  a  man  was  found  on  the  track  at. 
Komoka.  In  his  hat  were  the  fragments  of  a  letter  dated  "  Chicago, 
Wabash  ave.,  No.  927."  A  report  was  that  it  was  Baron  Theodore 
Von  Jasmund,  then  editor  of  the  Detroit  Volksblatt,  who  settled  in 
Lambton  County  in  1865,  and  resided  in  the  house  erected  by  Admiral 
Vidal.  In  October,  1879,  one  Crowe,  a  drunken  cooper,  leaped  into 
the  locomotive  called  "  The  Oil  King,"  opened  the  throttle  wide,  and 
ditched  the  engine  at  the  corner  of  Simcoe  and  Adelaide  streets.  Out 
of  the  mass  of  debris,  steam  and  fire  came  Crowe  uninjured,  proclaim- 
ing "  I  can  lick  any  man  in  Canada !"  He  was  arrested  and  "  made 
to  eat  crow." 

The  funeral  of  James  McGrath,  his  wife,  his  brother  Matthew,  and 
Miss  Ellen  Blake,  all  victims  of  the  Clandeboye  accident,  took  place 
January  6, 1881,  from  the  Catholic  Church.  The  excursion  train  from 
Cayuga  to  London,  September,  1881,  came  in  collision  with  a  heavy 
freight  near  Aylmer.  The  engineer  of  the  passenger  train,  Richard 
Walmsley,  his  son  William,  Wm.  Cook,  of  Aylmer,  Hines,  of  Delhi,, 
and  an  unknown  man  were  killed.  Cheesborough,  engineer  of  the 
freight,  escaped. 

The  collision  on  the  London,  Huron  &  Bruce  Railroad,  December 
20,  1882,  resulted  in  the  death  of  Wm.  Strongman,  a  fireman.  In 
April,  1886,  two  men  attempted  to  jump  from  trains  at  London, 
and  both  were  killed.  One  of  them  was  Thomas  Lloyd,  formerly  a 


200  HISTORY   OF    THE 

cigar  maker  here.  The  railroad  accident  of  December  29,  1866,  at 
Komoka,  resulted  in  serious  injury  to  six  persons  and  the  destruction 
of  cars  and  locomotives.  In  the  accident  on  the  London  &  Port  Stan- 
ley Eailroad,  July  3, 1887,  Thomas  Hunt  and  Joshua  Sicily,  of  London, 
were  killed.  The  railroad  holocaust  at  St.  Thomas  in  July,  1887,  re- 
sulted in  the  burning  of  Mrs.  J.  W.  Baynes  and  daughters  Edna, 
Verna  and  Lila ;  and  among  others,  Engineer  Harry  Donnelly.  This 
was  known  as  the  Talbot  Street  Baptist  Excursion  Train.  Engineer 
Burt  was  crushed  to  death  between  the  pay  car  and  frame  of  coal  shed 
opposite  the  London  Grand  Trunk  Eailroad  depot  November  13,  1888. 
Yet  the  statement  is  made  on  the  authority  of  statistics,  that  more 
persons  meet  death  from  falling  out  of  windows  than  from  railroad 




In  1835  Governor  Colborne  granted  to  Sheriff  A.  Eapelje  and  his 
successors  in  office  a  charter  to  hold  a  public  fair  in  the  town  of  Lon- 
don three  times  annually,  together  with  the  right  of  levying  tolls  as 
approved  by  the  magistrates.  It  does  not  appear  that  such  charter 
rights  were  ever  fully  exercised,  but  fairs  were  held  on  the  court-house 
square  and  streets  adjoining.  In  February,  1857,  the  Council  asked 
that  the  same  privileges  be  transferred  from  the  Sheriff  to  the  Mayor, 
basing  their  demand  on  the  fact  that  London  was  separated  from  the 
county  politically.  Preceding  this  move  of  the  Council,  Councilman 
Barker  moved,  in  Sept.,  1848,  to  have  a  bill  introduced  in  Parliament 
to  establish  an  annual  fair  at  London.  At  this  time  the  use  of  the 
Town  Hall  was  granted  to  the  Middlesex  Loan  Association  and  the 
Agricultural  Society  for  stated  meetings. 

The  address  to  Governor-General  James,  Earl  of  Elgin,  by  the 
Council,  is  dated  May  7,  1847.  This  speaks  with  approval  of  the 
Earl's  administration,  and  with  indignation  of  the  u  insults  committed 
on  the  person  of  Your  Excellency."  In  October,  1849,  the  Governor- 
General  was  invited  to  visit  London.  To  receive  him,  the  Council 
called  on  the  following  officers  to  order  out  their  commands : — Edward 
Matthews,  Captain  of  Light  Artillery  Company  ;  Captain  John  Smith, 
London  Vol.  Eifle  Co. ;  Joseph  F.  Eolfe,  No.  1  Fire  Co. ;  Charles 
Askew,  Hook  and  Ladder  Co. ;  Sam.  McBride,  Juvenile  Fire  Co.,  and 
Wm.  Till,  master  of  the  London  Band.  It  may  be  noted  that  in  the 
Mayor's  invitation  to  the  Governor,  the  latter's  administration  was 
endorsed,  though  the  phrase  was  opposed  by  Nash  and'Carling. 

The  County  Agricultural  Society  held  the  annual  exhibition  in 
the  Market  House,  April  22,  1851,  the  Council  having  hitherto  granted 
permission.  On  Oct.  7,  the  same  year,  a  more  important  meeting  was 
held  on  the  old  grounds,  east  of  the  town,  then  in  possession  of  the 
Great  Western  Eailroad  Company.  The  ladies'  and  mechanics'  depart- 
ments were  arranged  in  the  old  Market  House,  as  in  April,  thirty-six 
articles  being  exhibited  in  the  first-named,  and  eighty-six  in  the  last- 

The  following  officers  were  elected  for  the  ensuing  year : — John  B. 
Askin,  Esq.,  president;  T.  C.  Dixon,  Esq.,  1st  vice-president;  Geo. 
Eobson,  Esq.,  2nd  vice-president;  E.  Emery,  Esq.,  3rd  vice-president; 
John  Stiles,  Esq.,  treasurer;  James  Farley,  Esq.,  secretary.  Commit- 
tee— James  Nixon,  David  Main,  William  Beattie,  William  Bell,  West- 
minster ;  Eobert  Eobson,  William  Balkwill,  Christopher  Walker,  Wm. 
Moore,  George  Belton,  London  Township ;  George  W.  Harper,  Elijah 
Leonard,  Wm.  Barker,  Eoger  Smith,  town  of  London.  Mr.  Askin 

202  HISTORY    OF   THE 

stated  that  the  revenue  of  the  year,  exclusive  of  £100  granted  by  the 
London  Town  Council,  amounted  to  £509  16s.  5Jd.,  of  which  the  sum 
of  £393  19s.  4d.  was  expended. 

On  Jan.  28,  1852,  a  committee  of  the  Council  suggested  a  petition 
to  the  Legislature  asking  for  the  sale  of  the  North  Block  in  the  town 
of  London,  the  proceeds  to  be  expended  on  the  purchase  of  lands  for 
agricultural  purposes  and  for  the  holding  of  free  fairs. 

In  September,  1853,  £500  were  granted  by  the  London  Council  to 
the  Provincial  Agricultural  Society,  on  condition  that  the  next  fair  be 
held  at  London.  John  Scatcherd,  reporting  December  2,  1853,  on  the 
question  of  the  purchase  by  the  county  of  the  barrack  grounds  at 
London,  recommended  the  Warden  to  communicate  with  the  Ordnance 
Department  regarding  price  and  terms.  Prior  to  this,  in  September,, 
1853,  Mr.  Scatcherd  and  Mr.  Parish  moved  that  steps  should  be  taken  to 
secure  the  Provincial  Exhibition  of  1854  for  London.  Many  of  those 
who  took  an  interest  in  the  Provincial  and  were  active  members  of  the 
association  was  first  held  in  London,  have  passed  away.  The  members 
of  the  local  committee  at  London  in  1854  were  J.  B.  A  skin,  President 
Middlesex  Agricultural  Society ;  Thos.  C.  Dixon,  M.  P.  P. ;  John 
Scatcherd,  Warden  of  Middlesex ;  Marcus  Holmes,  Mayor ;  J.  B. 
Strathy  ;  T.  Locker,  Warden  of  Elgin ;  G.  Alexander,  President  Oxford 
Agricultural  Society;  Mr.  Wm.  Balkwill,  London  Township;  Mr.  John 
Stiles,  do. :  Mr.  Wm.  Moore,  do. ;  Mr.  Geo.  Robson,  do. ;  Mr.  James 
Quarry,  McGillivray ;  Mr.  Wm.  Barker,  city ;  Mr.  John  Carling,  do. ; 
Mr.  Wm.  J.  Fuller. 

In  September,  1854,  the  Governor-General  visited  London  to  open 
the  Exhibition.  Arches  were  erected  at  the  railroad  on  Richmond  St., 
one  at  the  corner  of  Richmond  and  Dundas,  one  at  the  Western 
Hotel  on  Richmond,  and  one  at  Robinson  Hall  on  Dundas — the  same 
as  on  the  day  of  the  opening  of  the  G.  W.  R.  R.  Sheriff  Treadwell,  of 
L'Original,  was  then  President  of  the  Provincial  Association.  His 
predecessors  back  to  1846,  when  the  first  Provincial  Exhibition  was 
established,  being  :— Wm.  Matthie,  of  Brockville  ;  T.  C.!Street,  Niagara 
Falls ;  J.  B.  Marks,  Kingston ;  John  Wettenhall,  Nelson  ;  Sheriff 
Ruttan,  Cobourg ;  Adam  Ferguson,  Waterdown ;  E.  W.  Thomps6n,  of 
Toronto,  1846-7.  The  amount  of  prizes  and  the  number  of  entries  at 
the  various  Provincial  Exhibitions  since  the  first  inception  in  1846  to 
1854  are  as  follows  : — 

Toronto,    1846 $1,600  00     1,150        Niagara,  1850   .  ..$5,00000  1,638 

Hamilton,  1847 3,00000    1,600        Brockville,    1851.  500000  1466^ 

Cobourg,  1848 3,10000     1,500        Toronto,  1852 ..  ..6,00000  3'048 

Kingston,  1849 5,10000     1,429        Hamilton,  1853. .         .640000  2820 

London,  1854 $7,200  00    2,933 

On  that  day  in  1854,  about  30,000  persons  were  present. 

In  February,  1859,  the  Legislature  was  asked  to  grant  authority 
to  the  city  to  erect  exhibition  buildings.  Later  the  question  was  ear- 
ned forward  energetically  with  a  view  of  securing  the  Provincial  Fair 



of  1860.  In  October,  1859,  a  proposition  was  made  to  the  Council  to 
sell  to  the  city  twenty-six  acres  of  Crown  lands  for  £3,000.  The 
delegates  to  Kingston  and  other  places  in  the  matter  of  obtaining  votes 
for  having  the  fair  at  London  were : — Col.  Askin,  J.  K.  Brown,  P.  G. 
Norris,  T.  H.  Buckley,  M.  Keefer,  Messrs.  Saml.  King,  Black,  Eisdale, 
McCullough,  and  Moderwell.  These  with  the  delegates  from  Chatham 
were  paid  $207  expenses. 

In  September,  1860,  the  sum  of  $750  was  appropriated  for  the 
reception  of  one  of  the  Queen's  sons.  On  Oct.  9  a  great  free  fair  was 
held  at  London.  The  agreement  between  the  Corporation  and  the 
Board  of  Agriculture  of  Upper  Canada  as  to  exhibition  grounds  was 
made  Sept.  28,  1861.  The  Corporation  agreed  in  consideration  of 
$4,000  to  grant  to  the  Board  of  Agriculture  certain  rights  in  that  part 
of  the  exhibition  grounds  which  lies  east  of  Wellington  street  and 
north  of  Great  Market  street,  and  in  the  buildings  then  erected  thereon. 

The  Provincial  Exhibition,  Crystal  Palace,  of  London,  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  old  barracks,  may  be  said  to  have  been  completed  in 
1861,  in  time  for  the  show  of  that  year.  The  direct  cost  was  $9,000, 
while  about  $6,000  were  expended  on  additional  buildings  after  plans 
by  W.  Kobinson,  then  City  Engineer.  The  locality  of  the  exhibitions, 
amount  of  prize  money  and  number  of  entries  since  the  last  exhibi- 
tion of  London,  are  given  as  follows  : — 

Cobourg,  1855 $  9,000  00    3,077        Toronto,  1858 $10,700  00  5,572 

Kingston,  1856 9,000  00     3,791         Kingston,  1859 10,800  00  4,830 

Braiitford,  1857 10,00000     4,337        Hamilton,  1860.     ...15.01550  7,532 

London,  1861 $12,031  00    6,242 

In  1865,  a  third  Provincial  Exhibition  was  held  here.  The  grow- 
ing popularity  of  the  city  in  1865  may  be  learned  from  the  following 
table,  showing  the  cities  where  exhibitions  were  held,  amount  of  prize 
money  and  number  of  entries  : — 

Toronto,  1862 
Kingston,  1863. 

..$12,036  50     6,319 
..   11,866  00     4,756 

Hamilton,  1864...     $12,559  50     6,392 
London,  1865 13,45400     7,221 

In  January,  1869,  the  Council  applied  to  the  authorities  of  London 
•city  for  documents  to  secure  the  right  of  the  County  and  of  the  East 
Middlesex  Agricultural  Society  to  the  joint  use  of  the  ground,  known 
as  the  "Exhibition  Ground,"  north  of  the  barracks,  in  accordance 
with  the  old  agreement,  when  the  Council  and  Society  granted  a  large 
sum  of  money  to  aid  in  erecting  the  exhibition  building. 

The  local  committee  of  the  Provincial  Exhibition  of  1869  com- 
prised James  Johnson,  president ;  Wm.  McBride,  secretary  ;  Mayor  S. 
H.  Graydon,  treasurer;  E.  Glackmeyer,  David  Hughes,  W.  S.  Smith, 
John  Christie,  John  Campbell,  Murray  Anderson,  T.  Partridge,  jr., 
City  Councillors ;  John  Stewart,  James  Durand,  Wm.  Barker,  James 
M.  Cousins  and  Wm.  Saunders,  all  of  the  city.  The  county  members 
of  this  important  committee  were : — Thos.  Routledge,  Warden  of  Mid- 
dlesex ;  H.  Anderson,  Deputy-Reeve,  Westminster ;  R.  Tooley,  Reeve, 

204  HISTORY  OF    THE 

Dorchester ;  H.  Johnson,  Reeve,  Delaware ;  J.  Wheaton,  President  East 
Middlesex  Agricultural  Society;  A.  Brown,  Reeve,  Nissouri ;  A.  Me- 
Kellar  Deputy-Reeve,  Nissouri ;  J.  Nixon,  Keeve,  Metcalfe ;  J.  Cor- 
bett  Reeve,  McGillivray ;  R.  H.  O'Neil,  Reeve,  Biddulph ;  J.  Waters, 
Reeve,  East  Williams ;  S.  McLeod,  Reeve,  West  Williams ;  L.  Clever- 
don  Reeve,  Adelaide ;  M.  McArthur,  Reeve,  Lobo ;  R.  Brown,  Reeve, 
Metcalfe ;  H.  McFarlane,  Reeve,  Ekfrid ;  J.  Watterworth,  Reeve,  Mosa ; 
T.  Northcott,  Reeve,  Caradoc;  W.  Neill,  Reeve,  Wardsville;  J.  D. 
Dewan,  Reeve,  Strathroy. 

One  of  the  Queen's  sons,  known  as  Prince  Arthur,  arrived  in  Lon- 
don Sept.  21,  1869.  R.  F.  Matthews  wrote  the  ode  of  welcome,  and  at 
least  half  the  people  joined  in  the  welcome.  The  occasion  was  the 
opening  of  the  exhibition.  The  amount  of  prizes  offered  was  $14,000 
and  the  number  of  entries  7,688.  For  comparison  the  following  table 
of  prize  money  and  entries  is  given : — 

Toronto  1866..    ...$12,71000    6,279          Hamilton,  1868 $13,30450      6,620 

Kingston,  1867 12,731  00     4,815          London,  1869 14,000  00       7,688 

The  latter-day  exhibits  of  the  Provincial  Society  are  referred  to  in 
the  following  table,  the  figures  denoting  prize  money  and  number  of 
entries  respectively : — 

Toronto,  1870 $16,000  00      6,897        Ottawa,  1875 $18,000  00  7,200 

Kingston,  1871 15,00000      6,682        Hamilton,  1876 18,23700  10,011 

Hamilton,  1872 15,00000      7,714        London,  1877 16,32000  10,618 

London,  1873 15,00000      8,920        Toronto,  1878 17,94700  11,612 

Toronto,  1874 17,00000      8,662        Ottawa,  1879 ,14,95750  9,668 

Hamilton,  1880,  $16,994  ;  11,252. 

In  1877,  L.  E.  Shipley,  of  Greystead,  was  president,  and  in  1880, 
J.  B.  Aylesworth,  of  Newbury. 

Western  Fair  Association. — In  1867  the  idea  of  a  Western  Fair 
originated  in  the  minds  of  James  Johnson  (Sunnyside),  George  G. 
Magee,  Richard  Tooley,  M.  P.  P.,  James  Cousins,  Henry  Anderson,  of 
Westminster,  the  late  Wm.  McBride  and  John  Campbell.  At  a  joint 
meeting  of  the  City  Horticultural  Society  and  the  East  Middlesex  Agri- 
cultural Society,  held  on  March  21,  1868,  it  was  resolved  that  the  two 
Associations  should  unite  for  Fair  purposes,  and  Messrs.  J.  M.  Cousins, 
Wm.  McBride,  John  Campbell,  J.  Wheaton,  Henry  Anderson  and  J. 
Pincombe  were  appointed  a  committee  to  carry  the  project  into  effect. 
The  first  meeting  of  the  new  joint  board  was  held  on  the  22nd  of 
April  following,  when  the  committee  above-mentioned  submitted  a 
report  containing  a  basis  of  amalgamation,  which  was  accepted.  Thus 
the  Society  was  formed,  the  following  Directors  being  appointed  : — 
James  Johnson,  President  Horticultural  Society;  Geo.  G.  Magee, 
President  of  the  Agricultural  Association ;  Wm.  McBride,  J.  Wheaton, 
John  Pincombe,  Alex.  Kerr,  Henry  Anderson,  J.  B.  Lane,  Thomas 
Friendship,  Alex.  Mackenzie,  George  Jarvis,  James  Anderson,  Chas. 
Tuckey,  W.  S.  Smith,  Robt.  Robson,  R.  Tooley  (now  M.  P.  P.),  A. 



MacArthur,  J.  M.  Cousins,  John  Stewart,  John  Campbell,  J.  Durand, 
John  Elliott,  T.  Kentledge,  John  Moon,  W.  E.  Vining  and  Mayor 
Arkell.  The  first  was  held  on  September  29th  and  30th,  1868,  in  the 
old  drill  shed.  Over  two  thousand  dollars  was  given  in  prizes.  It  is 
now  one  of  the  institutions  of  the  Western  Peninsula,  and  has  long 
since  passed  the  Provincial  in  the  estimation  of  the  public.  In  1870  a 
very  successful  Fair  was  held,  and  in  October,  1872,  the  third  meeting 
was  opened  by  Governor  Dufferin  and  his  wife. 

On  June  12,  1874,  a  joint  resolution  of  the  London  City  Com- 
mittee and  the  Committee  of  the  Council  provided  that  should  the 
county  and  the  Agricultural  Society  of  East  Middlesex  relinquish 
their  rights  to  the  Fair  Grounds,  the  Exhibition  Committee  of  the  City 
Council  would  recommend  the  purchase  of  not  less  than  thirty  acres, 
to  be  approved  of  by  the  county  and  the  Agricultural  Society,  and  on 
which  would  be  built  suitable  houses,  the  purchased  price  of  grounds 
and  cost  of  buildings  not  to  exceed  the  sum  to  be  realized  from  the  sale 
of  sixteen  acres  of  the  old  grounds,  between  Wellington  and  Waterloo 
streets,  the  same  rights  to  be  given  the  county  and  Agricultural  Society 
in  the  new  grounds  and  buildings  as  they  held  (1874)  in  the  present 
grounds,  but  the  carrying  out  of  this  proposition  was  deferred.  In 
1881  no  less  than  $20,944  were  expended  on  grounds  and  buildings, 
under  the  direction  of  Thomas  H.  Tracy. 

The  year  1886,  when  only  $8,000  was  offered,  was  the  year  when 
the  Western  Fair  nearly  collapsed.  The  sale  of  a  portion  of  the  old 
grounds  and  other  causes  had  brought  matters  to  such  a  pass  that  it 
became  necessary  to  make  strenuous  efforts  to  save  the  Fair  from  going 
under.  In  this  emergency  the  London  Board  of  Trade  came  to  the 
rescue  and  saved  the  Exhibition.  Among  those  who  assisted  to  put, 
the  Western  on  its  new  basis  were  A.  W.  Porte,  J.  W.  Little,  T. 
Herbert  Marsh,  A.  M.  Smart,  W.  J.  Keid,  W.  Y.  Brunton,  W.  M. 
Gartshore,  W.  E.  Hobbs,  Colonel  R.  Lewis,  Mayor  Cowan,  J.  D. 
Sharman,  and  these  gentlemen  were  heartily  supported  by  the  county 
members,  among  whom  were  Colonel  F.  B.  Leys,  Geo.  Douglass,  Allan 
Bogue,  D.  Mackenzie,  ex-M.  P.  P.,  K.  Whetter,  A.  J.  B.  Macdonald 
and  E.  Dreaney. 

A  new  plan  of  organization,  originated  by  W.  Y.  Brunton,  wa& 
adopted,  whereby  all  agricultural  societies  or  other  associations  for  the 
production  or  manufacture  of  useful  articles,  or  for  the  protection  and 
aid  of  those  engaged  in  such  manufactures  or  production,  were  given 
representation.  Each  association  nominated  one  or  two  members  of 
the  Western  Fair  Association,  according  to  its  size,  and  these  delegates, 
meeting  annually,  elected  the  Western  Fair  Board.  The  City  Council,, 
however,  reserved  the  right  of  appointing  five  members  with  its  Mayor,, 
and  the  East  Middlesex  Agricultural  Society  were  also  given  control  of 
six  directors'  berths.  That  left  twelve  to  be  filled  by  the  association 
to  make  up  the  total  number  of  twenty-four. 

In  1887  the  old  Fair  Grounds  on  Richmond  street  were  surveyed  for 


206  HISTORY  OF    THE 

building  lots,  and  the  Queen's  Park,  in  No.  5  Ward  transferred  to  the 
city  for  exhibition  purposes.  In  September  of  that  year  the  buildings 
were  completed,  at  a  cost  of  $60,000.  The  great  fair  opened  September 
20,  that  year.  The  officers  for  1888  comprised  the  following  gentle- 
men :  —  A.  W.  Porte,  president  ;  Geo.  Douglass,  first  vice-president  ; 
J.  W.  Little,  second  vice-president;  Donald  Mackenzie,  treasurer; 
Messrs.  Magee,  Greenlees  &  Thomas,  solicitors  ;  George  McBroom, 
Secretary  ;  Joseph  Hook,  superintendent  of  grounds  ;  Geo.  F.  Jewell, 
F.  C.  A.,  and  J.  S.  Dewar,  auditors.  The  board  of  directors  com- 
prised :—  A.  W.  Porte,  Geo.  Douglass,  F.  B.  Leys,  T.  Herbert  Marsh, 
A.  M.  Smart,  Allan  Bogue,  W.  J.  Eeid,  W.  H.  Winnett,  Thos.  Connor, 
Frank  Shore,  Geo.  Taylor,  W.  Y.  Brunton,  J.  W.  Little,  D.  Mackenzie, 
W.  M.  Gartshore,  W.  E.  Hobbs,  E.  Lewis,  Eichard  Whetter,  James 
'Cowan,  John  Callard,  A.  J.  B.  Macdonald,  Eichard  Yenning,  Henry 
Dreaney  and  J.  D.  Sharman. 

The  new  grounds  are  very  attractive.  The  soil  being  sandy  and 
the  surface  undulating,  the  grounds  are  not  affected  even  by  a  heavy 
rain.  The  buildings  are  all  new,  light  and  commodious,  and  built 
after  the  most  modern  style  of  architectural  beauty.  The  officers  of 
the  exhibition  are  painstaking  and  courteous,  and  are  succeeding 
admirably  in  the  important  and  arduous  task  of  making  the  Western 
Fair  a  permanent  and  useful  institution  to  the  diversified  interests  of 
Western  Ontario,  and  second,  of  course,  only  to  the  great  Industrial  at 
Toronto.  Much  of  this  success  is  attributable  to  the  energy  and  skill 
of  the  secretary,  George  McBroom,  who  is  aided  by  an  able  and  com- 
petent directorate. 

The  great  fair  of  1887  was  opened  September  20th.  The  exhibi- 
tion of  1888  was  opened  September  21st  by  the  Minister  of  Agricul- 
ture, John  Carling.  A  comparative  summary  of  the  chief  entries  this 
year  and  last  will  prove  interesting  :  — 

1888.  1887.  ]888. 

Horses  ..................      547  448  Cattle  ............  285  289 

Sheep  ..................      319  356  Pigs  ..................  132  135 

Poultry  .      ............      524  614  Agricultural  Products  ....  308  404 

Horticultral       ..........  1,318  2,122  Agricultural  Implements.  198  202 

ludian  Exhibits  ..........  681  Fine  Arts  .....  347  227 

Ladies'  Work  ...........      571  553 

There  was  an  increase  of   1,421  entries  over  1887,  a  fact  over 
which  the  directors  had  reason  to  rejoice.      At  the  same  time  in  some 
ot   the  departments  there  was  a  falling  off  in  the   number   of  ex- 
hibits, but  this  was  mainly  in  the  minor  departments.     The  entries  of 
honey  fell  oil  from  seventy-nine  in   1887  to  twenty-four  in  1888 
Engines  and  machines  fell  off  from  twenty-two  to  eighteen  ;  stoves 
Irom  thirty-three  to  fifteen,  and  carriages  from  fifty-one  to  forty-five 
In  the  fine  art  department  the  difference  was  more  striking,  the  entries 
this  year  being  only  227  against  347  in  1887. 

The  Presidents  of  the  Western  Fair  Association  from  1868  to  1888 
are  as  follows  :-1868,  James  Johnson  ;  1870,  James  Johnson  ;  1871 


Eichard  Tooley  ;  1872,  Wm.  Saunders ;  1874,  James  Johnson ;  1875, 
John  H.  Griffiths;  1876,  A.  S.  Emery;  1878,  Joseph  Johnson;  1879, 
A.  McCorarick;  1880,  Geo.  Douglas;  1882,  John  Plummer ;  1883, 
John  Kennedy;  1884,  E.  E.  Eobinson;  1886,  Eichard  Whetter; 
1887-8,  Capt.  A.  W.  Porte. 

A  description  of  the  grounds  and  buildings  is  given  in  the  sketches 
•of  parks  in  the  history  of  London. 

The  Ontario  Entomological  Society  met  at  London  in  October, 
1844.  E.  B.  Eeed,  of  London,  was  re-elected  secretary  and  treasurer ; 
James  Fletcher,  of  Ottawa,  being  vice-president,  and  W.  Saunders, 
president.  A  medal  was  awarded  this  society  for  the  best  exhibition 
of  Canadian  fish  at  the  Fisheries  Exhibition,  England. 

The  Horticultural  and  Mechanical  Association  of  the  Town  of 
London  was  organized  August  21,  1852,  with  Marcus  Holmes,  presi- 
dent; George  W.  Harper  and  John  Wanless,  vice-presidents;  John 
Brown,  treasurer ;  John  C.  Meredith,  secretary ;  James  Daniell,  L. 
Lawrason,  Wm.  Eowland,  A.  Lowrie,  Wm.  Eoss,  Elijah  Leonard  and 
Joseph  Anderson,  managers.  On  September  27,  1855,  the  Horticul- 
tural Society  held  an  exhibition  at  the  City  Hall.  This  Society  gave 
$2,500  in  prizes  in  1868;  $6,000  in  1870;  $8,000  in  1871,  and 
$10,000  in  1872.  The  entries  increased  from  2,037  in  1868  to  7,089 
in  1872. 

The  Grange. — On  June  2,  1881,  the  sixth  anniversary  of  the 
Patrons  of  Husbandry  was  celebrated  at  Port  Stanley. 

Farmers'  Institute. — A  preliminary  meeting  for  the  formation  of  a 
Farmers'  Institute  for  the  Elding  of  East  Middlesex  was  held  in 
January,  1886.  E.  Whetter,  of  Westminster,  was  appointed  chair- 
man, and  T.  Baty,  secretary.  The  election  of  officers  resulted  as 
follows  : — President,  F.  Baty,  Westminster ;  vice-president,  Captain 
Thomas  Eobson,  Uderton ;  secretary,  W.  L.  Brown,  London  West ; 
treasurer,  E.  Whetter,  Westminster.  Broad  of  Directors — London — 
Charles  Trebilcock,  Grove ;  E.  W.  Jackson,  Uderton  Westminster — 
F.  Elliot,  Wilton  Grove ;  James  Ballantine,  Lambeth.  Nissouri — 
Joseph  Wheaton,  Thorndale ;  E.  A.  Brown,  Cherry  Grove.  Dorchester 
— E.  Venning,  Eichard  Tooley,  Mossley. 

W.  0.  S.  B.  A. — The  Western  Ontario  Stock  Breeders'  Association 
may  be  said  to  have  had  its  origin  in  the  London  meeting  of  Jan.  21, 
1888,  when  Messrs.  Farnham,  Hobbs,  Eobson  and  Bell,  of  London 
Township ;  Eobinson,  McCartney,  John  Stoneman  and  W.  Taylor,  of 
London ;  Toole,  Gorwell,  John  Geary,  F.  Shore,  E.  Gibson,  T.  Doug- 
lass, E.  Whetter,  John  Coughlin,  Eeeve  of  Westminster,  Ed.  Charlton, 
A.  Kains  and  E  Craig,  were  appointed  a  committee  on  organization. 

F.  <&  G.  P.  S. — The  Fish  and  Game  Protective  Society  was  organ- 
ized in  1875.  Among  the  leading  members  in  1882,  when  the  seventh 
annual  meeting  was  held,  were  D.  Niven,  president;  D.  Skirving, 
secretary;  W.  C.  L.  Gill,  E.  Wallace,  S.  turner,  John  Cousins,  E.  G. 
Mercer,  G.  Kelly,  F.  T.  Trebilcock,  C.  A.  Stone,  Inspector  P.  McCann. 



The  officers  elected  that  year  were :— President,  W.  C.  L.  Gill ;  first 
vice-president,  Dr.  Woodruff;  second  vice-president,  Peter  McCann L; 
secretary,  D.  Skirving;  executive  committee,  John  Puddicombe  C  A. 
Stone,  Dr.  Niven.  W.  Strong,  T.  H.  Smallman,  E.  Wallace^  G -  Kelley, 
F.  T.  Trebilcock,  John  Cousins ;  finance  committee,  John  Puddicombe, 
C.  A.  Stone  and  F.  T.  Trebilcock. 

Population.— In  1817  the  population  of  the  old  London  District 
was  8,907.  The  population  of  Middlesex  in  1824  was  8,061—4,306 
males  and  3,755  females ;  in  1825  the  number  was  8,752 ;  in  1826, 
9,362;  in  1827,  9,837;  in  1828,  10,260;  in  1829,  11,103;  in  1830, 
11  882  The  population  of  Aldborough  in  1830  was  608  ;  of  Bayham, 

1,458;  of  Blenheim,  545;  of  Blandford, ;   of  Burford,  850;   of 

Camden,  Dawn  and  Zone,  in  Kent  County,  424 ;  of  Caradoc,  309  ;  of 
Charlotteville,  1,214 ;  of  Chatham  and  Harwich,  in  Kent,  550 ;  of  Col- 
chester, in  Essex,  686 ;  of  Delaware,  73  ;  Dereham,  193 ;  Dorchester, 
90;  Dunwich,  537;  Ekfrid,  115;  Gosfield,  462;  Howard,  in  Kent, 
616  ;  Houghton  and  Middleton,  iu  Norfolk,  307  ;  Lobo,  344;  London, 
2,403 ;  Maidstone  and  Eochester,  in  Essex,  273 ;  Maiden,  1,087  ; 

Malahide,  1,465 ;  Mersea,  in  Essex,  288 ;  Moore,  in  Lambton,  ; 

Mosa,  276 ;  Nissouri,  452 ;  Norwich,  1,264 ;  Oakland,  383 ;  Oxford, 

206;  Oxford  West,  783;  East,  369;  North, ;  Ealeigh,  Kent,  523; 

Eomney  and  Tilbury,  371 ;  Sarnia, ;  Sandwich,  2,201 ;  Sombra, 

Bothwell, ;  Southwold,  1,601;  Townsend,  Norfolk,  1,420;  Wal- 

singham,424;  Westminster,  1,025 ;  Windham,  644;  Woodhouse,  987 ; 
Yarmouth,  1,545 ;  Zorra,  886.  The  total  population  of  London  District 
in  1830  was  22,803,  and,  of  the  Western,  8,711.  The  population  of 
Middlesex  in  1831  was  14,073  ;  in  1832, 15,293  ;  in  1833,  17,819  ;  in 
1834, 19,697;  in  1835,  21,291,  in  1836,  23,790;  in  1837,  24,628,  and 
in  1838,  24,064. 

London  District  in  1838  comprised  the  townships  of  East  and  West 
Oxford,  Burford,  Blenheim,  Oakland,  Nissouri,  Blandford,  Norwich, 
Dereham,  Zorra,  Yarmouth,  Southwold,  Bayham,  Malahide,  Mosa,  Dun- 
wich, Westminster,  Adelaide,  Caradoc,  Ekfrid,  Delaware,  London  and 
village,  Aldborough,  N.  and  S.  Dorchester,  Lobo,  Hullett,  Tucker- 
smith,  McGillivray,  McKillop,  Ellice,  Downie,  Williams,  Stanley,  N. 
and  S.  Easthope,  Biddulph,  Goderich  and  Colborne.  In  this  large 
District  were  714,601  acres  uncultivated,  142.375  acres  cultivated ;  157 
one-story  square-timber  houses,  7  additional  houses  with  fire-places  \ 
6  two-story  square-timber  houses,  1,493  frame  one-story  houses,  163 
additional  with  fire-places ;  280  two-story  frame  houses,  178  additional 
with  fire-places ;  10  brick  or  stone  one-story,  7  additional  with  fire- 
places ;  4  brick  or  stone  two-story  houses,  2  with  fire-places ;  41  grist- 
mills with  one  run  of  stones,  17  with  more  than  one  run  ;  105  saw 
mills;  10  store-houses;  80  merchants'  shops;  20  stud  horses  for  hire; 
6,923  horses  three  years  and  over;  6,659  oxen  four  years  and  over; 
13,066  milch  cows ;  7,416  horned  cattle  from  two  to  four  years  ;  2  gigs, 
3  phaetons,  and  36  pleasure  wagons,— total  valuation,  £513,337  ;  total 
tax  collected,  £3,243. 


The  population  of  the  county  in  1839  was  26,025;  in  1840, 
26,482,  of  whom  13,805  were  males  and  12,677  females ;  in  1841, 
27,033;  in  1842  the  population  of  London  District  was  30.276;  in 
1848,  41,986,  and  of  London  Town,  4,668. 

The  population  of  Middlesex  in  1851-2  was  32,862,  and  of  London, 

The  census  of  1861  shows  a  total  population  of  48,736  for  the 
county,  made  up  of  25,374  males  and  23,362  females,  of  whom  1,767 
males  and  1,181  females  were  not  members  of  resident  families. 
There  were  884  males  and  815  females  born  in  1860,  of  whom  34 
males  and  39  females  died  that  year.  The  population  by  townships, 
taken  from  the  census  returns,  shows  a  total  population  for  the  county 
of  60,311,  while  the  total  above  shows  only  48,736,  as  follows : — 





























Dorchester  North  .  . 



















London  .         . 

5  002 

4  664 

1  389 





1  578 


.    936 







Mosa                .... 


1  430 














Strathroy  Village.  . 
Williams  East  
Williams  West  
Westminster.  .  . 

.     397 











London  City 5,738        5,817        2,005        695          9      1,386          —      2,090 

At  this  time  there  were  in  the  county  four  Protestant  Episcopal 
church  buildings,  one  Catholic,  two  Church  of  Scotland,  four  Free 
Church  of  Scotland,  six  United  Presbyterians,  twelve  Wesleyan 
Methodists,  four  Episcopal  Methodists,  two  of  Methodist  denomina- 
tions, and  five  Baptists.  In  London  there  were  nine  church  buildings. 

The  first  census  of  Middlesex,  taken  since  the  British  North- 
America  Act  came  in  operation,  was  that  of  1870-1.  From  this 
great  statistical  record  the  following  summary  is  made.  The  7th,  8th, 
9th  and  10th  census  districts,  their  area  in  acres,  occupied  houses  and 
population,  are  given  as  follows  : — 

Township.  Area.  Houses.  Males.  Females- 

Mosa 49,729  559  1,622  1,532 

Wardsville  Village 452  99  280  253 

Ekfrid 54,271  504  1,704  1,489? 

Metcalfe 36,720  438  1,293  1,150 

Caradoc 77,905  912  2,593  2,472 

Strathroy  Village 2,400  558  1,675  1,557 

Delaware 28,150  449  1,294  1,229 

Adelaide 44,060  536  1,541  1,368 

Williams  W 36,876  604  1,761  1,660 

Williams  E 40,154  548  1,452  1,401 

Lobo 49,752  612  1,726  1,748 

McGillivray 64,016  796  2,429  2,22ft 

210  HISTORY   OF    THE 

,»*•         .A-Sb       Tor      f™ 

39780  2  S.W5  1962 


Population.—  The  population  by  race  in  1880-1,  in  the  Townships 
of  Westminster,  Dorchester,  London,  London  East  (village),  Petersville 
(village)  and  Nissouri  West,  was  as  follows  :—  Africans,  808  ;  Dutch, 
375-  "English,  83,288;  French,  887;  Germans,  8,823;  Italians,  3; 
Poles,  3  ;  Scandinavians,  47  ;  Irish,  9,239  :  Scotch,  5,688  ;  Swiss,  85  ; 
Welsh,  289  ;  various,  80  ;  not  given,  538. 

In  the  Townships  of  Mosa,  Ekfrid,  Metcalfe,  Caradoc,  Delaware,  and 
the  villages  of  Wardsville,  Strathroy,  Newbury,  and  Glencoe,  there  were  : 
Africans?74;  Dutch,  276  ;  English,  6,870  ;  French,  204  ;  Germans,  896  ; 
Indians,  8,429  ;  Scandinavians,  89  ;  Scotch,  5,567  ;  Irish,  5,283  ;  Poles, 
4;  Swiss,  9;  Welsh,  104;  various,  2;  not  given,  759. 

In  the  Townships  of  Adelaide,  Williams  West,  Williams  East, 
McGillivray,  Lobo,  Biddulph,  and  the  villages  of  Ailsa  Craig,  Lucan, 
and  Parkhill,  there  were  in  1880-1:  Africans,  47;  Dutch,  194; 
English,  5,965;  Irish;  7,170;  Scotch,  6,736;  French,  48;  Germans, 
771  ;  Italians,  4  ;  Swiss,  11  ;  Welsh,  258  ;  and  others,  35. 

The  population  of  London  City,  by  nativity,  in  1880-1,  shows  : 
Africans,  261;  Dutch,  33;  English,  8,617;  Irish,  6,062;  Scotch, 
6,543  ;  Welsh,  151  ;  Germans,  406  ;  French,  223  ;  Indians,  4  ;  Italians, 
30  ;  Jews,  6  ;  Poles,  31  ;  Scandinavians,  34  ;  Swiss,  3  ;  Spaniards,  8  ; 
and  304  of  other  countries  or  unknown. 

Of  the  first  census  district,  No.  167,  the  total  population  was 
30,600;  of  the  second,  No.  168,  21,496;  of  the  third,  No.  169, 
21,239  ;  and  the  fourth,  No.  170,  London  City,  19,746,—  the  total  of 
1880-1  being  93,081. 

The  following  is  the  population  and  number  of  houses  of  London 
by  Wards  in  1880-1*  :— 

Total  Pop.  Males.  Houses.                                  Total  Pop.  Males.  Houses 

Wardl  ........  2,126  1,084  428  Ward  5  ........  4,499  2,214  917 

"    2  ........  2,862  1,355  545                "     6  ........  3,560  1,702  682 

"    3  ........  3,777  1,918  733               "    7  ........  1,723  841  306 

"     4  ........  1,199  587  222 

Many  changes  have  been  made  within  the  last  eight  years.  The 
Manitoba  land  craze  won  away  several  citizens,  while  a  greater  num- 
ber went  to  the  United  States;  but  notwithstanding  an  extensive 
emigration,  the  county,  including  London,  claims  as  great  a  population 
to-day.  London  City  and  its  suburbs  have  made  very  rapid  strides, 
and  appear  to  have  more  than  made  up  for  the  losses  in  the  townships 
and  country  towns,  the  total  population  being  now  estimated  at  35,000. 

*The  apparent  discrepancy  here  and  above  in  the  total  population  of  London,  is  occa- 
sioned by  including  in  one  return  territory  not  included  in  the  other. 



District  and  County  Expenditure. — The  first  regular  account  of 
expenditures  was  presented  July  17,  1818,  as  follows: — 

James  Brown 0  16  2 

John  Anderson 1160 

Abner  Owen 2176 

F.  Beaupre .  50 

The  Sheriff 75     39 

Clerk  of  the  Peace 70  10  6 

Geo.  Collman 2     00 

Mrs  Ann  Bostwick 5     00 

Moses  Secord 5128 

£    s.   d. 

G.  C.  Salmon 13     54 

Mahlon  Burwell     4     00 

John  Bostwick 5     04 

Caleb  Wood 4  16  0 

Mahlon  Burwell,  am't  of  order. .   77     0  0 

The  Sheriff 4150 

The  Sheriff 50    66 

Joseph  Walker  2     98 

Jacob  Braumwort 1     00 

Reuben  Green  (York) 7  10  6  

Total £331  4  11 

From  the  Auditor's  statement  of  August  12,  1820,  it  appears  that 
the  District  Treasurer  advanced  £442  2s.  Od.  toward  building  the  court- 
house and  jail,  and  £62  13s.  6d  toward  the  general  account.  These 
sums  were  ordered  to  be  paid,  and  the  collector  urged  to  bring  in  moneys 
in  their  hands  or  to  be  collected. 

The  act  to  consolidate  the  debt  of  Middlesex,  assented  to  April  2o, 
1860,  shows  that  at  the  time  outstanding  debentures  amounted  to 
$879,114,  and  authorized  the  County  Council  to  borrow  that  amount. 

Debentures. — The  debentures  issued  from  1844  to  1863  are  noted 
as  follows : — 

£  s.  d. 

1844 3,383  15  6  due 

1850 1,500  0  0 

1850 990  8  0£ 

1850 2,500  0  0 

1851 25,000  0  0 

1852 3,000  0  0 

When  the  late  treasurer,  Adam  Murray,  took  possession  of  the 
office  in  October,  1857,  the  total  debenture  debt  was  £233,348  11s.  8d. 

m  1845 

1853..  .. 

.  15  325 



due  in  1863 

1853..  .. 

.  .     1,500 



"      1854 





by-law  36 


.  .     3,355 
.   25.000 



due  in  1863 

1861 $12,000  00 

1860 76,000  00 

1859t $13,692  00 

1859J 20,000  00 

1860 25,000  00 

The  expenditures  of  the  county  in  1885  amounted  to  $139,160.92  ; 
in  1886,  $129,124.06,  and  in  1887,  $149,61545.  To  place  on  record 
the  sources  of  income  and  the  several  calls  upon  such  income,  the 
following  statement  for  1887  is  given  : — 


Balance  from  last  audit $  2,610  03 

County  Rates 77,124  15 

Non-resident  Land  Tax ....     3,974  90 

Debentures 20,000  00 

Premium  on  Debentures 1,000  00 

Interest 853  14 

*  In  connection  with  payment  of  part  of  these  debentures,  a  sum  of  £2,500  was  credited 
erroneously  as  paid. 

t  To  procure  seed  for  supplying  to  farmers,  owing  to  failure  of  crops. 

*  For  bridge  building. 



County  Grants  to  Public  Schools 5,221  00 

Legislative  Grants  to  Public  Schools 6,731  00 

Surplus  Fees  from  Registry  Offices  1,000  89 

Auctioneer's  and  Peddler  Licenses 566  00 

Interest  on  Hospital  Trust  Fund 454  47 

House  of  Refuge  and  Industrial  Farm 1,367  79 

City  of  London  re  Debt  on  London  East 1, 170  00 

Treasurer  County  of  Oxford 38  35 

Redemption  Money 

Miscellaneous  Items 96  90 

Bills  Payable                  4,00000 

Administration  of  Justice  from  City  of  London 6,474  52 

Government 6,148  07 

Division  Court  Jurors'  Payment  Fund 114  86 

Sessions,  County  and  Assize  Courts  Payment  Fund 193  50 

Fines  from  Magistrates . .  209  50 

Costs  from  Police  Magistrates  and  Justices  of  the  Peace 151  10 

Fines  from  Police  Magistrates  re  Scott  Act 10,094  12 


Roads  and  Bridges ! .  $21,654  11 

Salaries  and  Municipal  Government  Expense 5,750  90 

Percentage  to  Sub  Treasurers 161  96 

School  Inspectors'  Salaries 1,008  75 

Legislative  Grants  to  Public  Schools 6,731  00 

Municipal  Grants  to  Schools  7,950  68 

Educational  and  Incidental  Expenses 1,423  03 

Printing  and  Advertising 448  03 

Registry  Offices 211  50 

Grants  to  Insane  and  Destitute 1,040  00 

Wild  Land  Tax  and  Redemption  Money 3,790  17 

House  of  Refuge  and  Industrial  Farm 6,355  08 

Debentures  Redeemed 20,000  00 

Coupons  Redeemed  29,360  00 

Court  House  and  Jail  Expense  Account  and  Repairs 4,308  86 

Jail  Officials'  Salaries 3,730  45 

Constables 2,60909 

Crown  Witnesses  and  and  Jury  Services 1,918  75 

Division  Courts  Jury  Fund 124  00 

Coroner's  Orders '.','.'..  209  40 

Administration  of  Justice  General . .  6,436  20 

Jurors'  Payment  Fund 3  373  30 

Bills  Payable     \\'  10,'oOO  00 

Paid  to  order  of  License  Commissioner  re  Scott  Act 5,250  00 

Salary  of  Police  Magistrate 450  00 

Hospital  Expense 2  326  80 

I?*61** 55  51 

Miscellaneous  Items 2  457  58 

Agricultural  and  Other  Statistics. — The  number  of  acres  cleared 
in  1887  was  514,563;  of  woodland,  229,355,  and  of  swamp,  marsh  or 
waste  land,  13,639.  Of  the  total  occupied  area  (757,557  acres)  there 
were  9,302  belonging  to  non-residents,  and  748,255  to  resident  owners. 
In  1887  there  were  165,443  acres  of  cleared  lands  devoted  to  pastur- 
age the  number  of  acres  in  every  thousand  acres  cleared  being 
The  county  held  third  place  in  Ontario  in  the  average  per 
thousand  acres  cleared,  and  first  place  when  the  large  area  is  considered 
The  orchards  and  gardens  of  Middlesex  in  1883  claimed  an  area  of 
9,309  acres. 





Prior  to  1792-3  the  history  of  the  country  bordering  on  the  forks 
of  the  La  Tranchee,  or  Thames,  is  that  which  belongs  to  the  Indian 
settlements  of  a  century  ago  in  the  Erie  Peninsula.  The  discovery  of 
Indian  remains  near  Blackfriars'  bridge  some  years  ago  is  one  of  the  few 
evidences  of  Indian  occupation  which  modern  times  have  brought  to 
light.  During  the  winter  of  the  years  named,  Governor  Simcoe  with 
his  staff  and  Chief  Brandt  camped  here.  His  object  was  to  select  a 
site  for  the  capital  of  Upper  Canada,  which,  while  convenient,  would 
not  be  exposed  to  American  assaults.  Dorchester,  their  Governor- 
General,  favored  Kingston ;  but  Simcoe  labored  under  the  impression 
that  his  imaginary  city,  Georgina-upon-Thames,  would  be  the  capital. 
And  here  the  Anglicizing  Governor  planned  his  great  seat  of  Govern- 
ment, February  13,  1793,  then  pushed  forward  to  Detroit,  but  return- 
ing to  the  Forks  March  2,  doubly  determined  to  build  his  city  here. 
In  1796  he  was  transferred  to  the  West  Indies,  and  his  dreams  were 
left  to  unofficial  unaided  enterprise  to  be  made  real. 

In  Littlehales'  diary,  under  date  March  2,  1793,  being  the  second 
visit  of  that  officer  to  the  site  of  the  present  city  of  London,  the  fol- 
lowing entry  occurs : — "  Struck  the  Thames  on  one  end  of  a  low,  flat 
island.  The  rapidity  of  the  current  is  so.  great  as  to  have  formed  a 
channel  through  the  mainland  (being  a  peninsula),  and  formed  this 
island.  We  walked  over  a  rich  meadow,  and  at  its  extremity  reached 
the  forks  of  the  river.  The  Governor  wished  to  examine  this  situation 
and  its  environs,  and  we  therefore  stopped  here  a  day.  He  judged  it 
to  be  a  situation  eminently  calculated  for  the  Metropolis  of -all  Canada. 
Among  many  other  essentials  it  possesses  the  following  advantages : — 
Command  of  territory,  internal  situation,  central  position,  facility  of 
water  communication  up  and  down  the  Thames,  superior  navigation 
for  boats  to  near  its  source,  and  for  small  craft  probably  to  the  Morav- 
ian settlement ;  to  the  northward  by  a  small  portage  flowing  into  Lake 
Huron ;  to  the  southeast  by  a  carrying  place  into  Lake  Ontario  and 
the  River  St.  Lawrence;  the  soil  luxuriously  fertile,  and  the  land 
capable  of  being  easily  cleared  and  soon  put  into  a  state  of  agriculture ; 
a  pinery  upon  an  adjacent  high  knoll,  and  others  on  the  height,  well 
calculated  for  the  erection  of  public  buildings ;  and  a  climate  not  inferior 
to  any  part  of  Canada." 

The  Thames  River  at  the  forks  presents  many  interesting  features, 
alike  as  regards  its  physical  relations  and  its  connections  with  the 
early  settlement  and  military  occupation  of  the  country.  That  the 
stream  has  undergone  some  very  great  changes,  even  since  1793, 
scarcely  admits  of  doubt;  for,  in  a  few  places,  the  ear- marks  of  expan- 

214  AlSTORY   OF  TIIK 

sions,  now  dried  up,  are  visible,  and  of  the  numerous  large  creeks- 
which  swelled  its  waters,  and  made  it  navigable  for  eighty  leagues  in 
1794,  few  exist  to-day.  The  existence  of  this  river,  and  the  position 
of  its  forks — almost  equidistant  from  Lakes  Huron  and  Erie — render 
the  climate  of  the  district  much  more  pleasant,  if  not  healthier,  than 
that  of  lake  towns.  Even  in  face  of  the  fact  that  the  river  is  used  as- 
the  receptacle  of  the  city's  sewerage,  the  cross-country  lake  breezes, 
and  the  breezes  generated  in  its  own  valley,  are  decidedly  invigorating. 
A  sail  down  to  Springbank  and  back  on  steamer,  yacht  or  row-boat 
forms  a  pleasant  and  healthful  pastime  for  the  citizens;  and  so 
generally  availed  of,  that  the  memories  of  the  tragedy  of  1881  seem  to- 
be  sleeping  in  presence  of  the  fascinating  influence  of  the  river  ride. 

In  such  a  country  as  Littlehales  describes,  at  the  head  of  that 
river  on  which  Simcoe's  British  navy  was  to  float,  a  few  unpretentious, 
hard-working,  fearless  men  settled  in  1826.  Peter  McGregor,  a 
Highland  Scot,  who,  while  keeping  a  hotel  down  the  river,  married 
Lavinia,  daughter  of  Joseph  Poole,  of  Westminster,  and  then  deter- 
mined to  settle  in  the  new  town  of  London,  made  the  first  clearing  in 
the  fall  of  1826,  and  built  the  first  cabin  here.  Patrick  McManus  and 
Charles  Henry,  two  Irishmen,  erected  a  board  cabin  soon  after  ;  then 
came  Abram  Carroll,  who  built  and  kept  the  first  house  of  entertain- 
ment to  which  the  name  could  be  given ;  next,  John  Yerex,  Levi 
Myrick  (or  Merrick),  and  Dennis  O'Brien,  and  Georgina-upon-Thames 
assumed  the  shape  of  a  settlement,  thirty  years  after  the  first  guber- 
natorial dreamer  left  Ontario  for  ever. 

It  was  a  fit  introduction  to  the  people  who  were  to  make  out  of 
the  wilderness  spot  a  city.  As  the  visitor  walked  lazily  along  the 
Indian  trails,  listening  to  the  murmur  of  the  river  or  the  rush  of  the 
wind  through  the  olden  pines,  or  watched  the  mist  as  it  hung  in  twi- 
light curtains  about  the  groves,  it  required  but  little  imagination  to 
trace  a  long  cavalcade  of  romance,  chivalry  and  heroism  proceeding 
from  this  very  spot  in  the  days  of  Indian  power.  He,  too,  may  muse 
upon  the  genii  which  once  haunted  the  forests  of  the  past,  and  a 
gloom,  like  superstitious  dread,  will  only  be  dissipated  when  the  past 
vanishes  and  the  present  rises  before  him  in  all  its  cultivated  beauty 
and  magnificence.  We  can  envy  the  pioneers  of  this  district  and  the 
long-ago  primitive  times.  Then  a  single  piece  of  calico  would  make 
the  best  dress  for  every  woman  in  the  place.  The  dry  goods  side  of 
O'Brien's  store  could  be  carried  off  in  a  wheelbarrow,  and  the  grocery 
department  in  a  wagon.  The  staple  articles  were  whiskey,  flour,  pork 
and  beans.  If  with  a  dozen  barrels  of  whiskey  came  two  or  three  of 
flour,  the  question  was :  "  What  the  deuce  is  to  be  done  with  the 
There  was  at  that  time  plenty  of  large  game  and  fish,  and 
wild  fruits  in  season;  but  the  hardships  of  pioneer  life  were  serious 
indeed,  and  the  monotony  so  unbearable,  that  many  who  came  to  carve 
out  homes  in  the  wilderness  returned  to  enjoy  penury  in  a  civilized 
state  rather  than  remain.  Many,  however,  established  themselves 


here  and  began  the  work  of  fashioning  a  city  out  of  the  forests — a 
village  which  should,  some  day,  be  regarded  as  a  city,  altogether  lovely 
and  promising,  the  one  among  a  thousand  to  enlist  active  enterprise, 
where  virtue  would  be  treasured  and  promoted,  and  labor  fairly 

The  Beverlys  established  a  ferry  in  1818  below  the  Forks,  or 
Applegarth's,  later  Nixon's  Flats,  and  later  West  London.  The 
Beverlys  suffered  terribly  from  fever  and  ague,  so  that  travellers  had 
often  to  wait  for  hours  until  some  of.  the  family  would  cease  shaking, 
to  ferry  them  across.  The  pioneers  soon  got  on  the  true  track  of  this 
aguish  tribe,  and  when  going  to  Gardner's  mill  for  grist,  or  to  Samuel 
Jarvis'  distillery  for  whiskey,  they  would  not  return  until  the  afternoon 
of  the  following  day,  as  they  calculated  by  that  time  the  chills  would 
cease  and  the  boatmen  be  ready  to  take  the  paddle.  About  this  time 
the  Montagues  established  their  canoe  ferry  at  the  Townsend  Landing,, 
near  the  present  Woodland  Cemetery. 

In  1826  Colonel  M.  Burwell,  with  Freeman  Talbot  and  Benjamin 
Springer,  chain-bearers,  surveyed  the  town  site.  Any  person  who- 
promised  to  pay  $32  for  the  patent,  and  built  a  shanty  18x24,  was 
entitled  to  a  large  lot,  the  transfer  being  freely  made  by  Colonel  Thos. 
Talbot  when  the  patent  was  issued.  The  limits  of  the  first  survey 
were  : — Wellington  street  on  the  east ;  North  street,  now  Calling,  on 
the  north  ;  the  River  Thames  on  the  south  and  west.  The  lots  were 
numbered  from  Wellington  street  west. 

In  June,  1827,  Robert  Carfrae  entered  the  settlement,  crossing 
from  Westminster  by  a  bridge  erected  in  1826  by  Levi  Merrick  at  the 
foot  of  York  street.  His  memories  of  the  village  of  62  years  ago- 
point  out  two  taverns  and  the  court-house  as  the  three  buildings  form- 
ing the  nucleus  of  the  village.  John  Yerex,  a  brother  of  Andrew,  was 
engaged  in  building  his  hewn-log  house  on  the  north-west  corner  of 
York  and  Ridout  streets,  where  the  old  malt  house  stands,  and  in  that 
building  was  born  the  first  native  of  London  village,  Nathaniel  Yerex, 
In  the  fall  of  1826  Andrew  Yerex  followed  his  brother  hither.  He 
found  McGregor's  log  shanty  tavern  at  the  corner  of  King  and  Ridout 
streets,*  where  the  McFarlane  Hotel,  now  kept  by  Alonzo  Hall,  is. 
Abram  Carroll's  log  house  stood  on  the  north  side  of  Dundas,  two  or 
three  lots  east  of  Ridout,  where  in  the  fall  of  1827  he  put  up  a  frame 
house.  Dennis  O'Brien,  to  whom  he  gives  the  title  "a  jolly,  good 
fellow,"  was  digging  up  stumps  and  preparing  to  build  close  to  where 
was  afterwards  built  the  Robinson  Hall.  Patrick  McManus — then 
called  McManners,  owing  to  the  way  this  plebeian  pronounced  .his 
name — and  Charles  Henry  carried  on  business  in  a  shed  or  small 
frame  house  erected  on  the  lot  south  of  the  south-east  corner  of  Ridout 
and  Dundas,  opposite  the  present  Registry  Office.  The  court-house^ 
a  semi-frame,  hewn-log  house,  stood  nearer  the  corner  than  the  present 

*Qeo.  J.  Goodhue  maintained  until  his  death  that  McGregor's  tavern  stood  on  Talbot,. 
between  York  and  King  streets ;  but  all  the  other  early  settlers  place  it  as  written  above. 


building  until  1829,  when  it  was  placed  on  runners  and  moved  by 
oxen  to  the  south-west  corner  of  the  present  grounds,  where  it  stands 
to-day.  McGregor,  being  jailer,  was  accustomed  to  take  the  well-con- 
ducted prisoners  across  the  street  to  his  tavern,  and  it  is  related  by 
Mr.  Williams,  Oliver  McClary  and  others,  that  hungry  travellers  often 
had  to  wait  for  their  meals  until  McGregor's  notorious  guests  had 
finished  theirs.  As  has  been  said,  Dennis  O'Brien  was  preparing  to 
build  in  1826,  but  the  log  structure  which  he  erected  was  used  rather 
•as  a  store-house  than  a  store-room.  This  building  stood  on  lot  18,  on 
the  south  side  of  Dundas,  almost  opposite,  but  a  point  east  of  Abram 
Carroll's  dwelling.  In  1827  or  1828  he  took  possession  of  a  vacated 
blacksmith's  shop,  placed  rough  boards  on  barrels  to  form  a  counter, 
and  there  opened  the  first  general  store.  The  log  house,  which  he  had 
previously  occupied  and  used  as  a  store-room,  was  minus  chinking,  and 
through  the  crevices  the  curious  settlers  would  spend  hours  observing 
his  stock  of  frying-pans,  griddles,  spiders,  baking-kettles,  tinware,  and 
a  thousand  other  articles  which  make  the  visitor  to  the  country  store 
•covet  the  whole  stock. 

Samuel  Laughton  migrated  to  Canada  in  1827  with  his  wife.  He 
received  a  grant  of  a  lot  on  Bathurst  street,  near  the  present  depot,  on 
condition  that  he  would  establish  a  blacksmith  shop ;  moved  shortly 
after  to  a  farm  in  the  township  on  a  lot  where  John  Robson  settled  in 
the  fall  of  1820,  and  twenty  years  later  moved  to  Metcalfe.  He 
ironed  the  first  wagon  ever  used  in  London  Township.  Selling  his  lot 
for  SI 6  worth  of  iron  he  moved  into  the  wilderness.  While  it  cannot 
be  stated  that  O'Brien  moved  this  shop  from  Bathurst  to  Dundas 
street,  it  cannot  be  denied  that  this  was  the  only  building  standing  in 
1827  which  was  vacated  by  a  blacksmith.  Dennis  O'Brien  continued 
in  business  here  until  1848-9,  when  he  retired.  Eobert  Summers 
states  that  about  the  time  Goodhue  opened  his  store,  he  said  to  O'Brien, 
"  You  are  going  to  set  up  a  general  store  in  opposition  to  Goodhue." 
'Not  at  all,"  said  O'Brien,  "I'm  going  to  set  up  an  imposition  upon 
him,^as  he  has  been  imposing  on  the  people,  and  I'm  going  to  impose  on 
him."  George  J.  Goodhue  closed  out  his  little  store  in  Westminster, 
Concession  1  (kept  in  Joshua  Applegarth's  old  log-house),  two  miles 
south  of  the  present  city,  in  1829,  and  moved  into  O'Brien's  settle- 
ment, where  he  opened  a  large  general  store  and  went  into  fair 
competition  with  O'Brien,  who,  for  over  two  years,  monopolized  the 
trade  north  of  the  river. 

Dennis  O'Brien,  who  was  a  peddler  for  some  years  before  he  estab- 
lished his  store  at  London,  carrying  a  pack  throughout  the  district,  like 
Patrick  McManus,  Charles  Henry,  M.  McLoughlin  and  other  early 
settlers,  married  Jane  Shotwell  about  1834.  She  was  the  daughter  of 
Abram  ShotweU  and  Sylvia  Sumner,  all  early  settlers  of  Westminster. 
Her  sister  Nancy  married  Alvaro  Ladd,  while  Polly  married  David 
Golf.  O'Brien  himself  was  liberal  and  enterprising,  and  sometimes 
merry,  as  related  in  other  pages.  He  had  built  for  himself  the  first 



large  brick  store-house  in  London,  had  the  Blackfriars'  grist  mill 
erected,  and  also  a  distillery  in  Westminster.  In  later  years  he  told 
his  particular  friends  that  this  distillery  was  the  cause  of  his  ruin.  He 
died  at  old  Mr.  Blinn's  house  about  the  year  1863.  Under  date  Jan. 
12,  1849,  Dennis  O'Brien  advertised  the  fact  that  he  retired  from 
business,  and  asked  that  all  accounts  should  be  settled  up  at  his  office 
in  Mr.  McKittrick's. 

Levi  Merrick  built  York  street  bridge  in  1826-7.  One  of  the 
workmen  stole  from  another  workman  an  axe  one  night  and  fled  ;  but 
he  was  pursued,  and  caught  in  the  pine  woods.  That  night  he  was 
chained  to  a  stump  on  King  street.  A  jury  was  sworn  who  sentenced 
him  to  leave  town  in  a  few  minutes  or  be  whipped. 

Kissick  (or  Cassock)  and  O'Rell  (or  O'Dell)  were  the  first  tailors ; 
but  which  of  them  came  first  cannot  now  be  determined. 

John  Jennings,  who  established  a  little  store  at  London,  was  also 
an  Irishman,  and  for  some  time  before  his  settlement  here  was  a 
popular  peddler.  He  could  write  his  name  only,  but  possessed  much 
natural  intelligence,  and  was  very  impulsive.  He  married  a  Miss 
Algoe,  a  daughter  of  the  pioneer  family  on  the  Longwoods  road  below 
Delaware.  He  was  not  very  fortunate  in  business,  traded  his  store 
for  a  farm  in  Westminster,  and  later  kept  livery  stable  at  London. 
His  eldest  son  Frank  went  to  Detroit  in  his  youth,  and  established  a 
large  livery  stable  there. 

Douglas  &  Warren,  general  merchants,  failed  about  1843.  William 
Murray  was  book-keeper;  Alex.  S.  Armstrong,  John  Douglas  and 
Francis  Warren  formed  the  firm.  Their  store  stood  two  or  three  houses 
east  of  Robinson  Hall. 

Ephraim  Ayres  established  a  shoe  shop  where  the  City  Hotel  now 
stands,  arid  later  established  a  drinking  saloon  here.  Wm.  Balkwill 
later  built  a  new  house  on  the  site,  and  for  some  years  carried  it  on 
as  a  hotel,  one  of  his  bartenders  being  Wm.  Gordon,  now  a  resident 
of  London.  Balkwill  sold  to  N.  Smith,  who  failed  after  building  the 
brick  hotel. 

On  Aug.  9,  1827,  Patrick  McManus,  a  peddler,  of  London,  was  fined 
one  shilling  for  assaulting  Tillery  Hubbard ;  and  Benj.  Lockwood,  of 
Caradoc,  for  extorting  unlawful  fees  from  Joseph  Elliott, 

The  village  then  consisted  of  thirty-three  families,  representing  one 
hundred  and  thirty-three  souls.  Goodhue  built  the  first  two-story 
frame  house  in  the  place,  unless  we  consider  the  store-room  of  O'Brien 
a  frame,  for  it  was  a  board  concern,  or  Carroll's  frame  cottage,  all  the 
rest  being  made  of  logs  and  mud.  His  store  was  situated  near  the 
corner  of  Eidout  and  Carling  streets,  where  the  Agricultural  Mutual 
building  stood.  Robert  Summers,  with  the  Griffiths  and  others  from 
Westminster,  came  to  aid  in  raising  this  large  frame.  When  it  was 
ready  for  dedication,  Byash  Taylor  cast  a  black  bottle  of  whisky  from 
the  top,  which  struck  the  old  logs,  but  escaped  breaking. 

In  October,  1830,  John  Jennings  opened  a  store  on  Ridout,  near 

218  HISTORY  OF    THE 

King  street,  on  the  northeast  corner.  Early  in  the  winter  of  1831-2, 
John  Scatcherd  opened  his  store  on  lot  18,  north  side  of  Duridas,  almost 
opposite  O'Brien's;  he  establishing  the  first  regular  hardware  store  at 
London ;  and  about  this  time  Thomas  Gibbins  opened  his  store  opposite 
the  court-house  on  Kidout.  Trade  was  very  brisk,  the  merchants  pros- 
perous, population  rapidly  increased,  and  around  this  little  nucleus  a 
flourishing  market  grew.  The  business  centre  was  the  point  now  occu- 
pied by  the  Eoyal  Exchange  building.  The  region  south  of  that  was  a. 
deep  morass,  a  place  to  be  avoided  by  all  but  the  sporting  men  of  the 
period,  who  visited  that  section  as  far  as  the  river  on  duck  shooting 
excursions.  The  site  of  the  old  Robinson  Hall  was  then  a  deep  and 
treacherous  bog,  which  was  considered  a  very  dangerous  spot  for  any 
one  to  approach ;  but  later  logs  were  placed  there,  which  were  ultimately 
covered,  and  in  later  days,  when  the  era  of  sewer  building  was  intro- 
duced, some  hard  work  was  experienced  in  cutting  those  old  hardwood 
timbers.  Outside  the  business  centre  of  that  day  were  many  black 
ash  swamps.  The  foundation  of  that  building  was  made  after  much 
labor.  The  natural  surface  of  the  soil  is  known  to  be  at  least  two  feet 
below  the  cellar  floor,  or  about  twelve  feet  below  the  level  of  Dundas 
street.  In  the  year  we  are  speaking  of  (1829),  Wm.  Hale  was  driving 
a  yoke  of  oxen,  with  cart,  near  the  spot,  and  the  animals,  becoming 
frightened  and  uncontrollable,  plunged  into  this  mire,  and  oxen  and 
cart  in  a  moment  sunk  down  deep.  Goodhue  was  fond  of  relating  an 
anecdote  of  himself  in  connection  with  this  place.  He  was  riding  on 
horseback,  with  a  bag  of  flour  or  corn  thrown  across  the  horse's  neck, 
and  for  the  moment  unmindful  of  his  progress,  he  allowed  the  animal 
to  walk  into  the  pit.  He  saved  himself  by  springing  from  the  horse's 
back  on  to  terra  firma.  The  horse  was  got  out  after  a  great  deal  of 
difficulty,  but  not  so  the  bag  of  corn. 

The  little  village  was  for  some  years  centered  around  the  court- 
house, its  boundaries  being  Wellington  street  on  the  east,  the  river  on 
the  west,  Carling  street  on  the  north,  and  York  street  on  the  south;  but 
these  limits  rapidly  widened.  A  deed  in  the  possession  of  Sheriff 
Glass  shows  that  in  1831  his  father  sold  several  lots  whereon  the  City 
Hotel,  market,  and  principal  Dundas  street  stores  now  stand,  to  Donald 
and  Finlay  McDonald  for  £175,  to  be  paid  in  fat  cattle  and  wheat. 
They  had  but  little  money  in  those  days,  and  trading  was  done  in  this 
manner.  It  is  related  that  Finlay  McDonald  was  found  stealing  lum- 
ber from  Marcus  Holmes'  yard.  Holmes  had  been  missing  lumber  for 
some  time,  and  this  night  waited  up  to  catch  the  thief.  On  discover- 
ing  Fmdlay,he  said  to  him:  "Now,  Findlay,  it  is  troublesome  to  come 
packing  lumber  a  dark  night  like  this;  come  in  the  day-time  with  your 
wagon  after  this." 

Lawrence  Lawrason  is  the  next  important  commercial  figure  in  the 

beginning  of  London.     About  1825  he  opened  the  first  post-office  to 

e  iound  north  of  St.  Thomas— with  the  exception  of  Delaware    About 

the  year  1833  or  1834  he  joined  George  J.  Goodhue  in  mercantile 


business  in  this  city,  which  at  that  time  formed  only  a  small  and  strag- 
gling business,  the  store  being  on  Ridout  street,  immediately  south  of 
the  premises  at  present  occupied  by  Hamilton.  Subsequently  the  firm 
transferred  their  stock  to  the  corner  of  Dundas  and  Ridout  streets, 
where  Osborne's  intelligence  office  is  now  kept :  this  was  burned  in 
1851.  Here  Mr.  Lawrason  remained  some  fifteen  years  ;  and  it  was 
during  this  period,  about  the  year  1834,  that  he  received  the  appoint- 
ment of  Justice  of  the  Peace.  The  firm  subsequently  moved  to  the 
southeast  corner  of  Dundas  and  Talbot  streets,  and  conducted  an  exten- 
sive wholesale  business.  He  died  in  1881. 

About  1825  a  newspaper  mail  was  left  at  the  stage  house  (Trow- 
bridge's)  in  Westminster,  and  later  George  J.  Goodhue  was  appointed 
postmaster  for  that  neighborhood.  In  1828  the  post-office  was  moved 
from  Concession  1,  Westminster,  to  London,  where  Ira  Scho field 
was  appointed  postmaster.  His  office  was  in  his  farm  house,  a  few 
hundred  feet  east  of  the  spot  where  the  great  Convent  of  the  Sacred 
Heart  now  stands.  Benjamin  Higgins,  born  in  Ireland  in  1804,  died 
at  London,.  Aug.  24,  1880.  The  same  year  that  the  post-office  was 
established  here  he  settled  in  London,  and  labored  on  his  ten-acre  farm 
at  Blackfriars'  Bridge  for  years.  In  1831  he  married  a  Miss  Gray, 
who  lived  at  St.  John's.  For  twenty-five  years  he  carried  on  the 
hotel  business  here,  and  conducted  freight  business  between  London 
and  Hamilton  and  Port  Stanley.  His  hotel  stood  where  the  Cronyn 
block  is  now,  the  lot  costing  him  only  $80.  In  1837-8  he  was 
dispatch  bearer.  Henry  Davis,  who  came  to  London  from  New  York  in 
1827  and  established  his  jewelry  store  on  Ridout  street  in  1831,  died  here 
in  1882.  The  McCann  family  arrived  later,  and  have  continued  to  hold 
a  high  place  in  the  estimation  of  the  people.  The  list  of  early  names, 
such  as  the  Cruikshanks,  connected  with  the  beginning  of  London, 
might  be  continued  through  twenty  pages ;  but  as  such  names  are  con- 
nected with  some  special  profession  or  trade,  the  writer  leaves  them  to 
be  dealt  with  in  other  sections  of  this  chapter,  and  refers  the  reader  to 
the  lists  of  early  grocery  and  tavern-keepers. 

Although  the  city  was  "  proclaimed  "  in  1796,  in  1819  Delaware  was 
the  nearest  post-office  to  the  forks.  The  nearest  mill  was  near  Byron, 
kept  by  Sweet  Gardner  and  Sylvester  Reynolds.  The  mill  was  erected 
by  Towusend  and  Tunk,  where  the  Springbank  hotel  now  stands. 
The  water-power  was  taken  from  the  springs.  In  1833  a  mill  was 
built  at  Byron  by  Burleigh  Hunt,  and  was  the  first  run  by  the  waters 
of  the  Thames,  and  the  nearest  bridge  across  the  river  was  at  the  same 
place.  On  Oct.  1st,  1826,  the  logs  for  McGregor's  shanty  were  cut, 
and  Cyrus  Sumner  built  the  first  brick  dwelling-house  later.  In  1831 
Edward  A.  Talbot  started  the  first  newspaper  in  Canada  printed  west 
of  Hamilton.  The  first  lawyers  in  the  young  city  were  John  Rolph 
and  John  Tenbroeck,  each  of  whom  has  left  a  melancholy  history. 
Dr.  Archibald  Chisholm  was  the  first  physician  here,  and  under  his 
auspices  the  City  Hospital  was  established  about  two  and  one-half  miles 



out  on  the  Hamilton  Road.  It  had  accommodation  for  40  patients. 
Almost  contemporary  with  Dr.  Chisholm  were  Dr.  Hiram  Lee,  who 
built  the  first  brick  residence  in  1846,  and  Dr.  Donnelly.  The  latter 
died  in  1832,  fighting  the  cholera.  Dr.  Lee  fell  a  victim  in  1854  to 
the  ship  fever,  which  was  very  virulent  in  the  city  after  the  opening 
of  the  railway.  The  first  market  was  on  the  corner  of  the  court-house 
Square,  corner  of  King  and  Ridout  streets.  It  was  removed  from  that 
to  Wellington  street,  and  finally  to  its  present  position,  corner  of  King 
and  Talbot.  For  a  long  time  the  trade  of  the  city  was  confined  to 
the  west  of  Richmond  street,  and  it  does  not  require  a  very  old  man 
to  remember  the  first  brick  store  that  was  built  on  Dundas  street,  east 
of  Richmond.  It  is  now  occupied  by  Boyd  &  Philips,  and  was  built 
by  Reuben  Short,  who  kept  a  stove  shop  on  the  opposite  side,  of  the 
street.  Twenty-one  years  ago  the  only  brick  buildings  upon  Richmond 
street,  south  of  King,  were  the  Tecumseh  House  on  one  side  and  Geo. 
Nickle's  livery  stable  on  the  other.  The  old  Music  Hall,  on  the  corner 
of  York  and  Richmond  streets,  was  frame,  with  a  brick  front. 

Henry  Groves  ("  Captain  Groves  "),  who  settled  in  London  in  1832, 
died  in  1887,  aged  81  years.  He  remembered  well  the  primitive  days 
of  the  city,  when  he  saw  a  bear  walk  along  Dundas  street,  swim  the 
river  and  enter  the  woods  on  the  western  bank.  He  also  remembered 
the  building  of  the  log  jail  on  the  site  of  the  present  court-house, 
during  the  progress  of  which  the  prisoners  were  chained  to  stumps. 
He  fought  in  two  skirmishes  against  the  Patriots  in  1837-8 ;  was 
High  Constable  for  many  years,  and,  in  1852,  when  an  English  family 
introduced  the  Asiatic  cholera,  he  was  the  only  man  in  London  who 
could  be  found  to  take  care  of  the  stricken  people — Dr.  Donnelly  hav- 
ing died,  and  Dr.  Lee  being  engaged  in  prescribing.  Robert  Summers, 
speaking  of  Groves'  bear  story,  states  the  animal  was  shot  in  the  river 
at  the  Forks  in  the  fall  of  1849  or  1850— Ned  Harris,  a  son  of  Treas- 
urer Harris,  taking  the  carcass  ashore.  The  boys  captured  the  cubs 
in  London  South. 

The  Inquirer,  published  here  in  1840,  gives  an  account  of  London 
as  it  was  in  December  of  that  year: — "  In  the  enumeration  of  the 
various  kinds  of  goods  kept  in  a  general  store,  is  the  advertisement  of 
L.  Lawrason.  In  the  same  line  of  business  we  find  the  rival  cards  of 
John  Jennings,  G.  J.  Goodhue,  Kerr  &  Armstrong,  Douglas  &  Warren, 
Gleunon  &  Co.,  Angus  &  Birrell,  J.  H.  Joyce  and  John  Claris.  Com- 
bining the  business  of  a  general  grocer  with  that  of  a  baker,  we  find 
the  name  of  L.  Perrin,  and  to  regulate  the  digestion  of  the  incongruous 
mass  of  merchandise  which  appears  to  have  been  dealt  out  over  the 
counter  in  the  stores  above  named,  ranging  from  cast  steel  axes  to 
soft  soap  and  Digby  herrings,  Lyman,  Moore  &  Co.,*  and  J.  Salter,  at 
their  drug  establishments  kept  every  variety  of  medicinal  preparation, 
which  they  offer  to  dispose  to  customers, '  sparing  no  pains,'  an  intima- 
tion which  we  hope  they  did  not  intend  literally.  A  flouring  mill 

*  Lyman  came  from  Montreal  with  his  first  partner,  Tim  Farr. 



'  near  the  centre  of  the  town/  was  owned  by  Dennis  O'Brien,  now  the 
Blackfriars'  Mill,  built  about  1834;  John  Talbot  and  Schram  &  Groves 
carried  on  the  auction  and  commission  business  of  town  and  country  ;. 
W.  Horton,  H.  C.  E.  Becher  and  Frederick  Cleverly  announce  their 
willingness  to  look  after  all  legal  matters ;  Alex.  Hamilton  did  the 
shaving  and  hair  dressing;  Simeon  Morrill,  the  tanning;  Yale  & 
Warters  and  S.  Condon,  the  tinning;  E.  Mootry  and  J.  Wells, 
the  tailoring ;  S.  Peters  and  Henry  Leaning  provided  meat ;  U.  C. 
Lee  and  \Vm.  Lee,  brothers  of  Dr.  Lee.  proprietors  of  the  Eobinson 
Hall,  and  the  Mansion  House,  Dundas  street,  kept  sundry  accom- 
modations '  good  for  man  and  beast.'  A  news-room  appears  to  have 
been  among  the  other  advantages  which  London  at  that  early  date 
possessed.  It  was  kept  by  John  Norval,  '  over  J.  W.  Garrison's  store,*" 
access  to  which  was  obtainable  by  payment  of  an  annual  subscription r 
and  a  charge  of '  sixpence  york  per  visit  to  non-subscribers.'  From 
the  above  array  of  names,  trades,  professions  and  callings,  it  will  be 
seen  that  our  predecessors,  if  they  had  the  wherewithal  to  purchase, 
were  in  no  danger  of  suffering  for  want  of  either  the  necessaries  or  the 
luxuries  of  life.  Speaking  of  purchase,  brings  to  our  recollection  an 
advertisement  in  one  of  the  papers  before  us  which  will  give  an  idea 
of  the  '  currency '  of  the  day  : — 


1      one  dollar  per  bushel,  in  Goods,  tor 
good  wheat. 

G.  J.  GOODHUE." 

receiving  Pork  and  Wheat  in  pay- 
ment of  debts,  and  in  exchange  for  goods. 
Part  cash  for  good  Pork. 


London  in  the  Forties. — In  the  foregoing  pages  the  history  of  the 
settlement  is  treated  up  to  its  organization  as  a  village.  In  the  ex- 
haustive municipal  sketch,  one  would  think  that  every  name  connected 
with  the  village  has  a  place ;  and  now  take  a  look  back  to  the  days  of 
the  village  and  town  councils — from  1840  to  1853.  In  April,  1845, 
one  hundred  and  fifty  buildings  were  destroyed  by  fire.  The  territory 
from  Dundas  almost  to  the  river,  and  from  Talbot  to  Eidout,  was 
burned  over,  as  related  in  the  history  of  the  Fire  Department,  except 
the  Balkwill  Hotel,  which  stood  where  the  City  Hotel  stands.  Four- 
years  later  the  Episcopalians,  Baptists  and  New  Connexion  Methodists 
had  each  a  brick  house  of  worship;  the  Wesleyans,  Catholics,  Con- 
gregationalists,  Free  Churchmen,  Secessionists,  Universalists,  Colored 
Methodists  and  Colored  Baptists  had  each  a  frame  church  building.  At. 
this  time  London  had  daily  mail  communication  with  all  towns  on  the 
main  road  from  Montreal  to  Amherstburg,  as  well  as  to  St.  Thomas 
and  Port  Stanley  ;  thrice  a  week  with  Sarnia,  and  twice  a  week  with 

The  journalists  were  Lemon  &  Hart,  of  the  Times,  1844;  George 
Brown,  of  the  Western  Globe,  who  printed  the  paper  at  Toronto,  1845 ; 
Wm.  Sutherland,  of  the  Canadian  Free  Press,  1849 ;  and  John  R 
Lavell,  of  the  Gospel  Messenger,  1848. 


-2'2'2  HISTORY   OF    THE 

The  physicians  in  London  in  1849  were  A.  Anderson,  David  Far- 
row Henry  Going,  A.  McKenzie,  Charles  G.  Moore,  Dr.  Thomas 
Phillips  (then 'County  Coroner),  and  George  Southwick.  They  were 
the  only  physicians  then  in  the  county,  but  others  from  St.  Thomas, 
Vienna  and  Port  Stanley  practiced  here.  The  pioneers— Donnelly, 
Lee,  Chisholm— were  all  gone,  although  Dr.  Lee  did  not  die  until 
1854,  when  ship  cholera  carried  away  himself,  G.  Eoutledge  and  others. 

The  banisters  of  London  and  county  in  1849  were  Henry  Becher, 
K.  Becher,  James  Daniel,  Wm.  Horton,  E.  Jones  Parke,  Thomas 
Scatcherd,  J.  F.  Saxon,  S.  Shanley,  D.  M.  Thompson,  John  Wilson 
.and  Counsellor  Hughes.  Mr.  Thompson  returned  to  Adelaide,  where 
he  is  a  leading  farmer  to-day. 

The  hotels  of  London  in  1849  were:— Hope  Hotel,  by  Wm.  Balk- 
Avill ;  Wm.  Barker's  Hotel ;  Kobinson  Hall,  by  J.  M.  Bennett ;  Ex- 
change Inn,  by  W.  B.  Lee;  Matthew's  Hotel;  McDowell's  Hotel; 
McFie's  Hotel ;  Eobertson's  Hotel ;  British  Exchange,  by  John  Smith ; 
Caledonia,  by  S.  Smith;  Strong's  Hotel;  Kobert  Summers'  Hotel; 
and  Mansion  House,  by  Dave  Thompson. 

The  merchants,  traders  and  manufacturers  were : — 

Adair  &  Thompson Dry  Goods 

Adams,  E Grocer 

Anderson,  M Foundry 

Beddome,  F.  B Bookseller 

Bissell,  Wm Sash  Factory 

Buckley,  R.  H Grocer 

Carling,  Wm Brewer 

Childs,  W.  H Insurance 

Coats,  J Livery 

Code,  Thomas Building 

Collovin,  Matthew  Dry  Goods 

Cox,  B.  &  Co Dry  Goods 

Dal  ton,  Henry Tallow  Chandler 

Darch,  Robert Saddler 

Davis,  Henry Watchmaker 

Dimond,  John Brewer 

Dixon,  Thomas  C Hatter 

Eccles  &  Labatt Brewers 

Elliott,  J Builder 

Ellis,  E.  P .  . .  .Cabinetmaker 

Fennell,  Robert Saddler 

Franklin,  J Insurance 

Fraser,  John Bank  Montreal 

Gibbins,  Joe Saddler 

Gillean,  J Bookseller 

Glass,  Wm Grocer 

Glen,  J Tailor 

Gordon,  Wm Dry  Goods 

Graham,  J.  M Bookseller 

Green  &  Bros Builders 

Gunn,  G.  M Dry  Goods 

Hall,  W Tailor 

Hamilton,  James.. Bank  of  Upper  Canada 

Holmes,  M Carriage  Builder 

Hope,  Birrell  &  Co ...  General  Merchants 

Hyman,  E.  W Tannery 

Jackson  &  Elliott Foundry 

Jarmain,  John Tinsmith 

Jeanneret,  R.  J Watchmaker 

Jennings,  John Livery 

King,  W Saddler 

Lampkin,  H Insurance 

Lawrason  &  Chisholm Merchants 

Lemon  &  Hart Times 

Leonard,  E Founder 

Lowrie,  A Carriagemaker 

McDonald,  Alex Insurance 

Macklin,  J.  C General  Merchant 

McBride,  S Tinsmith 

McFie,  Hugh Grocer 

McFie,  Dan Dry  Goods 

McGill,  Francis Dry  Goods 

McKittrick,  P Tailor 

Magee,  Geo.  J Dry  Goods 

Magill,  Matt Dry  Goods 

Macintosh,  J.  G.  &  Co Dry  Goods 

Marsh,  D.  0 Saddler 

Merrill,  J.  B Cabinetmaker 

Mills,  Wilson. Commission 

Monsarratt,  Chas Commercial  Bank 

Mitchell,  B.  A Druggist 

Moore,  Wm Distiller 

Morrill,  Simeon Tanner 

Mountjoy  &  Sons Cabinetmakers 

Murphy,  D . .  Grocer 

Murray  R.  S.  &  Co Dry  Goods 

Newcombe,  H.  T Printer 

Paul,  A Grocer 

Peters,  Samuel Distiller 

Phillips,  John Dry  Goods 

Pomeroy,  S.  S Insurance 

Plummer  &  Racy .Carriage  Builders 

Raymond,  E Hatter 

Raynard,  John Dry  Goods 



Reid,  Robert Bookseller 

Rielly,  W.  T Livery 

Ridout,  L Hardware 

Rose,  Hugh Grocer 

Salter,  John Druggist 

Smith,  Francis Grocer 

Smith,  A.  &  G Grocer 

Smith,  Roger Miller 

Stewart  Bros Tailors 

Street,  W.  W Gore  Bank 

Sutherland,  W Free  Press 

Talbot,  John Auctioneer 

Till,  W Cabinets 

Tyas  &  Williams Dry  Goods 

Watson,  George Builder 

Williams,  J Druggist 

Wilson,  Robert Grocer 

Winsor  &  Screaton Builders 

A  hundred  names  of  those  who  were  associated  with  the  progress  of 
the  village  prior  to  1849  could  be  given  here,  but  as  such  names  are 
reserved  for  the  pages  devoted  to  the  industries  of  London,  only  those 
who  might  escape  notice  are  here  given.    Samuel  Stansfield,  a  member 
of  London's  first  Council  and  a  resident  for  37  years,  died  in  May,  1882. 
Sergeant  Wm.  Dal  ton  was  born  in  Ireland  in  1822.     After  the  Afghan 
war  of  1842  he  came  to  London,  where  his  wife  died  in  1881,  and  him- 
self in  April,  1885.     He  was  barrack  sergeant  here  for  years.     John 
Parkinson,  who  settled  in  London  in  1839,  died  in  October,  1888. 
Immediately  after  settlement,  he  began   work  in  the   brick-yard   of 
James  Ferguson,  on  Bathurst,  between  Talbot  and  Ridout  streets  ;  but 
for  the  succeeding  35  years  was  an  employe  of  E.  W.  Hyman.     In 
1881  his  wife  met  with  an  accident  at  the  Richmond  street  railroad 
crossing,  which  resulted  in  her  death.     Henry  Coombs,  who  settled  in 
the  London  neighborhood  in  1842.  opened  one  of  the  first  cabinet- 
making  houses  at  London  in  1843  ;  but  the  Ellis  shop  was  in  existence 
at  least  ten  years  prior  to  Coombs'  opening,  because  in  1834  Robert 
Summers  purchased  some  furniture   there.      Old  Dr.  Moore,  a  tall, 
well- educated  Irishman,  was  a  celebrated  physician  in  the  early  years 
of  the  county.     His  death  took  place  in  1842  or  1843.     Dr.  Charles 
G.  Moore  came  afterwards  to  the  city  and  practiced  here  until  his  death. 
Geo.  M.  Gunn  came  to  London  in  1842,  and  entered  into  business  with 
his  brother  William,  who  had  a  general  store  on  Dundas  street,  near 
Robinson  Hall.    The  fire  of  1844  destroyed  their  premises,  so  that  they 
reopened  one  block  east.      Geo.  M.  died  in  1882.     Wm.  Dunbar,  who 
came  here  in  1843,  was  a  partner  of  Geo.  Durand  in  the  blacksmith 
shop  which  then  occupied  the  corner  of  Richmond  and  King  streets.  In 
1845  Durand  moved  to  the  United  States,  when  James  Dunbar  took 
his  place  as  partner,  and  from  1845  to  1879  the  brothers  carried  on  the 
blacksmith  business  on  York  street.     James  Dunbar  settled  in  Middle- 
sex in  1833,  and  died  in  1882.      Captain  Isaac  May,  born  in  Cavan 
County,  Ireland,  in  1821,  settled  at  London  in  1844,  and  died  in  1884. 
He  was  the  pioneer  of  the  steamship  line  between  Cleveland  and  Port 
Stanley,  and  owned  seven  barges  and  two  steamers,  besides  other  craft. 
In  1846  Thomas  Scanlon  carried  on  the  business  of  tallow  chandler. 
Dr.  Henry  Hanson  migrated  to  Canada  in  1844,  and  settled  near  Hyde 
Park  village ;  but  later  took  a  position  in  Dr.  Salter's  drug  store,  studied 
medicine,  and  in    1846    began   the  practice    of  medicine,  travelling 
through  Western  Ontario,  as  there  were  no  regular  physicians  outside 
London,  Sarnia  and  Goderich.     His  death  took  place  in  January,  1885. 



Henry  Coombs'  family  now  own  the  Mansion  house.  In  1832  Stillman 
Olds  was  a  currier,  William  Underwood  and  Isaac  L.  George,  millers, 
of  London,  Wm.  Cooper,  carpenter,  of  Westminster. 

In  April,  1853.  a  great  convention  of  colored  refugees  from  slavery 
was  held  at  London.  The  colored  population  of  the  town  then  was 
276,  and  their  real  estate  was  assessed  at  $13,504.  At  this  convention, 
numbers  of  colored  folk  from  the  Wilberforce  colony  near  Lucan  were 

To  point  out  the  precocious  growth  of  ideas  at  the  close  of  the  period 
it  will  ouly  be  necessary  to  quote  the  following  motion  by  Councillors 
Barker  and  McClary,  made  in  September,  1851.  This  called  attention 
to  the  fact  that  Mr.  Strathy  was  about  building  his  new  house  at  the 
corner  of  Duiidas  and  Eidout,  and  "  That  the  Council  have  heard  with 
regret  that  it  is  to  be  only  two  stories,  which,  in  the  opinion  of  this 
Council,  would  be  very  unsightly  and  offensive  to  those  who  have 
expended  large  sums  in  that  neighborhood  for  the  ornament  and 
improvement  of  the  town."  It  was  well  such  guardians  of  the  beauti- 
ful did  not  pass  an  ordinance  making  it  optional  with  the  people  to 
say  what  class  of  house  Tom,  Dick  or  Harry  should  build  They  may 
have  learned  that  tastes  were  developing,  and  trusted  to  time  to  teach 
even  house  builders  what  harmony  signifies. 

The  opening  of  the  railroad  in  1853  raised  up  new  aspirations.  In 
September  of  that  year,  £200 — not  dollars — were  appropriated  by  the 
Council,  to  celebrate  the  opening  of  the  Great  Western  Eailroad ;  and 
£200  were  granted  to  the  Mayor,  in  recognition  of  his  services  as 
Mayor  and  as  a  director  in  the  railroad  company.  That  ceremony 
introduced  modern  London,  for  with  the  shrill  voice  of  the  locomotive 
came  new  strangers,  some  from  the  world  of  luxury  and  fashion,  some 
from  that  of  labor  and  worth,  all  teaching  lessons,  all  taking  a  part  in 
forming  society  and  building  it  up  from  the  state  of  revelry  to  that  of 

Real  Estate  in  1852-7. — In  1851,  what  is  known  in  modern  days 
as  a  real  estate  boom,  visited  the  town  of  London.  Owing  to  the 
prospects  of  increased  railway  accommodation,  speculators  took  advan  - 
tage  of  the  opportunity,  and  startling  transactions  in  real  estate  become 
of  daily  occurrence.  The  unsuspecting  public  nipped  at  the  gilded 
bait,  and  property  assumed  a  highly  fictitious  value.  Lots  were  pur- 
chased for  prospective  suburban  residences,  almost  as  far  out  as 
Komoka,  at  ridiculous  figures ;  but  the  fond  hopes  of  the  ill-advised 
investors  never  matured,  and  the  excitement  eventually  subsided,  not, 
however,  without  leaving  in  its  wake  the  usual  contingent  of  luckless 

As  an  idea  of  how  properties  sold  at  that  time,  A.  S.  Abbott,  city 
clerk,  tells  of  purchasing  a  lot  of  42  feet  frontage  near  where  the  Abbott 
carriage  factory  now  stands  on  Dundas  street,  between  Wellington  and 
Waterloo,  in  1853  or  1854,  at  $100  per  foot,  and  in  a  year  or  two 
afterwards  he  saw  the  adjoining  lot  sold  for  $13  per  foot.  That  was 


only  one  instance  out  of  hundreds.  The  panic  of  1857  came  to  com- 
plete the  wreck.  A  number  of  men,  some  old  settlers  like  Peter 
McCann,  held  a  large  quantity  of  land  through  the  years  of  depres- 
sion ;  but  now  they  were  compelled  to  sell  it  for  a  trifle,  or  allow  it 
to  pass  from  their  possession. 

Ten  years  after  the  first  railroad  train  entered  London,  commercial 
and  real  estate  men  felt  that  the  days  of  panic  were  over,  and  that  the 
city  had  been  placed  on  a  sure  foundation  of  prosperity.  The  rental 
of  real  estate  in  1863  was  $155,997,  and  the  yearly  value,  when  rental 
was  not  assessed,  $123,335,— or  total  value,  $279,832;  the  taxable  in- 
come was  $451,200,  and  the  total  value  of  personal  property  $521,000. 

Post-office. — The  nearest  post-offices  to  London  were  one  at  St. 
Thomas,  another  at  Ingersoll,  which  was  kept  by  Squire  Ingersoll, 
after  whom  the  town  of  that  name  is  called,  and  the  remaining  one  on 
the  plains  north  of  Hall's  mills,  where  Mr.  Lawrason,  father  of  London's 
police  magistrate,  carried  on  a  combined  post-office  and  general  store. 
The  mails  were  delivered  at  irregular  intervals,  and  on  the  delivery 
days  there  was  always  a  strong  rush  for  the  messages  which  the  iso- 
lated settlers  expected  to  receive.  On  the  settlement  of  the  village, 
an  office  was  established  in  1828,  with  Ira  Schofield  in  charge  ;  but  in 
1829,  Geo.  J.  Goodhue  was  appointed  master,  he  having  previously 
established  the  mail  at  his  store  in  Westminster.  The  office  was  in  a 
small  log  house  on  North  street,  in  an  unsettled  part  of  the  village,  a 
little  east  of  the  entrance  to  the  former  residence  of  L.  Lawrason,  near 
the  Sacred  Heart  Convent.  It  was  a  rude  log  cabin,  and  its  remote- 
ness was  very  inconvenient  to  the  business  community.  Government 
was  therefore  petitioned  for  its  removal,  and  it  was  thereafter  kept  in 
Goodhue's  store.  The  mail  in  those  days  only  came  in  once  a  week, 
which,  however,  was  considered  fast  work  in  view  of  the  few  facilities 
afforded.  Mr.  Goodhue  held  this  office  up  to  1852,  except  during  the 
short  term  of  his  suspension. 

Lawrence  Lawless,  who  in  1852  settled  in  Delaware,  and  was  the 
first  mail  carrier  between  that  village  and  London,  was  subsequently 
clerk  for  Lawrason,  again  for  Goodhue,  and  later  for  Jennings.  Later 
still,  he  was  Assistant  Postmaster  at  Toronto;  but  after  Goodhue 
resigned  the  London  office,  Lawless  was  appointed,  retiring  as  a  super- 
annuate in  1880,  and  dying  September  21,  1882. 

In  June,  1881,  Postmaster  R.  J.  C.  Dawson  was  appointed,  having 
been  connected  with  the  office  since  1852-3.  J.  D.  Sharman,  the 
Assistant  Postmaster,  has  been  in  the  office  since  1859.  In  speaking 
of  those  days,  through  the  Advertiser,  he  says  : — f<  When  I  came  here, 
the  office  was  next  door,  where  Aid.  Moule's  store  is  now.  The  staff 
consisted  of  eight,  all  told.  There  was  L.  Lawless,  the  Postmaster ; 
R.  J.  C.  Dawson,  acting  assistant;  John  Maitland,  Joseph  Gordon, 
E.  D.  Campbell,  F.  French,  and  myself,  clerks.  Mr.  Lawless  is  dead ; 
John  Maitland  is  still  alive,  and  approaching  90  years  of  age  ;  Joseph 
Gordon  is  in  Toronto ;  R.  D.  Campbell,  who  was  a  son  of  the  late 


226  HISTORY  OF    THE 

Judge  Campbell,  of  Niagara  Falls,  and  a  very  fine  fellow,  is  dead  also ; 
and  Fleming  French  is  now  in  the  Ottawa  post-office.  In  1859  there 
were  eight  employe's.  At  the  beginning  of  the  letter  delivery  we  had 
five  carriers,  now  we  have  twenty-five,  while  the  whole  force  of 
employe's  numbers  forty-nine.  Then  the  office  revenue  was  $12,000 
per  annum ;  now  it  is  $47,000.  There  were  only  four  officials  in  the 
Inspector's  department  in  1863  ;  now  there  are  eight.  Gilbert  Griffin 
was  luspector  then;  he  is  now  in  Kingston.  George  Cox  was  chief 
clerk;  he  is  now  living  in  the  northern  part  of  the  city.  Charles 
Whalen  and  Pat.  Dower  were  clerks.  Whalen  is  farming  in  the 
Eastern  township,  and  Dower  is  dead." 

In  1853-4,  while  the  office  was  still  on  Eidout  street,  a  system  of 
letter  delivery  was  obtained.  John  Nichol  was  authorized  by  several 
residents  to  call  for  their  letters  at  the  office,  and  his  system  of  private 
delivery  continued  about  thirteen  years,  the  people  paying  a  direct  tax 
of  one  penny  per  letter  to  Nichol.  Street  letter  boxes  were  placed  Dec. 
21,  1874,  and  later,  the  letter  delivery  system  was  extended  to  the 
city.  The  revenue  from  1876  to  1888  is  stated  as  follows  : — 

1876 $28,12625           1881 $38,31942  1884..          .$42,73559 

1879 32,91350  1882 43,45551  1885 42,51746 

1880 35,804  90  1883 42,502  94  1886 44,309  78 

1887 $45,693  64 

The  revenue  of  1888  will  run  to  about  $47,000.00,  the  fiscal  year 
including  June  30.  The  site  for  the  London  Post  Office  was  purchased 
from  W.  &  J.  Calling  in  1856  for  $8,640.  In  1870-1  an  additional 
tract  of  land  was  purchased.  In  the  fall  of  1858  work  was  commenced 
•on  the  building,  which  was  completed  in  1860,  at  a  cost  of  $30,482.76. 
Up  to  July  1,  1867,  no  less  than  $40,526.06  were  expended  on  con- 
struction, site  and  repairs.  The  original  building  was  carried  out  by 
Mr.  Elliot  from  design  by  Architect  W.  B.  Leather.  Front,  48  feet ; 
rear,  59  feet,  and  depth,  66  feet.  In  1873-4  an  addition  was  made 
.from  plans  by  Architect  Wm.  Eobinson. 

The  Custom  House. — In  J854,  when  London  was  established  a 
•custom  district,  the  office  was  on  the  ground  floor  of  the  building 
opposite  Market  Lane  on  Dundas.  Some  time  later,  Dr.  Hiram  Lee,  a 
son  of  the  dramatist,  was  appointed  Collector,  but  in  1855-6  he  was 
succeeded  by  his  brother-in-law,  James  B.  Strathy,  then  clerk  of  the 
county.  He  held  the  office  until  1878,  when  Eobert  Eeid,  the  present 
Collector,  was  appointed.  The  business  was  carried  on  for  some  time 
opposite  the  City  Hall  on  Eichmond  street ;  again  in  the  Albion 
Buildings  from  1858  to  September,  1872,  when  a  part  of  the  present 
building  was  completed. 

The  site  of  the  Custom  House  was  purchased  in  1869-70  from  St 
Paul's  Church  for  $8,000.  In  the  latter  year  the  work  of  construction 
commenced,  and  continued  until  completion  in  1873-4.  The  main 
building  is  three  stories  high,  covering  30,509  square  feet.  The  one- 
story  annex  covers  1,204  square  feet.  The  outer  walls  of  Ohio  stone 
.are  built  m  the  modern  Italian  style,  from  plans  by  Wm.  Eobinson. 


The  custom  receipts  of  the  port  from  1871  to  1881  are  as  fol- 
lows : — 

1871 $233,126  1874 $304.888  1877 $419,938  1880 $451,751 

1872 263,076  1875 330,232  1878  459,147  1881 541,724 

1873 214,970  1876 353,377  1879 470,510 

The  officers  of  the  Port  of  London  are  Eobert  Eeid,  Collector ;  E, 
S.  Collett,  Surveyor;  Thos.  Miller,  Chief  Clerk;  W.  G.  Flynn,  Clerk; 
J.  L.  Williams,  Clerk  and  Locker ;  Oscar  H.  Talbot,  Clerk ;  Jno.  Sid- 
dons,  Appraiser ;  Geo.  D.  Sutherland,  Dry  Goods  Appraiser ;  Ed. 
Finnegan,  Clerk ;  William  Brett,  Packer ;  Kichard  Irvine,  Landing 
Waiter,  Grand  Trunk  depot ;  Edward  B.  Minhinnick,  Assistant  Land- 
ing Waiter,  G.  T.  R  ;  William  Taylor,  Landing  Waiter  at  Michigan 
Central  depot.  The  outports  connected  are  at  Strathroy  and  Clinton, 
where  James  Taylor  and  John  Irvine  are  Collectors. 

Military  Buildings. — In  1864  two  brick  sheds  and  armories  were 
constructed  on  Central  and  Wellington  streets,  one  113x77  feet,  and 
one  143x43  feet,  in  the  centre  of  Militia  Grounds.  The  large  shed 
was  demolished  by  a  storm.  In  February,  1865,  the  military  barracks, 
then  evacuated  by  the  troops  on  order  of  Governor  Williams,  for  an 
alleged  insult  offered  to  Garrison  Commander  Boles  by  the  Mayor,  were 
for  sale.  In  1864  the  military  also  were  quartered  in  the  McPherson 
carriage  factory.  In  June,  1876,  the  contracts  for  erection  of  brick 
militia  buildings  were  sold  for  $6,342,  J.  Bryan,  J.  Garner  and  A. 
Purdom  being  the  contractors.  The  brick  storehouse  cost  $2,818,  and 
the  caretaker's  house  and  magazine  $5,876  ;  in  all,  $18,136. 

Railroad  Buildings. — The  first  Grand  Trunk  depot  of  1858  was  an 
open  platform  for  freight  and  passenger  business,  just  east  of  Adelaide 
street.  This  was  succeeded  by  a  brick  building.  The  location  was 
inconvenient ;  so  the  company  sought  a  spot  on  Hamilton  Road  and 
Burwell  street,  where  a  frame  shanty  was  erected  18x20  feet,  con- 
structed with  rough  boards.  In  December,  1872,  this  building  was 
destroyed.  The  old  broad-gauge  bed  from  St.  Marys  to  London  was 
changed  to  the  American  gauge  that  year,  and  a  desire  for  improve- 
ment was  manifest ;  but  yet  the  company  switched  an  old  coach  on 
the  west  track  which  was  used  as  office  arid  waiting-room  until  the 
present  buildings  were  opened  Jan.  1,  1875.  The  first  freight  agent 
was  P.  H.  Carter,  who  was  succeded  by  Calvert.  Carter  returned,  but 
was  succeeded  by  Thorp.  Wm.  Whyte  came  in  1874.  In  1879  J.  A. 
Roche  succeeded  him. 

The  Canadian  Pacific  Railroad  depot,  near  the  northern  limits  of 
the  city,  is  also  a  modern  building. 

The  Michigan  Central  depot  and  grounds  are  new  additions  to  the 
city — coming  with  the  railroad.  The  building  is  modern  in  every 
respect,  and  though  not  by  any  means  the  largest,  is  as  substantially 
built  as  any,  and  architecturally  the  neatest  in  Canada. 

Modern  Building  Era. — The  erection  of  the  Tecumseh  House  and 
City  Hall  in  1854-5  ushered  in  the  modern  building  era.  In  1856, 




Dundas  .  . 

.  Screaton. 

.Green  ... 
.  Campbell 

$      800 
1  fiOO 

Adams  .  .  . 
Campbell  .  . 
Darby  .... 
Leonard  .  . 
McGauley  . 

\X  ,  •*  O  /\  i-  r«  i  f\  ]r 

.  Talbot  .   . 
.  Richmond 
..Dundas..  . 

brick,  stone  and  frame  houses  were  added  to  the  few  important  stores 
and  dwellings  which  escaped  the  fires  of  former  years,  and  in  1859  no 
less  than  $81,000  were  expended  on  pretentious  structures.  In  that 
year  the  following  investments  were  made : — 

Owner.  Street.      Builder.  Est'mM. 

New  Bank . .  ..Richmond. .  .$30,000 

Post  Office do.       Campbell  20,000 

Smith,  F Dundas...     do.  6,000 

School Horton. . .  .Garratt..     2,000 

WesleyanCh.. Pall  Mall.,     do.  800 

Wilson,  Capt..  Talbot Moffat . .     3,000 

Wheeler do.  do.  800 

MOO    We.lington...{£°^}  Code.     1,000 

John  Mills,  the  stationer,  who  came  here  in  1858,  makes  this 
statement : — "  There  was  only  one  house  the  other  side  of  Maitland 
street,  and  that  belonged  to  a  Mr.  Rowland,  whose  son  is  in  the  city 
now.  My  store  at  present  is  in  the  heart  of  the  business  part  of 
London.  In  those  days  it  was  near  the  edge,  as  most  of  the  trade  of 
the  city  was  done  west  of  Richmond  street.  Still  there  were  a  num- 
ber of  stores  around  here,  but  nothing  like  there  is  to-day." 

From  this  period  forward  the  enterprise  of  the  capitalist,  of  the 
religious  and  secret  societies,  of  the  hundreds  who  were  searching  for 
pleasant  homes,  went  hand-in-hand  with  the  energy  of  contractors, 
and  gave  to  London  of  the  present  day  well  built-up  business  thorough- 
fares, streets,  and  elegant  residence  streets. 

Queen's  avenue  is  the  most  beautiful  drive  ;  the  rows  of  residences 
along  this  street  are  worth  noting.  Among  the  most  attractive  are  those 
of  John  Labatt,  Geo.  T.  Hiscox,  Dr.  Moorehouse,  Dr.  Campbell,  the 
London  Club,  Wm.  Spencer,  Duffield,  Mrs.  Rock,  Col.  Lewis,  A.  W. 
Porte,  St.  Andrew's  manse,  Dr.  Eccles,  Ed.  Beltz,  J.  K.  Clare,  Mrs. 
Elliott,  W.  D.  Eckert,  J.  B.  Laidlaw,  A.  S.  Abbott,  Gilbert  Glass,  F.  E. 
Leonard,  Major  Larmour,  Chas.  Crawford,  E.  R.  Baynes,  E.  B.  Reed, 
St.  Paul's  rectory,  Philip  Cook,  J.  M.  Denton's  terrace,  A.  Screaton, 
S.  R.  Brown. 

Talbot  street  boasts  of  several  good  residences.  Among  the  best 
are  those  of  Mayor  Cowan,  Mrs.  Meredith,  Robt.  Pritchard,  Carleton 
Terrace,  A.  K.  Melbourne,  Dr.  Fraser,  Harvey's  terrace,  Dr.  Smith, 
Wm.  A.  Lipsey,  R.  J.  C.  Dawson,  A.  M.  Smart,  Alex.  Stewart,  John 
S.  Pearce,  Donald  McDonald,  W.  J.  Saunby,  Wm.  Magee,  W.  C. 
Furness,  Rev.  Canon  Newman,  Alex.  Harvey,  Thos.  S.  Hobbs,  Cam- 
den  terrace,  James  Owrey,  R.  S.  Murray,  Miss  Kennedy,  W.  J. 
Hyman,  Geo.  S.  Birrell,  Hon.  Elijah  Leonard,  to  which  list  must  be 
jidded  Carlirigs'  brewery. 

King  street  is  another  drive,  along  which  are  many  fine  residences 
worth  seeing  Among  these  are  the  homes  of  Dr.  Moore,  John  Wolfe, 
B.  A.  Mitchell,  R.  C.  Struthers,  Wm.  Stevely,  Dr.  Cattermole,  Robert 
Reid,  Inspector  Boyle,  T.  C.  Hewitt,  R.  C.  Macfie,  John  Taylor,  F.  A. 
Fitzgerald,  John  Tanton,  James  H.  Belton,  L.  H.  Scandrett,  Thos.  Pur- 


dom,  Mrs.  Tilley,  Frederick  Rowland,  Wm.  Willis,  John  Adams,  John 
Forsytb,  John  G.  Mclntosh,  Mrs.  Elliott,  Mrs.  Johnston,  Arthur  Wal- 
lace, Mrs.  H.  Davis,  Eobert  McPherson,  H.  Ashplant,  Wm.  Ward,  Dr. 
Tennant,  H.  C.  Green,  J.  L.  Burt,  John  Purdom,  D.  A.  McDermid,  H. 
G.  Abbott,  K.  D.  Dulmage,  and  Mrs.  H.  K.  Brown. 

Among  the  finer  class  of  residences  on  Dufferin  avenue  are  those 
of  John  Ferguson,  J.  W.  Little,  Wm.  McDonough,  George  C.  Gibbons, 
W.  T.  Strong,  C.  W.  Andrus,  St.  Peter's  Palace,  Eev.  J.  F.  Latimer, 
James  C.  Duffield,  Geo.  F.  McCormick,  Wm.  M.  Spencer,  the  Colle- 
giate Institute,  S.  H.  Craig,  J.  B.  Vining,  Judge  Elliot,  Andrew  Cleg- 
horn,  K.  D.  Millar,  Mrs.  Graydon,  Geo.  Laing,  Wilbur  R.  Vining, 
Richard  Irving,  Andrew  Dale,  John  Shopland,  Charles  G.  Cody,  C.  H. 
E.  Fisher,  W.  D.  Buckle,  Frank  Glass,  L.  C.  Leonard,  John  Bowman, 
Alfred  Robinson,  Walter  Bartlett,  W.  T.  Edge,  Colonel  Aylmer. 

There  are  many  other  very  fine  residences  in  London  worth  seeing, 
but  it  is  hardly  possible  to  give  a  full  list.  Among  the  principal  are 
those  of  Colonel  Peters,  on  Maple  street ;  Dr.  Brown,  on  Kent ;  Josiah 
Blackburn,  W.  R.  Meredith,  Mr.  McKinnon,  James  Magee  and  R. 
Bayly,  on  Albert  street ;  John  McNee,  J.  D.  Anderson,  Mrs.  Moore, 
Wm.  E.  Saunders,  James  Reid,  Robert  Reid,  jr.,  and  George  McNab, 
on  Central  avenue  ;  S.  Macdonald,  Dr.  Oronhyatekha,  Chas.  Kent  and 
Joseph  Jeffrey,  on  Lichfield  street ;  Bishop  Baldwin  and  Geo.  Robin- 
son, on  St.  James  street ;  Mrs.  E.  W.  Hyman,  on  Sydenham ;  St.  John 
Hyttenrauch,  J.  1).  Sharman  and  Isaac  Danks,  on  Richmond  street ; 
Wm.  Percy  and  Samuel  Flory,  on  Grosvenor  street;  Henry  Becher 
and  John  Puddicombe,  Huron  College  and  Principal  Fowell's  residence, 
on  George  street ;  Chief  Williams,  on  Colborne  street ;  Nathaniel  Reid, 
on  Waterloo  street ;  Alex.  Johnston,  on  Colborne  street ;  the  Sacred 
Heart  Convent,  on  Dundas  street ;  Samuel  Glass  and  M.  Masuret,  on 
Wellington  street ;  George  Taylor,  on  Adelaide  street ;  Samuel  Craw- 
ford, V.  Cronyn.  Rev.  J.  H.  Robinson,  Wm.  Bowman,  Murray  Ander- 
son. Ben  Higgins,  and  John  B.  Murphy,  on  Dundas  street ;  James  D. 
Smith,  W.  F.  Bullen,  Rev.  J.  B.  Richardson,  Rowland  Dennis  and 
Donald  Morrison,  on  William  street ;  Thomas  Muir,  David  Smith,  C. 
D.  Barr,  Mrs.  Russell  Hardy  and  John  Christie,  on  Waterloo ;  Sheriff 
Glass,  Ed.  Meredith,  L.  K.  Cameron  and  J.  D.  Mcllwain,  on  Colborne 
street ;  Chas.  F.  Col  well,  Joshua  Garrett,  Mrs.  Macbeth,  Thos.  Green, 
M.  D.  Fraser  and  A.  W.  Fraser,  on  Princess  avenue ;  John  Coote,  on 
Oxford  street. 

On  Dundas  and  Richmond  streets  are  several  fine  business  blocks, 
hotels  and  bank  buildings,  and  at  the  corner  of  Richmond  street  and 
Dufferin  avenue,  on  the  old  lot  patented  by  the  Government  to  the 
Church,  is  St.  Peter's  Cathedral,  a  building  that  would  do  credit  to  one 
of  the  oldest  and  most  populous  cities  of  the  continent. 

The  court-house,  jail  and  county  offices  on  Ridout  street  are  very 
primitive  structures.  The  court-house  and  jail  is  a  feudal-looking 
pile,  built  at  the  close  of  an  age  which  dreamt  only  of  keeping  the 


people  in  a  state  of  serai-slavery.     It  is  a  venerable  pile,  but  will  have 
to  go  down  to  make  room  for  a  modern  building. 

The  past  few  years  have  seemed  to  intensify  the  admiration  of 
residents  and  attract  accessions  to  the  population.  New  homes,  new 
school  and  church  buildings  emphasize  these  appearances.  The  beauty 
of  location,  the  enterprise  and  liberality  of  the  founders  and  builders, 
not  more  than  educational  and  social  prominence,  the  superiority  of 
public,  private,  denominational  and  convent  schools,  and  the  compara- 
tively high  state  of  morals  to  be  found  in  the  city,  combine  to  render 
it  a  point  where  merit  will  receive  encouragement  and  assistance. 

With  all  that  has  been  done,  much  remains  to  be  accomplished. 
The  destiny  of  the  city  will  be  reached  when  all,  every  one,  of  the 
animate  barriers  who  are  now  here  find  a  less  progressive  and  more 
congenial  land,  or  are  called  away  to  that  happy  country,  where  for- 
ever they  can  blow  at  Gabriel's  horn. 

Municipal  Histoi^y. — In  former  pages  of  this  work,  devoted  to 
general  history,  an  endeavor  has  been  made  to  fully  portray  that 
period  in  the  history  of  the  city  when  the  primary  steps  were  taken 
to  found  a  colony  and  build  a  town.  Bringing  the  record  down  to  a 
date  when  the  early  settlement,  emerging  from  behind  clouds  of 
disappointment  and  uncertainty,  took  its  allotted  place  among  the 
established  evidences  of  Western  Canadian  enterprise,  it  is  now 
proposed  to  examine  into  a  period  in  the  history  of  the  same  city, 
when,  with  resources  greatly  enlarged  and  territory  extended  by  a 
brilh'ant  career  of  enterprise  and  industry,  it  has  progressed  to  a  degree 
of  perfection  invariably  attending  the  exercise  of  these  incentives. 
Such  success,  born  of  laudable  ambition,  may  have  excited  the  jealousy 
of  rivals,  but  it  has  not  bred  a  mischievous  policy ;  it  has  not  nur- 
tured the  germs  of  domestic  corruption,  which  culminate  in  decay. 
Under  public  and  private  care  the  city  grew  rapidly,  trade  was  ex- 
tended, manufactures  increased,  great  improvements  effected,  additional 
school-buildings  erected,  new  religious  and  secular  societies  organized, 
agricultural  interests  forwarded  by  every  means,  railroads  aided  and 
built,  bridges  constructed,  and  everything  accomplished  which  gave 
promise  of  contributing  to  municipal,  commercial  and  social  advance- 

On  Jan.  30,  1826,  an  act  to  establish  the  district  town  of  the  London 
District  in  a  more  central  position  and  to  annex  the  townships  of 
Walpole  and  Eainham  to  Haldimand  County,  in  the  Niagara  District, 
was  passed.  This  act  provided  that  Quarter  Sessions  and  District 
courts  be  held  within  some  part  of  the  reservation  formerly  made  for 
the  site  of  a  town,  near  the  forks  of  the  Thames  in  the  townships  of 
London  and  Westminster,  in  Middlesex  County,  so  soon  as  a  jail  and 
court-house  be  completed.  The  survey,  as  recorded  in  the  beginning 
of  this  chapter,  was  made,  and  the  work  of  Quarter  Sessions  and  Assize 
Courts  was  begun  here  in  1827.  The  settlement  formed  a  part  of 
i  London  Township  down  to  1840,  when  a  village  government  was 


granted.  From  1842  to  its  incorporation  as  a  city  in  1854,  the  town  wa&  . 
represented  in  the  County  Council,  as  shown  in  the  general  chapter 
on  Quarter  Sessions  and  County  Councils,  but  for  the  last  thirty-four 
years  its  government  has  been  distinct  from  that  of  the  county,  being, 
as  it  were,  one  of  the  principalities  which  Dorchester  dreamt  of  build- 
ing up  out  of  the  wilderness,  differing  only  in  having  men  chosen  by 
men  to  rule. 

Village  of  London  Council. — The  Presidents  of  the  Village  of 
London  from  1840  to  1847  are  named  as  follows: — George  J.  Good- 
hue,  1840  ;  James  Givens,  1841 ;  Edward  Matthews,  1842-3 ;  James 
Farley,  1844;  John  Balkwill,  1845;  T.  W.  Shepherd,  1846;  and 
Hiram  D.  Lee,  1847.  The  Councillors  of  St.  Patrick's  Ward  were 
Dennis  O'Brien,  1840-1  ;  John  O'Neil,  1842 ;  Edward  Matthews,  1843,, 
who  later  shot  himself  where  the  Federal  Bank  was  erected ;  J.  Cruik- 
shank,  1844-5 ;  Wm.  Balkwill,  1846  ;  and  H.  S.  Eobinson,  1847.  The 
Councillors  of  St.  George's  Ward  were  Geo.  J.  Goodhue,  1840;  John 
Jennings,  1841;  John  Claris,  1842-3;  John  Jennings,  1844-5;  T.  W. 
Stephen,  1846  ;  Wm.  Barker,  1847.  The  Councillors  of  St.  Andrew's 
Ward  were  Simeon  Morrill,  1840-1 ;  H.  Van  Buskirk,  1842 ;  Kichard 
Frank,  1843  ;  John  Talbot,  1844 ;  John  Balkwill,  1845 ;  Simeon  Mor- 
rill, 1846  ;  Philo  Bennett,  1847.  The  Councillors  of  St.  David's  Ward 
were  John  Balkwill,  1840-4  ;  John  Blair,  1845  ;  John  O'Flynn,  1846  ;. 
James  Graham,  1847.  The  additional  Councillors,  commonly  called 
"fifth  members,"  were  James  Givens,  1840-1;  Edward  Matthews,, 
1842  ;  John  O'Neil,  1843  ;  James  Farley,  1844  ;  John  O'Flynn,  1845  ; 
Geo.  Thomas,  1846;  Dr.  H.  D.  Lee,  1847.  The  Clerks  of  the  old 
village  were  Alex.  Eobertson,  1840;  D.  J.  Hughes,  1841 ;  W.  K.  Cor- 
nish, 1842-3;  Geo.  Kailton,  1844;  Thomas  Scatcherd,  1845-6;  Henry 
Hamilton,  1847. 

Transactions  of  the  Old  Council. — There  is  no  record  ante-dating 
April,  1843,  when  clerk  W.  K.  Cornish  was  instructed  to  obtain  a 
minute  book  and  the  necessary  stationery  for  the  use  of  the  Police 
Board.  Ezekiel  Whittimore  was  appointed  inspector,  but  the  object 
which  he  was  to  inspect  is  not  named.  The  amount  in  which  the 
treasurer  was  to  give  bonds  was  £1,000  ;  the  clerk,  £500  ;  inspector, 
£100;  assessor,  £250;  constable,  £100;  collector,  £500.  Thomas 
Carling  was  appointed  street  surveyor,  his  pay  being  five  shillings 
for  each  day  engaged.  Wm.  Kobb  was  appointed  constable ;  J.  H. 
Carr,  assessor,  and  John  O'Neil,  collector.  In  May  the  sum  of  £10 
was  granted  to  W.  K.  Cornish  as  rent  for  the  use  of  his  office  to  March, 
1844,  as  Council  Chamber.  James  Givens,  President  of  the  Board,, 
was  ordered  to  surrender  the  bond  of  John  Hughes,  former  clerk  of  the 
village.  An  entry  of  October  23,  1843,  speaks  plainly  on  some  of  the 
habits  and  customs  of  the  times.  "  John  Balkwill,  Esq.,  having 
attended  the  Board  in  a  state  of  intoxication :  ordered,  that  the  constable 
do  remove  him  ;  he  having  done  everything  in  his  power  to  impede 
the  proceedings  of  the  Board."  Later  that  evening  a  second  resolution 


was  carried.  "  John  Balkwill,  Esq.,  one  of  the  members  of  the  Board, 
having  broken  the  windows  of  the  office,  or  instigated  the  same  to  be 
<lone :  ordered,  that  the  Board  adjourn  till  to-morrow  morning."  W. 
K.  Cornish,  village  clerk,  gave  notice  that  he  would  resign,  owing  to 
Balkwill's  conduct. 

In  June  or  July,  1843,  depredations  of  some  character  were  com- 
mitted at  London.  The  Board  offered  £10,  and  Mr.  Whittimore  £5, 
for  the  apprehension  of  the  offenders. 

Major  Holmes,  commanding  the  Twenty-third  Eegiment,  then 
garrisoning  London  (July,  1844),  was  referred  to  clause  eighteen  of 
by-laws,  and  requested  to  prevent  his  men  from  violating  such  clause. 
Henry  C.  E.  Becher,  Charles  Prior,  Alex.  Gordon  and  W.  K.  Cornish 
were  appointed  returning  officers  for  1844.  In  December,  1844,  the 
use  of  the  Board  room  was  granted  to  the  Masonic  Lodge,  on  petition 
of  Alex.  Gordon.  In  January,  1837,  a  petition  from  the  residents  of 
London  asked  the  Quarter  Sessions  Court  to  order  all  dogs  to  be  "  shut 
up  or  shot ;"  but  as  some  of  the  magistrates  were  the  owners  of  the 
worst  dogs  in  the  village,  the  petition  was  left  unnoticed.  A  "dog law," 
however,  was  passed  by  the  Village  Council,  Feb.  2,  1884.  The 
•officers  of  the  Board  for  1844  were  : — George  Eailton,  clerk ;  W.  W. 
t  Street,  treasurer ;  Boyle  Travers,  assessor;  John  McDowell,  collector; 
Philo  Bennett,  constable;  E.  Whittimore,  inspector,  and  Benjamin 
Higgins,  pound-keeper. 

The  municipal  business  of  1845  opened  with  a  meeting  called  to 
protest  against  a  petition  then  in  the  hands  of  the  Government,  seek- 
ing the  amendment  of  the  village  charter.  Thos.  Keir,  Geo.  Eailton, 
Alex.  Gordon  and  D.  M.  Thompson  were  returning  officers.  On  Feb. 
5,  1845,  the  question  of  who  was  elected  to  the  Board  from  St.  Patrick's 
Ward  was  decided  in  favor  of  John  Cruikshank  against  Hugh  Steven- 
son, and  of  John  Balkwill  against  Ellis.  Henry  C.  E.  Becher  repre- 
sented Ellis,  and  Wm.  Horton  represented  Hugh  Stevenson.  John 
Wilson  was  employed  as  village  attorney  in  May,  1845.  The  officers 
of  the  Board  for  1845  were :— W.  W.  Street,  treasurer;  Thomas 
Scatcherd,  clerk;  Boyle  Travers,  assessor ;  John  McDowell,  collector; 
Peter  McCann,  constable;  Ezekiel  Whittimoie,  warden  and  in- 
spector and  Benjamin  Higgins,  pound-keeper.  In  October,  1845, 
Colonel  Talbot  was  asked  to  bring  before  the  Government  the  pro- 
position of  granting  to  the  Town  of  London  all  the  broken  front 
•lots  within  the  village  limits.  In  December  a  new  series  of  by- 
laws appeared  in  the  Times.  In  August,  1846,  George  Thomas,  a 
member  of  the  Board,  moved  to  Chatham.  His  resignation  was  asked 
for  by  letter  of  Clerk  Scatcherd.  Among  the  items  paid  in  April, 
L847,  was  £D  to  H.  C.  E.  Becher  "for  drafting  proposed  new  act  of 
incorporation  of  the  town."  In  1847  Henry  Hamilton  was  elected 
Clerk,  and  John  Brown,  collector,  being  the  only  changes  in  the  list  of 
tfoard  officers,  John  Walsh  having  refused  to  serve  as  inspector. 
Many  of  the  acts  of  the  old  village  do  not  appear  here.  Those  relat- 



ing  to  fires,  licenses,  hospitals,  bonus  to  industries,  police,  schools,  &c., 
will  be  found  under  their  respective  headings. 

Town  of  London. — The  act  to  repeal  the  act  of  incorporation  of 
the  Town  of  London  and  to  establish  a  Town  Council  for  London, 
instead  of  a  Board  of  Police,  was  assented  to  July  28,  1847. 

The  Mayors  of  the  Town  of  London  from  1848  to  1854  are  named 
as  follows :— Simeon  Morrill,  1848  and  1850-1 ;  Thomas  C.  Dixon, 
1849;  Edward  Adams,  1852-3;  and  Marcus  Holmes,  1854. 

The  Council  of  1848  comprised  H.  S.  Kobinson  and  John  Dimond ; 
Wm.  Barker  and  Samuel  Stansfield  ;  Philo  Bennett  and  Michael  Seger ; 
A.  McCormick  and  John  Doyle,  represented  the  wards  respectively. 
In  1849  M.  Anderson  and  Eobert  Gunn ;  William  Barker  and  Thomas 
Carling ;  James  Daniel  and  Philo  Bennett ;  James  Graham  and  Benj. 
Nash.  On  March  1,  1849,  effigies  were  publicly  burned  in  the  mar- 
ket square  of  London.  The  Mayor,  although  asked  by  the  Council  to 
take  action  in  the  matter,  failed  to  notice  the  proceeding.  In  1850, 
each  of  the  wards  was  given  three  representatives  and  the  town  a 
Reeve  and  Deputy.  The  Councilmen  were : — Murray  Anderson,  L. 
Lawrason  and  John  Ashton ;  Thomas  Carling,  H.  C.  R.  Becher  and 
Win.  Barker ;  Simeon  Morrill,  James  Daniel  and  Philo  Bennett ; 
Benj.  Nash,  John  K.  Labatt  and  Edward  Adams.  In  1851  Edward 
Adams  replaced  Lawrason  for  St.  Patrick's  ward ;  Carling,  Becher  and 
Barker  were  re-elected  for  St.  George's  ward ;  Simeon  Morrill,  Oliver 
McClary  and  Marcus  Holmes  for  St.  Andrew's ;  John  K.  Labatt,  D. 
M.  Thomson  and  John  Clegg  for  St.  David's.  In  1852  James  Oliver, 
E.  Adams  and  M.  Anderson ;  T.  Carling,  W.  Barker  and  J.  C.  Mere- 
dith ;  Marcus  Holmes,  James  Reid  and  Oliver  McClary ;  James  Daniel, 
Geo.  Code  and  John  Clegg,  represented  the  several  wards.  In  1853 
the  first  named  two  wards  were  represented  as  in  1852  : — Marcus 
Holmes,  James  Cousins  and  Ellis  W.  Hyman  represented  St.  Andrew's ; 
John  Scanlan,  Peter  Schram  and  James  Daniel,  St.  David's.  Mur- 
ray Anderson  was  Reeve,  and  Wm.  Barker,  Deputy  from  1840  to  the 
close  of  1852.  Wm.  Barker  in  1853-4,  with  Marcus  Holmes,  Deputy 
in  1853,  and  Murray  Anderson  in  1854. 

In  1854  Elijah  Leonard  replaced  Oliver  for  St.  Patrick's,  Robert 
Wilson  replaced  J.  C.  Meredith  for  St.  George's,  St.  Andrew's  Ward 
retained  its  three  representatives  of  1853,  while  James  Moffat,  John 
Blair  and  John  Clegg  were  the  Councilmen  elected  for  St.  David's 

Alfred  Carter  was  the  first  clerk  of  the  old  town  in  1848.  James 
Farley  succeeded  him  in  1849,  and  held  the  position  until  the  town 
government  was  changed  into  a  city  government,  Jan.  L,  1855. 

Transactions  of  Town  Council. — The  transactions  of  the  old 
Town  Council,  like  those  of  the  Village  Council,  were  of  such  a  varied 
character,  that  like  them,  they  are  scattered  throughout  this  chapter, 
and  some  find  a  way  into  county  history.  On  Aug.  17,  1847,  Mr. 
Barker  was  called  to  apologize  for  the  use  of  abusive  language  to  , 


234  HISTORY  OF    THE 

brother  members  of  the  Board  the  day  before.  In  August  Collector 
McDowell  resigned,  when  A.  S.  Abbott  was  appointed  to  that  posi- 
tion. In  September  Clerk  Carter  refused  to  pay  over  moneys  alleged 
to  have  been  collected  by  him,  to  the  new  Council.  In  October  the 
Council  enacted  that  all  religious  societies  using  the  Town  Hall  should 
pay  two  and  a-half  shillings  per  night.  The  New  Connexion  Metho- 
dist Society  was  permitted  to  put  up  an  extra  stove  in  the  Council 
room.  Mr.  McClary  was  town  surveyor  and  engineer. 

In  January,  1849,  the  election  case  of  Balk  will  vs.  Nash  was  before 
the  Council.  There  were  many  witnesses,  who  proved  that  Balkwill, 
since  giving  up  house- keeping,  still  resided  here,  while  others  proved 
him  only  to  be  a  visitor.  The  Council  decided  in  favor  of  Nash,  who 
was  declared  Councilman  for  St.  David's  Ward.  James  Farley  was 
chosen  clerk  ;  and,  on  motion  of  Barker,  seconded  by  Bennett,  a  vote 
of  thanks  was  given  to  ex-Clerk  Charles  Hutchinson  for  the  efficient 
and  satisfactory  manner  in  which  he  fulfilled  the  duties  of  his  office. 
A.  S.  Abbott  was  reappointed  collector,  with  Fenser,  Stead  and  Plum- 
mer  assessors. 

On  February  7  the  Council  convened  to  review  the  draft  of  a  bill 
providing  for  a  general  municipal  incorporation  law,  and  the  town  was 
divided  into  Centre,  North  and  South  Wards.  Henry  C.  E.  Becher 
was  appointed  town  solicitor  to  succeed  John  Wilson. 

In  January,  1850,  Eeeve  Anderson  was  chosen  to  represent  the 
town  in  the  County  Council,  with  Deputy-Reeve  Nash.  James 
Farley  was  appointed  clerk;  Peter  McCann,  High  Bailiff;  Captain 
Caddy,  engineer;  W.  W.  Street,  treasurer;  A.  S.  Abbott,  clerk. 
Harding  O'Brien,  Hugh  Stevenson  and  John  McDowell  were  ap- 
pointed assessors  for  St.  George's  Ward ;  John  Plummer,  A.  Lowrie 
(succeeded  by  J.  Talbot)  and  Peter  Schram,  for  St.  Patrick's  ;  John 
Scanlon,  E.  P.  Ellis  and  John  Matthews,  for  St.  Andrew's;  James 
Elliot,  Henry  Green  and  Thomas  Fraser,  for  St.  David's.  The  constables 
then  appointed  for  the  wards,  in  the  order  as  given,  were  Thomas 
Fletcher  and  W.  McAdam ;  Patrick  McLaughlin,  John  Booth  and 
Thomas  Wiggins.  A.  W.  Griffith  was  appointed  inspector,  with  John 
Lowrie.  Samuel  H.  Parke  was  reappointed  inspector  of  weights  and 
measures.  The  salaries  were  :— Clerk,  £55  ;  treasurer,  £25  ;  engineer, 
£50;  collector,  £45;  high  constable,  £25;  inspectors,  £12  10s.  Od. 
each  In  May,  1850,  Councillor  Labatt  asked  the  Council  to  proclaim 
May  24th  a  holiday. 

In  April,  1852,  tenders  for  surveying  the  town  were  received  from 
Samuel  Peters,  £223;  John  Tally,  £593;  Sandford  Fleming,  £125 ; 
Robert  Inms,  £110;  Charles  Fraser,  £169;  W.  B.  Leather,  £293; 
Geo.  P.  Leddy,  £180 ;  and  William  McClary,  £195.  The  work  was 
awarded  to  Samuel  Peters.  In  July  W.  W.  Street  resigned  the  office 
of  Treasurer  (which  he  held  for  12  years),  when  John  Brown  was  ap- 
pointed. In  December  the  Council  agreed  to  attend  the  funeral  of 
Geo.  Lode,  a  late  member.  The  gentlemen  were  also  kind  enough  to 


themselves  to  order  "18  pairs  of  men's  black  kid  gloves  and  crape, 
and  a  sufficient  quantity  of  white  satin  ribbon,"  so  that  they  could  at- 
tend the  funeral  in  state. 

An  act  vesting  a  portion  of  Church  street  in  the  Board  of  Works 
was  approved  June  14,  1853.  John  and  William  Carling,  William  T. 
Eenwick  and  James  S.  Thompson  were  owners  of  certain  lots  bounded 
on  the  west  by  Church  street,  and  their  petition,  on  which  the  act  was 
based,  pointed  out  that  Church  street  was  rendered  useless  by  the 
opening  of  the  new  or  Sarnia  street ;  that  they  received  no  compensa- 
tion therefor ;  and  so  it  was  ordered  that  the  Board  of  Works  sell  to 
the  owners  named  that  portion  of  Church  street  abutting  their  lots  as 
a  consideration  for  their  property  appropriated  to  Sarnia  street. 

On  Sept.  29,  1855,  the  Council  granted  £50  to  celebrate  the  fall  of 
Sebastopol,  and  ordered  the  police,  fire  brigade  and  people  to  turn  out. 
Councillors  Glass,  Leonard,  McBride,  Schram,  Carling  and  Kermott 
were  appointed  to  manage  the  affair.  In  October,  1855,  the  Governor- 
General  was  officially  received.  In  December  a  visit  from  the  City 
Council  and  Fire  Department  of  Detroit,  Mich.,  was  frustrated  by  the 
Great  Western  Eailway  refusing  to  lower  the  regular  fare.  The  Lon- 
don Council  consoled  the  would-be  visitors  with  the  promise  that  on 
the  completion  of  the  London  &  Port  Stanley  Railroad  they  could 
come  to  the  Port  by  steamer  and  thence  to  London  free. 

Parks. — Sixty-two  years  ago  London  was  all  a  park.  For  a  decade 
prior  to  1826  the  country  at  the  Forks  was  known  to  some  of  the  settlers 
of  the  seven-mile-woods  of  Oxford,  of  the  Buckwheat  River  settlement  in 
Dorchester,  of  Westminster,  Delaware  and  London  Townships.  In 
1816  Monseigneur  Plessis,  of  Quebec,  visited  the  place,  with  Rev.  Mr. 
Kelly  and  the  Abbe  Gauvreau,  on  their  return  from  Sandwich ;  but  of 
all  who  passed  this  way  since  Simcoe  and  his  staff  camped  at  the  Forks, 
not  one,  except  Bishop  Plessis,  considered  the  beautiful  place  worth 
notice.  It  was  all  a  park,  fit  for  the  aborigines  to  dwell  in ;  their  most 
picturesque  and  one  of  their  most  profitable  hunting  grounds.  The 
surveyor  came  with  his  chain  and  axe,  the  spell  of  the  wilderness  was 
removed,  and  the  trees  of  a  century  began  to  disappear.  Andrew 
Yerex,  who  looked  in  on  this  scene  in  1824,  states  that  on  his  arrival 
in  the  fall  of  1824  the  place  where  London  now  stands  was  a  dense 
forest,  and  only  two  concessions  of  Westminster  were  fairly  settled. 
The  roads  were  scarcely  more  than  trails  through  the  woods,  marked 
by  the  blazed  trees,  which  formed  conspicuous  landmarks  along  the 
route.  In  fact  there  was  but  one  line  that  could  really  be  termed  a 
thoroughfare,  that  being  the  Longwoods  road,  or,  as  it  was  then  termed, 
Westminster  street,  although  there  was  another  road  leading  to  St. 
Thomas.  That  place  was  then  called  a  village,  and  possessed  some 
importance,  as  it  had  about  a  dozen  houses. 

Little  did  the  early  inhabitants  estimate  the  value  of  trees ;  they 
were  an  incumbrance,  and  their  wholesale  destruction  was  looked  upon 
with  pleasure ;  but  with  all  the  ravages  of  commercial  progress  one 



little  grove  remained  to  receive  as  it  were  the  first  railroad  train  in 
1853.°  That  year  Alex.  Tytler  arrived  here,  and  speaking  of  the  old 
forest,  by  the  tongue  of  the  Advertiser,  in  Oct.,  1*88,  he  says  :-— 
"  When*!  came  here  there  was  no  London  East,  no  London  South,  nor 
no  London  West.  There  were  a  few  scattered  houses  over  there,  but 
you  could  fire  a  cannon  off  from  the  top  of  the  hill  without  the  least 
danger  of  doing  any  damage.  Why,  twenty  or  twenty  five  years  ago 
I  helped  to  cut  trees  down  on  Dundas  street.  It's  not  so  very  long 
ago  since  a  group  of  trees  grew  on  the  corner  of  Talbot  and  Dundas 
streets.  I  helped  to  clear  them  away." 

The  inhabitants  of  later  days,  however,  learned  of  the  loss  sus- 
tained through  want  of  judgment  in  their  predecessors.  Thousands  of 
dollars  had  to  be  expended  in  an  effort  to  secure  for  the  residence  streets 
and  parks  of  the  present  time  suitable  shade  trees.  Even  the  court- 
house square,  which  the  vandal  officers  of  1827-8  had  cleared  of  the 
old,  old  trees,  so  that  they  could  chain  their  prisoners  to  the  stumps, 
had  to  be  replanted,  and  a  little  while  ago  many  of  the  great  pines 
which  stood  in  Salter's  grove  had  to  give  way  to  the  Exposition  build- 
ings or  to  the  race  track.  Never  will  pine  grow  here  again  like  those 
monarchs  of  the  grove.  From  Carling's  Creek  to  Wellington,  a  dense 
pine  forest  existed — all  buckwheat  pine  of  young  growth— until  Thos. 
Waters  built  his  saw-mill  above  Hy man's  present  tannery. 

Victoria  Park  was  so  named  by  the  Governor-General,  August  27, 
1874.  This  park,  says  the  Advertiser : — "  Comprises  about  sixteen 
acres,  and  is  fast  becoming,  as  the  trees  grow  larger,  one  of  the  loveli- 
est spots  in  the  city.  The  site  where  it  now  stands  originally  belonged 
to  the  Imperial  Government,  who  reserved  it  for  military  purposes. 
In  1837,  when  they  were  hurrying  out  troops  to  this  country  to  sup- 
press the  rebellion,  a  long  frame  barracks  was  erected  upon  the  ground 
for  their  accommodation,  and  for  many  years  after  that  British  troops 
were  quartered  therein.  In  time  this  immense  barracks  began  to 
decay,  and  the  troops  deserted  it.  It  finally  became  an  eyesore  to  the 
city,  and  the  resort  for  characters  of  the  worst  sort,  who  made  a  regu- 
lar borough  out  of  it  for  themselves.  It  gave  the  whole  neighborhood 
a  name  from  which  it  took  years  to  recover,  and  finally  one  night  it 
caught  fire  and  was  totally  destroyed.  This  property,  long  before  this 
time,  had  been  transferred  from  the  Imperial  to  the  Dominion  Govern- 
ment, and  subsequently  by  the  Dominion  Government  deeded  to  the 
city  of  London.  Victoria  Park  was  then  laid  out,  and  in  a  few  years 
an  unsightly  commons  with  a  tumble -down  old  barracks  on  it  and 
partially  surrounded  by  a  stump  fence  was  transformed  into  the  beauti- 
ful place  it  now  is.  But  when  the  park  was  laid  out  London  was  not 
as  large  as  it  is  now,  nor  had  its  residents  such  metropolitan  ideas. 
They  were  at  that  time  very  fond  of  allowing  their  cows,  horses,  pigs 
and  geese  to  roam  at  large,  destroying  what  they  pleased.  Therefore 
the  Council  in  its  wisdom  had  a  high  picket  fence  put  up  around  the 
park.  In  time  this  fence  decayed  and  became  an  eyesore.  For  years 



the  Advertiser  called  for  its  removal  and  advised  the  putting  down  of 
straight  walks  from  corner  to  corner,  to  stop  people  cutting  pathways 
through  the  grass.  However,  the  Advertiser's  views  were  too  far 
ahead  of  those  of  the  Council  to  prevail  at  once,  but  in  the  end  the 
suggestions  had  to  be  acted  upon.  First  the  fences  went  down,  and 
this  year  Aid.  Taylor  at  once  saw  the  advantage  of  straight  walks,  and 
had  them  cut  out.  The  removal  of  the  fences  alone  around  Victoria 
Park  had  the  effect  of  raising  the  value  of  property  in  the  neighbor- 
hood very  considerably.  When  the  trees  on  it  get  a  little  larger,  there 
will  probably  not  be  another  spot  like  it  in  the  Province." 

In  December,  185G,  St.  James'  Park  was  leased  to  Thomas  Francis 
under  certain  conditions  for  six  years,  which  lease  was  extended  in 
1857  to  ten  years.  In  August,  1860,  an  item  of  £5  for  the  removal 
of  "  Eussian  guns  "  appears.  In  December,  1860,  carriages  were  pre- 
pared for  them,  and  they  were  placed  in  position.  In  1855  a  resolu- 
tion to  fence  the  grounds  deeded  to  the  city  for  a  public  park  by  Col. 
Burwell,  was  carried. 

The  Exhibition  Grounds. — In  April,  1878,  Benj.  Cronyn  and  90 
others  petitioned  the  Council  for  leave  to  enclose  Salter's  Grove  and 
convert  it  into  a  public  park.  This  petition  was  granted,  and  Recrea- 
tion Park  became  an  established  fact.  The  name  Queen's  Park  was 
subsequently  bestowed  upon  the  ground.  Speaking  of  this  park,  the 
Advertiser,  in  its  great  issue  of  Oct.  29, 1888,  says : — "  While  Victoria 
Park  by  the  art  of  man  was  transformed  from  an  eyesore  into  a  thing 
of  beauty,  Queen's  Park  was  made  what  it  is  by  nature.  Of  course 
nature  has  been  aided  and  abetted  of  late  years  by  the  City  Council, 
but  Queen's  Park  was  purchased  by  the  Council  because  of  its  natural 
advantages.  Before  coming  into  possession  of  the  corporation  it 
belonged  to  the  late  Dr.  Salter,  after  whom  it  was  called  "  Salter's 
Grove."  Some  fifteen  or  eighteen  years  ago,  when  the  fever  for 
parks  struck  London,  it  was  purchased  by  the  city  for  some  $11,000. 
It  was  then  in  the  county,  or  what  was  generally  known  as  London 
East,  although  at  that  time  London  East  was  a  small  place.  It  has 
proved  a  good  investment,  and  the  land  which  then  cost  $11,000 
would  in  all  likelihood  now  bring  $30,000  or  $40,000.  At  odd  periods, 
after  its  purchase  spasmodic  efforts  of  a  costly  character  were  made  to 
improve  and  beautify  it,  but  without  result.  Fences  were  put  up,  a 
circular  half-mile  race  track  built,  a  baud  stand  erected,  and  so  on.  It 
was  not,  however,  until  the  Western  Fair  was  removed  there  that  it& 
improvement  was  gone  about  in  a  systematic  manner.  It  will  be  re- 
membered that  the  people  by  a  large  majority  decided  to  sell  the  old 
Fair  Grounds  in  the  northern  part  of  the  city.  The  people  by  another 
vote  rejected  Carling's  farm  as  a  Fair  site,  and  selected  Queen's  Park. 
As  a  consequence,  some  $70,000  has  been  expended  upon  it  in  erecting 
buildings  and  beautifying  the  grounds.  A  fine  half-mile  race  track 
has  been  graded  on  the  eastern  side.  The  grounds  have  been  leveled r 
and  handsome  buildings  erected  here  and  there.  When  the  good  work 


is  completed  London  will  have  the  finest  fair  grounds  on  the  con- 

The  city  by-law  establishing  the  Park  is  dated  May  5.  1879,  article 
3  providing  that  Benjamin  Cronyn,  Andrew  McCormick  and  William 
H.  Birrell  be  trustees  of  the  Park ;  and  may  fence,  improve  and  erect 

In  June,  1868,  the  court-house  grounds  were  granted  to  the  city 
for  park  purposes,  the  condition  being  that  the  grounds  should  be 
planted  with  ornamental  trees. 

Bridges. — Up  to  1826V  and  for  some  years  later,  when  the  settlers 
found  it  necessary  to  cross  the  river,  they  had  recourse  to  two  bridges, 
that  being  the  total  number  then  existing.  One  of  these  stood  a  little 
below  where  the  water- works  machinery  is  now  located  at  Spring- 
bank,  and  was  known  as  ",  Garner's  bridge."  It  was  a  rough,  old- 
fashioned  structure,  plainly  but  substantially  constructed.  The  petition 
was  gotten  up  by  Gardner  and  Eeynolds  in  1824,  and  the  bridge  was 
finished  in  1825.  Contemporary  was  the  Byron  bridge.  There  was  no 
» contractor,  the  people  forming  a  bee,  drawing  the  timber  in  the  fall  of 
1824,  and  building  the  structure  at  once.  Among  the  builders  were 
Duncan  Mackenzie,  Munroe,  the  blacksmith,  Robert  Summers,  and 
others.  The  bridge  at  Doty's  was  built  up  over  the  South  Branch,  near 
the  Dorchester  line,  about  the  year  1825.  In  the  fall  of  1826  West- 
minster, or  York  street,  was  erected,  and  then  Blackfriars.  On  Aug. 
17,  1847,  the  question  of  rebuilding  Wellington  bridge  was  before  the 
Board,  as  the  Inspector  reported  it  dangerous.  A  bridge  at  the  foot  of 
Kidout  street  was  constructed  in  1848.  A  debenture  was  issued  to 
Benjamin  Gaman  in  December,  1849,  for  £96  6s.  2d.,  being  6  per 
<jent.  interest,  for  completing  work  on  bridge  and  approaches,  presum- 
ably Wellington  street.  In  February,  1831,  Blackfriars'  bridge  was 
completed,  being  the  second  bridge  built  at  this  point.  In  March, 
1851,  thanks  were  tendered  to  the  persons  who  tried  to  save  the  bridge 
at  the  foot  of  Ridout  street  during  the  freshet  of  Feb.  24 ;  also  to 
Capt.  Caddy  for  his  exertions  toward  saving  other  bridges,  while  £1 
was  awarded  Arthur  Wallis,  Loop  Odell,  Lyman  Griffith  and  Wil- 
liam Tibbs  for  saving  Wellington  street  bridge.  In  August,  1851, 
arrangements  for  rebuilding  Blackfriars'  bridge  were  made,  and  sewers 
down  York  and  Richmond  street  were  constructed.  The  bridge  over 
Mill  Creek,  on  Talbot  street,  was  begun  in  August,  1852.  The 
Victoria  Bridge  Company  were  engaged  in  building  their  bridge  in 
July,  1854. 

In  September,  1871,  the  bridges  over  the  Thames,  one  at  the  foot 
of  Dundas  and  one  at  the  foot  of  Oxford  street,  were  authorized  and 
$1,000  appropriated  to  each,  to  be  paid  as  soon  as  a  sufficient  sum 
would  be  subscribed  for  building  either  bridge.  Victoria  Bridge  was 
wholly  swept  away  February  14,  1874.  There,  on  July  21,  Mrs.  Van 
Wormer  and  Miss  Elliott  were  drowned.  The  great  flood  of  July,  1882, 
was  first  discovered  by  Mr.  Thompson,  of  the  Advertiser,  at  about  two 


o'clock  in  the  morning.  This  did  much  damage  in  London  West, 
carrying  away  Kensington  and  Oxford  street  bridges,  and  drowning 
about  twelve  persons. 

The  bridges  round  London  have  cost  in  the  aggregate  over  $150,000 
of  hard  cash,  to  put  up.  The  most  striking,  of  course,  are  the  railway 
bridges,  of  which  there  are  three,  two  on  the  main  line  west  of  the  city 
and  one  on  the  Port  Stanley  branch.  They  are  constructed  entirely  of 
iron  and  stone,  and  are  all  some  300  or  400  feet  in  length.  For 
vehicle  traffic  there  are  seven  iron  bridges  surrounding  the  city,  viz., 
Clark's  and  Victoria  to  the  south ;  Westminster,  Kensington,  Black- 
friars'  and  Oxford  street  to  the  west ;  and  Brough's  to  the  north.  The 
bridge  on  Adelaide  street  north,  which  is  wholly  within  the  county, 
is  the  only  wooden  structure  in  the  neighborhood  of  London. 

Sidewalks  and  Regulating  Laws. — William  Blinn  attended  school 
in  early  years  where  the  market  house  now  stands,  and  later  put  in 
the  first  street  crossing  from  Douglass  &  Warren's  store  to  the  point 
where  the  Mansion  House  is.  In  May,  1843,  Benjamin  Nash  was 
fined  seven  shillings  for  letting  his  house  stand  out  thirteen  feet  on 
Thames  street.  He  was  ordered  to  remove  it  within  two  weeks. 

Under  date  of  May  29,  it  is  ordered  "  that  the  carpenter  do  inspect 
the  plank  from  Birrell's  store  west  to  Eidout  street,  thence  up  Eidout 
street  north  to  School-house  Corner,  and  that  he  make  the  same 
secure ;  and  any  persons  having  cellar  doors  on  the  sidewalk  may  be 
allowed  to  secure  the  same  at  their  own  expense,  subject  to  the  appro- 
val of  the  carpenter."  At  this  time  the  office  of  village  carpenter  was 
filled  by  George  Watson.  The  Fire  Company's  acccount  amounted  to 
£5  19s.  3Jd.,  which  amount  was  ordered  to  be  paid  to  Wm.  Till  in 
May.  By-law  No.  51  provided  "that  hereafter  no  cows  shall  be 
milked,  slopped,  or  otherwise  fed  on  any  of  the  sidewalks  in  the  Town 
of  London." 

At  this  time,  June,  John  Balkwill  was  appointed  pathmaster  for 
St.  David's  Ward,  John  Claris  for  St.  George's,  Samuel  Peters  for  St. 
Patrick's,  and  Eichard  Frank  for  St.  Andrew's.  James  C.  Little  was 
fined  seven  shillings  u  for  riding  on  the  sidewalk  "  in  July.  Lawrence 
Lawrason  was  taxed  £3  3s.  9d.  for  sidewalk  in  front  of  his  house. 
From  an  order  dated  September  12,  1843,  it  appears  that  the  streets 
of  the  village  were  very  primitive.  This  order  provided  "  that  the 
water  table  be  properly  fixed  on  Eichmond  street,  between  North  and 
Dundas  street,  and  the  drain  on  the  east  side  be  deepened  and  enlarged, 
and  a  cross  drain  be  made  across  Dundas  street."  The  street  inspector 
ordered  the  platform  in  front  of  Colwell's  chair  factory  on  Eidout 
street,  and  one  on  lot  15,  north  side  of  King  street,  to  be  removed  in 
October.  A  number  of  persons  were  fined  in  November,  1843,  for  riding 
on  the  sidewalks,  among  whom  was  the  popular  Eev.  Patrick  O'Dwyer. 
A  sidewalk  on  the  west  side  of  Talbot  street,  from  Dundas  to  King 
street,  was  authorized  in  November,  1843.  A  plank  sidewalk  on  King 
street,  from  Clarence  to  Eichmond,  was  laid  down  in  October,  1845. 



In  1846  Hugh  Stevenson  petitioned  to  have  a  crossing  place  on  Dun- 
das  street,  opposite  Thomas  Craig's  book  store.  A  plank  walk  from 
the  Commissariat  office  to  Wellington  Bridge  was  authorized  in  April, 
1847.  In  July,  1847,  £300  were  appropriated  for  improving  the  town. 

Cemeteries. The  first  burial  ground  was  that  of  St.  Paul's,  while 

the  Potter's  Field  was  beyond  the  barracks.  Another  cemetery,  just 
west  of  Salter's  Grove,  on  the  south  side  of  Dundas,  was  abolished 
some  years- ago. 

Mount  Pleasant  Cemetery  was  established  in  1874  as  a  public 
cemetery.  Samuel  McBride  was  then  secretary,  and  Wm.  Saunders 
treasurer  of  the  Association. 

Oakland  Cemetery,  on  Francis  street,  is  the  parliamentary  name  of 
the  old  Presbyterian  or  Proudfoot  cemetery  and  that  of  the  New  Con- 
nexion Methodist  Society,  just  outside  Mount  Pleasant  burial  ground. 
The  Cemetery  Company  was  formed  in  the  spring  of  1882,  with  John 
Plummer,  president ;  Charles  Elliott,  secretary ;  John  Mills,  treasurer ; 
with  Rev.  Dr.  Proudfoot,  Eph.  Plummer,  Mnian  Wilson,  John  Tanton 
and  J.  Johnson,  trustees,  and  Col.  Moffatt,  James  Scale,  D.  Darvill 
and  Robert  Reid,  a  committee  on  improvement,  all  forming  the  Board. 
Mr.  Webley  was  appointed  caretaker,  and  work  on  the  ornamentation 
of  the  grounds  was  carried  out  by  him. 

Woodland  Cemetery,  a  recent  addition  to  the  burial  grounds  of  the 
city,  in  Westminster,  is  well  kept ;  while  old  St.  Paul's  graveyard,  long 
since  removed,  was  another  of  the  fields  where  many  early  settlers 
were  laid  to  rest. 

The  first  record  of  interment  in  the  London  Catholic  Cemetery  is 
made  under  date  August  18,  1850,  when  Felix  McLaughlin,  aged 
about  60  years,  was  buried ;  the  funeral  services  being  performed  by 
Rev.  Thadeus  Kirwan.  In  October,  Michael  Flood  was  buried  there, 
also  Thomas  O'Mara,  aged  50  years ;  Peter  Logan,  aged  44  years,  and 
James  Bahan  and  James  Christie,  infants.  The  first  interment  in 
Mount  St.  Peter's  was  that  of  John  Kennedy,  July  16,  1857.  Up  to 
July  18,  1870,  there  were  929  burials  in  this  cemetery,  and  since  that 
time  up  to  August,  1888,  1,295  burials.  In  1815  a  burial  ground  was 
established  in  Westminster  on  lands  belonging  to  Peter  McNames  and 
James  Sheldon,  which  was  donated  by  them.  This  old  cemetery  is  on 
Brick  street,  on  the  Commissioner's  road,  and  is  the  resting  place  of 
many  pioneers  of  London  and  Westminster. 

Streets  (md  Roadways. — Harding  McConnell  was  paid  £3  in 
August,  1843,  for  cutting  down  a  hill  on  Bathurst  street,  between 
Ridout  and  Thames  streets.  At  this  time  the  question  of  "turnpik- 
ing"  east  Bathurst  street  was  reported  favorably.  In  August,  1843, 
William  Frank  was  given  the  turnpike  contract.  Charles  Hutchinson 
was  granted  the  contract  for  opening  York  street  east  to  the  reserve 
from  St.  Paul's  Church,  the  sum  being  £15  15s.  Od.  The  road  from 
Wellington  street  east  to  the  reserve  from  St.  Paul's  Church  was 
ordered  to  be  opened  and  graded  in  Oct.,  1843. 


On  April  15, 1844,  Engineer  Zivouski  reported  the  completion  of 
the  plank  road  from  Westminster  bridge  eastward  to  the  town  limits. 
The  Board  complained  of  this  short  road,  and  a  memorial  to  the 
Board  of  Works,  setting  forth  the  impassable  condition  in  which  the 
roads  adjoining  this  plank  road  were  left,  and  asking  that  the  Port 
Stanley  road  along  York  street  to  the  Brantford  plank  road,  at  the  end 
of  York  street,  on  the  new  survey  of  the  town,  be  finished  at  the  ex- 
pense of  the  district.  This  memorial  the  Board  of  Works  denied. 
£50  were  granted  for  opening  Wellington  street  from  Dnndas  to  the 
river ;  £5  for  removing  the  hill  on  North  street  leading  from  Bidout  to 
the  river,  and  £5  toward  improving  the  road  at  the  end  of  Blackfriars 
bridge  were  granted  in  June,  1844. 

In  July,  1844,  Philo  Bennett  succeeded  Whittirnore  as  Street 
Inspector.  At  this  time  the  Government  was  petitioned  to  grant  lots 
11  and  12,  Bathurst  street,  and  11  and  12  on  York  street  to  the  town, 
for  the  purpose  of  extending  the  plank  road  and  joining  the  Brantford 
and  Port  Stanley  plank  roads  at  that  point. 

In  May,  1845,  Dennis  O'Brien  was  authorized  to  have  the  hill 
from  his  brick  building  on  Dundas  street  to  North  street  cut  down. 

Glenn  was  allowed  2|  shillings  "  for  gravel  laid  by  him  on  Dundas 
street,"  in  1847. 

In  June,  1848,  the  sum  of  £20  was  appropriated  for  removing  the 
hills  on  Horton  and  Eidout  streets  in  St.  David's  and  St.  Andrew's 

During  the  summer  of  1848  the  following  streets  were  graded  and 
graveled : — Ridout  and  Richmond  from  Hitchcock  street  to  Dundas, 
and  Talbot  street  from  North  to  Dundas.  The  order  provided  for  nine 
inches  of  gravel  on  a  strip  sixteen  feet  wide.  At  this  time  several 
new  sidewalks  were  placed,  and  old  ones  repaired.  The  work  of  grading 
and  graveling  streets  was  extended  north  and  south  of  Dundas,  and 
east  and  west  of  Richmond ;  hills  were  reduced.  In  July,  no  less  than 
£900  were  appropriated  for  public  improvements  in  the  town ;  the  old 
plank  road  was  taken  up  and  a  new  road  bed  put  down ;  new  streets, 
were  opened  and  improved ;  the  court-house  square  was  fenced,  partly 
by  private  subscription,  and  a  general  round  of  improvement  marked 
the  progress  of  the  village.  Mr.  McClary  was  superintendent  of  works. 
On  September  3,  1849,  the  whole  of  Burlington  street  from  its  inter- 
section with  Huron,  including  Mark  Lane  and  part  of  Richmond  street 
to  Dundas  street,  was  granted  to  the  London  Proof  Line  Road  Co.,  as 
part  of  their  road  and  terminus  thereto,  under  certain  conditions.  In 
March,  1856,  Geo.  Roulton  asked  the  Council  to  order  all  houses  to  be 
numbered.  Owing  to  the  irregular  and  scattered  condition  of  the 
houses,  even  on  the  best  streets,  the  request  was  not  granted.  Roulton, 
however,  was  empowered  to  take  the  census  of  the  city ;  but  without 
conditions  as  to  pay.  In  July,  1866,  the  names  of  streets  were  ordered 
to  be  placed  on  street  corners,  and  all  houses  numbered. 

On  June  14,  1853,  the  act  vesting  portions  of  east  York  street, 


east  Bathurst  and  Wellington  streets,  in  the  Great  Western  Kailroad, 
was  assented  to. 

A  petition  for  the  election  of  Mayor  by  the  inhabitants  instead  of 
by  the  Council,  was  signed  in  January,  1853,  and  presented  to  the 

Incorporation  of  London  City. — The  act  of  September  21,  1854, 
provided  that  the  Town  of  London  be  raised  to  the  rank  of  a  city,  its 
boundaries  being  thus  described : — "  All  that  part  of  the  Province 
situate  within  the  County  of  Middlesex,  and  lying  within  the  following 
limits,  that  is  to  say  :  all  the  lands  comprised  within  the  old  and  new 
surveys  of  the  Town  of  London,  together  with  the  lands  adjoining 
thereto,  lying  between  the  said  surveys  and  the  Kiver  Thames,  pro- 
ducing the  northern  boundary  of  the  new  survey  until  it  intersects  the 
North  Branch  of  the  Eiver  Thames,  and  producing  the  eastern  boundary 
line  of  the  said  new  survey  until  it  intersects  the  East  Branch  of  the 
River  Thames,  and  the  eastern  boundary  line  be  known  as  Adelaide 
street."  Within  this  tract  seven  wards  were  established,  and  the 
charter  election  ordered  to  be  held  January  1, 1855.  This  charter  was 
signed  at  Quebec  by  P.  J.  0.  Chauvreau,  secretary,  and  approved  with 
all  the  profuse  phraseology  of  the  time. 

In  September,  1854,  the  old  Council  referred  to  the  failure  of  the 
member  for  London  to  have  the  town  proclaimed  a  city,  and  asked  Thos. 
Scatcherd,  then  representing  West  Middlesex,  to  have  the  act  proclaimed 
in  the  Gazette.  This  was  accomplished,  and  on  January  1  the  elections 
were  duly  held.  The  Mayors  from  this  city  from  that  period  to  1863 
are  named  as  follows : — Murray  Anderson,  1855 ;  Wm.  Barker,  1856  ; 
Elijah  Leonard,  1857;  David  Glass,  1858;  Wm.  McBride.  1859;  Jas. 
Moffatt,  1860 ;  F.  E.  Cornish,  1861  to  January,  1865. 

The  members  of  the  Council  from  1855  to  1862,  inclusive,  are 
named  in  the  following  roll  : — 

For  1855— First  Ward— Aldermen,  Peter  Schram  and  Jas.  Moffatt ; 
Councilmen,  John  Blair  and  B.  Wheeler.  Second  Ward — Aldermen, 
M.  Anderson  and  Elijah  Leonard;  Councilmen,  Wm.  McBride  and 
Geo.  M.  Gunn.  Third  Ward — Aldermen,  James  Daniels  and  Joseph 
Gibbons;  Councilmen,  Arthur  Wallace  and  John  Clegg.  Fourth 
Ward — Aldermen,  R.  Abernethy  and  J.  W.  Kermott ;  Councilmen, 
Frank  Smith  and  David  Glass.  Fifth  Ward — Aldermen,  D.  Lester 
and  Geo.  G.  Magee ;  Councilmen,  Thomas  Carter  and  Robert  Smith. 
Sixth  Ward— Aldermen,  John  Carling  and  Thomas  Peel ;  Councilmen, 
Wm.  Glen  and  P.  Phipps.  Seventh  Ward— Aldermen,  Wm.  Barker 
and  Wm.  Darby ;  Councilmen,  Robinson  Orr  and  John  Wells. 

For  1856— First  Ward— Aldermen,  Peter  Schram  and  Jas.  Moffatt ; 
Councilmen,  John  Blair  and  R.  S.  Talbot.  Second  Ward— Aldermen, 
Elijah  Leonard  and  Wm.  McBride ;  Councilmen,  S.  McBride  and  John 
O'JSTeil.  Third  Ward— Aldermen,  Marcus  Holmes  and  David  Glass  ; 
Councilmen,  John  Clegg  and  John  A.  Arnold.  Fourth  Ward— Alder- 
men, Francis  Smith  and  J.  W.  Kermott ;  Councilmen,  William  Glass 


and  Wm.  T.  Kiely.  Fifth  Ward — Aldermen,  Daniel  Lester,  and  Geo. 
G.  Magee ;  Councilmen,  Eobert  Smith,  and  James  Hitchins.  Sixth 
Ward — Aldermen,  John  Carling  and  Thomas  Peel ;  Councilmen,  P. 
Phipps  and  Ed.  Garratt.  Seventh  Ward — Aldermen,  Wm.  Barker  and 
S.  Stansfield ;  Councilmen,  John  Wells  and  Eobinson  Orr. 

For  1857 — First  Ward — Aldermen,  James  Moffatt  and  James  M. 
Cousins ;  Councilmen,  John  Blair  and  George  Taylor.  Second  Ward 
— Aldermen,  Elijah  Leonard  and  William  McBride ;  Councilmen,  S. 
McBride  and  John  O'Neil.  Third  Ward — Aldermen,  Marcus  Holmes 
and  David  Glass ;  Councilmen,  John  Arnold  and  James  Durand. 
Fourth  Ward — Aldermen,  Francis  Smith  and  R  Abernethy  ;  Council- 
men,  W.  T.  Kiely  and  Wm.  Glass.  Fifth  Ward— Aldermen,  Daniel 
Lester  and  H.  Hunter ;  Councilmen,  Kobert  Smith  and  Wm.  Doty. 
Sixth  Ward — Aldermen,  John  Carling  and  Ed.  Garratt ;  Councilmen, 
P.  Phipps  and  Geo.  Fitzgerald.  Seventh  Ward — Aldermen,  S.  Stans- 
field and  P.  G.  Norris ;  Councilmen,  John  Eoss  and  E.  Thompson. 

For  1858 — First  Ward — Aldermen,  James  Cousins  and  John  Blair; 
Councilmen,  B.  Wheeler  and  Eobert  Gunn.  Second  Ward — Alder- 
men, Wm.  McBride  and  M.  Anderson ;  Councilmen,  S.  McBride  and 
John  O'Neil.  Third  Ward — Aldermen,  Marcus  Holmes  and  David 
Glass ;  Councilmen,  James  Durand  and  John  Cousins.  Fourth  Ward 
— Aldermen,  Francis  Smith  and  John  Griffith ;  Councilmen,  Jas.  H. 
Flock  and  Chas.  Priddis.  Fifth  Ward — Aldermen,  Eobert  Smith  and 
Henry  Eoots;  Councilmen,  Wm.  Doty  and  Brock  Stevens.  Sixth 
Ward — Aldermen,  Ed.  Garratt  and  P.  Phipps;  Councilmen,  Wade 
Owen  and  E.  F.  Matthews.  Seventh  Ward — Aldermen,  P.  G.  Norris 
and  F.  E.  Cornish  ;  Councilmen,  T.  Partridge,  jr.,  and  M.  Macnamara. 

For  1859 — First  Ward — Aldermen,  James '  Moffatt  and  J.  I.  Mac- 
kenzie :  Councilmen,  Chas.  Stead  and  John  Bonser.  Second  Ward — 
Aldermen,  S.  McBride  and  Wm.  Begg ;  Councilmen,  J.  K.  Brown  and 
James  Gillean.  Third  Ward— Aldermen,  T.  H.  Buckley  and  B.  A. 
Mitchell;  Councilmen,  James  Eeid  and  David  Hughes.  Fourth 
Ward — Aldermen,  W.  S.  Smith  and  Jas.  H.  Flock ;  Councilmen,  A. 
Hamilton  and  Ariel  Tousby.  Fifth  Ward — Aldermen,  Eobert  Smith 
and  Geo.  Webster;  Councilmen,  D.  McPherson  and  Jesse  Eapley. 
Sixth  Ward — Aldermen,  Ed.  Garratt  and  P.  Phipps ;  Councilmen, 
Wade  Owen  and  John  Christie.  Seventh  Ward — Aldermen,  F.  E. 
Cornish  and  T.  Partridge,  jr. ;  Councilmen,  M.  Macnamara  and  Thos. 

For  1860 — First  Ward — Aldermen,  J.  I.  Mackenzie  and  Charles 
Stead ;  Councilmen,  B.  Wheeler  and  A.  Campbell.  Second  Ward — 
Aldermen,  S.  McBride  and  Wm.  Begg ;  Councilmen,  James  Gillean 
and  Wm.  Pope.  Third  Ward— Aldermen,  T.  H.  Buckley  and  C.  D. 
Holmes ;  Councilmen,  David  Hughes  and  J.  J.  Spettigue.  Fourth 
Ward — Aldermen,  Jas.  H.  Flock  and  H.  Stevenson ;  Councilmen,  John 
Griffith  and  Alex.  Murray.  Fifth  Ward — Aldermen,  Eobt.  Smith  and 
J.  W.  McGauley ;  Councilmen,  D.  McPherson  and  J.  W.  Eapley. 



Sixth  Ward — Aldermen,  Ed.  Garratt  and  P.  Phipps ;  Councilmen, 
Wade  Owen  and  John  Christie.  Seventh  Ward — Aldermen,  F.  E. 
Cornish  and  John  Ross ;  Councilmen,  T.  Partridge,  jr.,  and  Thomas 

For  1861— First  Ward— Aldermen,  Charles  Stead  and  J.  M. 
Cousins ;  Councilmen,  B.  Wheeler  and  John  Bonser.  Second  Ward — 
Aldermen,  Samuel  McBride  and  William  Pope  ;  Councilmen,  J.  B. 
3myth  and  Wm.  Divinny.  Third  Ward — Aldermen,  C.  D.  Holmes 
and  Ed.  Heathfield ;  Councilmen,  David  Hughes  and  J.  J.  Spettigue. 
Fourth  Ward — Aldermen,  Jas.  H.  Flock  and  H.  Stevenson ;  Council- 
men,  John  Griffith  and  Alex.  Murray.  Fifth  Ward — Aldermen,  D. 
McPherson  and  D.  Macfie;  Councilmen,  J.  W.  Rapley  and  S.  H. 
Graydon.  Sixth  Ward — Aldermen,  P.  Phipps  and  Thomas  Peel ; 
Councilmen,  Wade  Owen  and  James  Griffiths.  Seventh  Ward — 
Aldermen,  P.  G.  Norris  and  T.  Partridge,  jr. ;  Councilmen,  Thomas 
O'Brien  and  R  Thompson. 

For  1862— First  Ward— Aldermen,  Charles  Stead  and  B.  Wheeler; 
Councilmen,  Wm  Johnson  and  James  Deadman.  Second  Ward — 
Aldermen,  S.  McBride  and  Wm.  Pope ;  Councilmen,  John  B.  Smyth 
and  Wm.  Devinny.  Third  Ward — Aldermen,  C.  D.  Holmes  and  J.  J. 
Spettigue ;  Councilmen,  David  Hughes  and  Walter  Nichol.  Fourth 
Ward — Aldermen,  H.  Stevenson  and  John  Ross  ;  Councilmen,  A.  Mc- 
Cormick  and  Alex.  Murray.  Fifth  Ward — Aldermen,  D.  McPherson 
and  D.  Macfie  ;  Councilmen,  J.  W.  Rapley  and  S.  H.  Graydon.  Sixth 
Ward— Aldermen,  P.  Phipps  and  Thomas  Peel ;  Councilmen,  Wade 
Owen  and  John  Christie.  Seventh  Ward— Aldermen,  T.  Partridge,  jr., 
and  Thomas  O'Brien;  Councilmen,  Wm,  Waud  and  R.  Thompson. 

Financial  Transactions.— In  June,  1843,  a  number  of  residents 
were  summoned  for  not  making  a  true  return,  or  no  return,  of  rateable 
property.  Among  them  were  :— Hall,  of  the  14th  Regiment;  Joseph 
Sheurman,  Alex.  Gordon,  John  Nervul,  Richard  Smith,  S.  Morrill, 
George  Pringle,  Samuel  Crawford,  Wm.  Reddick,  Geo.  Thomas,  Thos. 
Craig,  James  Macklin,  Wm.  Percival,  A.  Newlands,  Robert  Morrill, 
Jerry  H.  Joyce,  Geo.  James,  Win.  O'Rielly,  Henry  McCabe,  Samuel 
Bond,  Finlay  Perrin,  James  Bowen,  Charles  Brown,  Jas.  Pendleton, 
Mr.  Bernally,  of  Royal  Engineers;  Chas.  Hutchinson,  Jas.  McFadden 
and  James  B.  Merrill. 

During  the  month  of  August,  1843,  a  number  of  residents  were 
fined  for  non- performance  of  statute  labor.  Joseph  Goodwin  had  to 
pay  21  shillings. 

Among  a  number  summoned  before  the  Board  to  show  why  they 
d  not  pay  the  taxes  of  1842-3,  was  Lieut.-Col.  Pritchard,  who  -was 
2o£   shillings,   and   George  Washington,    34£    shillings.      The 
amount  of  collection  roll  for  year  ending  Jan.  1,  1846,  was   £654  7s , 
Dt^wnich  £DO  3s.  Id.  are  credited  to  absentees,  £34  Is.  to  taxes  remit- 
and  £9   15s.  6d.  bad  debts,   leaving  the  net   amount   collected 
7s.  5d. 


In  November,  1848,  a  note  of  £450,  issued  by  the  Council,  but 
negotiated  by  the  Bank  of  Montreal  for  individual  members  of  the 
Council,  fell  due.  The  funds  were  so  low  that  the  Mayor,  with  Coun- 
cillors Barker,  Dimond  and  Bennett,  were  deputed  to  wait  on  Manager 
Hamilton,  of  the  Bank  of  Upper  Canada,  and  borrowed  from  him  a 
sum  sufficient  to  meet  the  debt  then  due. 

In  the  fall  of  1849  two  sets  of  debentures,  each  for  £300,  were 
authorized  to  meet  drafts  due  the  Bank  of  Montreal  and  the  Bank  of 
Upper  Canada.  On  Oct.  15,  Councillors  Barker  and  Daniel  proposed 
to  pledge  £20,000  toward  the  construction  of  the  Great  Western  Rail- 
road. In  September,  1850,  the  subscription  was  raised  to  £25,000. 

In  March,  1850,  the  sum  of  £2,000  was  borrowed  by  the  town 
from  the  Bank  of  Montreal;  £1,000  payable  in  October  following  and 
£1,000. in  October,  1851. 

The  assessment  on  which  taxes  were  to  be  collected  in  July,  1851, 
yielded  only  £2,041  13s.  4d.  At  this  time  the  Treasurer  held  £673, 
making,  with  other  items,  the  assets  £2,714  13s.  4d.  The  liabilities 
were  :— Debt,  £2,000 ;  required  for  schools,  £787  10s ;  for  salaries,  £240; 
for  fire  department,  £50 ;  and  to  fire  department  in  lieu  of  statute 
labor,  £400,  aggregating  £3,477  10s.  The  deficit  was  £762  16s.  8d. 

In  March,  1852,  debentures  for  £360  were  authorized,  being  the 
amount  of  the  town's  share  of  expense  in  the  building  of  Blackfriars 
bridge.  On  March  22  a  by-law  providing  for  the  issue  of  debentures 
for  £5,000  was  passed.  This  sum  was  necessary  to  pay  debts  and 
make  necessary  improvements. 

The  debt  of  London,  July  1,  1852,  amounted  to  £7,647  14s.  5d,, 
while  the  assests  were  only  £791.  This  sum,  with  Jth  of  a  penny 
on  the  valuation,  £2,841  15s.  Od,  with  debentures  for  seven  and  ten 
years,  £4,014  19s.  5d.,  would  satisfy  the  debt.  In  January,  1852, 
debentures  for  £2,000  were  authorized. 

A  review  of  the  debenture  debt  of  London  in  August,  1853,  shows 
£5,000  issued  in  1852,  to  consolidate  old  debts  and  for  building  school 
house ;  £5.500  for  drains  on  King  and  Dundas  streets ;  £2,000  for  en- 
largement of  Covent  Garden  Market ;  £2,000  for  drains  on  Richmond, 
Dundas  and  Clarence  streets ;  £900  for  Firemen's  Hall ;  £20,000  for 
enlargement  of  Covent  Garden  Market  and  erection  of  Town  Hall  and 
Market  House ;  £6,500  for  drains  on  York  and  Richmond  streets ; 
£25,000  to  Great  Western  Railroad  Co. ;  £25,000  to  London  &  Port 
Stanley  Railroad ;  £2,500  to  London  Gas  Co.,  aggregating  £94,400. 
The  liabilities  to  June,  1854,  amounted  to  £27,871  11s 

The  expenditures  of  the  town  of  London  for  the  year  ending  Dec., 
1854,  were  £74,101  13s.  lid.  This  included  £50,000  paid  to  the 
Port  Stanley  Railroad  Co.  The  amount  required  to  meet  expenses  for 
1854-5  was  £5,881  12s.  lid.  This  sum  included  £2,514  interest  due 
on  £41,900  debentures  within  that  period.  The  expenses  for  1855 
amounted  to  £14,831  14s.  Od.  For  the  year  1856,  they  were  £38,385 
5s.  4d.,  together  with  £5,300  paid  the  county  as  the  award  of  arbitrators. 

246  HISTORY   OF   THE 

The  act  of  July  1,  1856,  empowered  the  city  to  borrow  £63,000  to  con- 
solidate the  debt  and  for  other  purposes.  A  by-law  to  provide  for  the 
issue  of  £63,000  debentures  was  passed  September  16,  1856 ;  the 
object  being  to  consolidate  the  city  debt.  The  words  dollars  and  cents 
are  made  use  of  for  the  first  time  in  the  city  records  of  January  25, 
1858.  At  this  time  the  firemen  asked  the  Council  to  grant  $5  to  the 
fire  company  first  reported  at  a  fire. 

The  estimates  for  the  fiscal  year  1858-9  called  for  £20,824.  The 
total  liabilities  of  the  city  in  August,  1860,  were  placed  at  £49,050, 
and  the  estimate  of  expenditures  for  1861  was  placed  at  $110,866. 

In  1 863,  D.  Macfie,  chairman  of  finance  committee,  reported  that 
"  a  loss  having  already  been  sustained  this  year,  owing  to  the  resolu- 
tion come  to  by  this  Council  to  take  silver  at  par,  or  its  face  value, 
from  the  market  clerk,  as  well  as  in  payment  of  taxes  :  your  committee 
would  now  recommend  this  Council  not  to  take  silver  for  or  on  account 
of  any  debt  whatsoever  due  to  the  city,  at  any  rate  higher  than  that 
allowed  by  the  banks."  The  estimates  for  1864  were  $92,002. 

The  estimates  for  expenses  during  the  fiscal  year  1866-7  were 
placed  at  $94,760. 

The  debentures  sold  in  1872  under  the  Consolidated  Act  amounted 
to  $50,000;  in  1873,  to  $3,500;  in  1874,  $54,600,  and,  in  1875, 
$114,366.74,  or  a  total  of  $225,466.74.  Seven  per  cents,  to  retire  six 
per  cents  to  Church  Society  due  in  1876,  were  issued  for  $80,266.66  ; 
while  $486,068.63  issued  to  Government  under  municipal  loan,  and 
$100,000  to  the  London  &  Bruce  Railroad,  aggregated  $891,802.03, 
issued  from  1872  to  June,  1875.  The  total  debentures  to  be  provided 
for  in  1876  and  1877  amounted  to  $194,055.50.  The  interest  for  two 
years  reached  $135,786.56. 

Port  Stanley  Railroad  Dealings. — In  January,  1853,  Murray 
Anderson  and  John  Carling  moved  that  the  Mayor  call  a  meeting  to 
consider  the  question  of  building  a  railroad  to  Port  Stanley. 

In  August,  1853,  the  town  decided  to  take  £25,000  stock  in  the 
London  &  Port  Stanley  Railroad  Company. 

In  April,  1856,  George  G.  Magee  reported  to  the  Council  that  the 
counties  of  Middlesex  and  Elgin  having  refused  to  take  stock  in  the 
London  &  Port  Stanley  Railroad,  the  town  of  St.  Thomas  refused  to 
take  any  active  part,  and  London  having  invested  £93,850  in  the 
road,  it  became  a  necessity  to  render  further  aid,  and  recommended  the 
£28,000  in  debentures,  now  ready,  together  with  £5,000  in  cash,  to  be 
given  to  the  directors. 

The  London  &  Port  Stanley  Railroad  was  opened  October  2,  1856. 
£300  were  appropriated  to  celebrate  the  event  and  entertain  the 
American  visitors. 

On  January  27,  1857,  a  further  sum  of  £30,000  was  granted  to 
the  London  &  Port  Stanley  Railroad. 

In  1857  charges  were  preferred  against  the  Mayor  and  Mr.  Bow- 
man in  connection  with  the  London  &  Port  Stanley  Railroad,  and  a 


resolution  to  inquire  into  them  passed  by  the  Council.  The  inquiry 
was  instituted,  and  a  committee,  of  which  P.  N.  Norris  was  chairman, 
reported  fully  on  the  subject. 

Early  in  1858  Charles  Hutchinson  asked  the  Council  what  amount 
would  the  city  accept  for  its  claim  on  the  Port  Stanley  road.  P.  N. 
Norris,  of  the  Eailroad  Committee,  replied  that  the  total  claims  were 
£162,850,  and  would  be  sold  for  £150,000,  On  February  25,  Mr. 
Hutchinson  replied  that  it  would  be  madness  for  the  Council  to  seek  a 
purchaser  under  the  circumstances. 

A  Few  Transactions. — Municipal  loans  were  granted  under  the 
16  Viet.,  Cap.  22,  as  amended  by  the  18  Viet.,  Cap.  13,  1854,  from  the 
£1,500,000  set  apart  as  the  Upper  Canada  Municipal  Loan  Fund.  Of 
this  sum  the  Town  of  London  took  £93,850.  In  December,  1855,  the 
great  arbitration  took  place  between  the  county  and  city,  in  re  their 
financial  relations  after  the  division  of  Jan.  1.  Thomas  Movie  repre- 
sented the  county ;  Wm.  Barker,  the  city,  and  Thomas  Shenston,  of 
Woodstock,  common  justice.  They  awarded  one-fifth  of  the  stock  held 
in  the  Port  Stanley  and  the  Great  Western  Ptailroads  ($20,000)  to 
the  city,  which  was  transferred  July  5,  1857,  and  sold  by  the  city  to 
liquidate  the  taxes  of  that  year.  In  this  deal  nothing  was  said  about 
interest,  and  as  the  stock  was  issued  by  the  county,  the  county  was 
liable  for  interest  on  the  $20,000,  which  by  June,  1859,  amounted  to 
a  large  sum.  The  case  was  carried  to  the  courts,  and  Justice  Draper 
decided  that  Middlesex  County  should  pay  interest  on  $20,000  for  14 
years,  at  the  rate  of  six  per  cent.,  although  the  new  city  had  the  money 
in  its  possession.  It  is  said  Frank  Cornish  carried  this  case  through : 
whether  justice  was  dealt  in  the  affair  is  another  question. 

The  question  of  aiding  railroads,  amount  of  aid,  and  other  questions- 
relating  to  the  financial  and  executive  history  of  the  city,  from  1855 
to  the  close  of  1862,  are  referred  to  under  direct  headings  in  this 
chapter,  while  in  the  history  of  the  county  matters,  in  which  London 
and  Middlesex  were  concerned,  other  interesting  items  find  mention. 

Appointments. — John  Doyle  was  appointed  Clerk  of  the  City  and 
of  the  Police  and  Recorder's  Court,  at  a  salary  of  £200  per  annum,  iu 
1855.  Dr.  John  Wanless  and  Dr.  J.  A.  Nelles  were  appointed  cor- 
oners of  the  city ;  John  Brown,  city  chamberlain ;  A.  S.  Abbott,  col- 
lector; McBride,  inspector  of  weights  and  measures;  and  Samuel 
Peters,  engineer.  In  1858  Mr.  Doyle  resigned,  when  A.  S.  Abbott, 
the  present  clerk,  was  appointed.  In  1856  Francis  Smith  was  appoint- 
ed Chief  Engineer  of  Fire  Department,  with  John  Craig  and  A.  S. 
Abbott  assistants.  A.  S.  Abbott  was  collector.  Dr.  A.  A.  Andrews  was 
appointed  medical  attendant  for  the  temporary  hospital  and  city,  to 
which  Dr.  Moore  had  attended  previously.  In  December,  1858,  the 
question  of  providing  an  office  for  City  Assessor  McG  ill  was  considered. 

Council  and  Transactions,  1863-88. — The  names  of  members 
and  transactions  of  the  Council  from  the  beginning  of  1863  to  the  close 
of  1879  appeared  in  the  25th  anniversary  issue  of  the  Advertiser* 

*E.  A.  Hutchinson,  writer. 


and  to  that  journal  credit  is  now  given  for  the  following  review :—  "  It 
must  be  remembered  that  when  this  place  received  its  charter  of  in- 
corporation in  1855  it  was  divided  into  seven  wards,  and  each  ward 
was  represented  by  two  aldermen  and  two  councillors.  All  were  on 
a  level  in  the  Council  Chamber,  but  an  alderman  possessed  a  few 
privileges  more  than  a  councillor,  such  as  being  a  magistrate.  In 
1863  A.  S.  Abbott,  the  present  popular  city  clerk,  held  the  same 
position  he  does  now.  John  Brown  was  chamberlain,  and  William 
Robinson  was  city  engineer.  Frank  Cornish  was  mayor  of  the  city, 
and  the  Council  comprised  the  following  gentlemen : — Aldermen — 
Chas.  Stead,  Barnabas  Wheeler,  Samuel  McBride,  Wm.  Begg,  Calvin 
D.  Holmes,  J.  J.  Spettigue,  John  Eoss,  Hugh  Stevenson,  Daniel 
Macfie,  Simpson  H.  Gray  don,  Paul  Phipps,  Thomas  Peel,  Thomas 
Partridge  arid  Thomas  O'Brien.  Councilmen — Wm.  Johnston,  James 
Deadman,  John  B.  Smyth,  Oswald  Baynes,  David  Hughes,  Walter 
Nichol,  Alex.  Murray,  Andrew  McCormick,  Jesse  W.  Rapley,  John 
Harrison,  John  Christie,  Wade  Owen,  Richard  Thompson  and  Wm. 

The  first  important  step  of  the  Council  of  1863  was  to  draft  a 
memorial  to  both  Houses  of  Parliament,  asking  for  a  grant  towards 
maintaining  an  enlarged  hospital  in  London.  The  application  did  not 
then  prove  successful,  but  in  the  end  it  bore  good  fruit,  and  secured 
London  its  present  first-class  institution.  The  Council  commenced  the 
year  with  a  splurge.  One  of  the  first  items  of  business  was  brought 
up  by  Councillor  Nichol,  who  charged  an  assessor  with  wrongfully 
assessing  his  own  property.  In  those  days  property  was  assessed  by 
the  rental,  and  not  by  the  actual  value.  Nichol  charged  that  the 
assessor  put  in  receipts  showing  the  rental  of  a  certain  piece  of  pro- 
perty to  be  $48,  whereas  it  was  actually  $66.  The  assessor  resigned. 
There  had  been  serious  rumors  afloat,  even  at  that  early  day,  about 
Chamberlain  John  Brown's  books,  and  a  special  committee  was  ap- 
pointed to  investigate  them,  together  with  the  recorder.  They  reported 
everything  all  right,  although  it  afterwards  turned  out  that  there  were 
serious  shortages  at  that  very  time.  The  Council  of  1863  were  also 
first  to  introduce  a  fire  limits  by-law,  which  prevented  the  erection  of 
frame  buildings  between  King  and  North  (now  Queen's  avenue) 
streets.  The  sensation  of  the  year,  however,  was  an  assault  com- 
mitted by  Mayor  Cornish  on  Major  Bowles,  which  led  to  the  with- 
drawal of  the  British  garrison  from  London.  Rumors  were  afloat  about 
Bowles  arid  Mrs.  Cornish,  and  Bowles  one  night  at  mess,  while  full  of 
wine,  boasted  that  the  rumors  were  true.  The  statement  was  almost 
immediately  conveyed  to  Cornish,  who  set  out  on  the  war  path,  and 
finding  Bowles  in  the  Tecurnseh  House,  publicly  thrashed  him.  The 
total  expenses  for  running  the  city  in  1863  were  $82,294.67,  of  which 
$57,446  had  to  be  raised  by  taxation  only. 

In  1864  Mayor  Cornish  was  re-elected,  together  with  the  following 
Council :— Aldermen— Charles  Stead,  Barnabas  Wheeler,  Samuel  Me- 



Bride,  James  Gillean,  J.  J.  Spettigue,  David  Hughes,  John  Boss,  Alex. 
Murray,  Daniel  Macfie,  Dugald  McPherson,  Paul  Phipps,  Thomas  Peel, 
Thomas  Partridge  and  Thomas  O'Brien.  Councilmen — Wm.  Johnston, 
James  Deadman,  John  B.  Smyth,  Oswald  Baynes,  Wm.  Platt,  John 
Tibbs,  Hewitt  Fysh,  James  Percival,  Jesse  W.  Kapley,  Thomas  Brown, 
Wade  Owen,  John  Christie,  Martin  Macnamara  and  W.  Y.  Brunton. 
Aid.  McPherson  died  within  a  few  days  after  his  election,  and  the 
members  of  the  Council  wore  mourning  for  him  for  one  month.  Wil- 
liam Williams  was  elected  in  his  stead. 

Some  idea  of  the  primitive  condition  of  London  may  be  gleaned 
from  the  fact  that  at  this  time  London  had  five  constables  only,  each 
getting  $250  a  year,  and  the  chief  who  headed  this  force,  received  the 
munificent  sum  of  $300.  Early  in  1864,  on  the  motion  of  Mr.  Brun- 
ton, forty  citizens  were  sworn  in  to  act  as  special  constables  at  fires, 
the  regular  force  being  unequal  to  a  task  of  this  magnitude.  During 
1864  a  number  of  incendiary  fires  occurred,  and  the  Council  offered 
$200  for  the  capture  of  the  "fire  bug,"  but  it  had  no  effect.  The  next 
sensation  was  the  shortage  of  Wm.  Oakley,  one  of  the  collectors,  in  his 
accounts.  Mr.  Oakley  gave  up  all  his  property,  and  his  sureties,  E. 
J.  Parke  and  D.  M.  Thompson,  paid  the  city's  claim.  Then  the  cele- 
brated row  between  the  Council  and  School  Board  took  place.  The 
School  Board  asked  for  $9,000,  and  the  Council  allowed  them  $8,000. 
The  trustees  kicked,  but  it  was  no  use,  so  they  applied  to  the  Judges 
at  Toronto  to  compel  the  Council  to  pay  them  the  $9,000.  It  was 
then  towards  the  end  of  the  year,  and  before  the  application  was  argued 
a  new  Council  was  elected,  who  gave  up  the  dispute,  paid  the  $1,000, 
and  the  case  dropped. 

The  year  1865  opened  in  a  stormy  manner.  Frank  Cornish  and 
David  Glass  were  the  candidates  for  mayor.  The  election  was  so  riot- 
ous, that  Mr.  Glass  demanded  a  second  day's  poll  and  the  calling  out 
of  the  volunteers  to  protect  his  voters.  Then  on  the  3rd  of  January, 
1865,  London  witnessed  something  she  has  never  seen  since.  Armed 
troops  surrounded  every  polling  booth  in  the  city.  Mr.  Glass  was 
elected  on  the  second  day's  polling.  Col.  Shanly,  who  commanded  the 
volunteers,  billed  the  Council  for  $282.60,  and  there  was  considerable 
row  before  it  was  paid,  as  the  majority  of  the  aldermen  believed  there 
was  no  necessity  for  any  display  of  strength.  The  account  was  finally 
paid  under  protest.  The  Council  this  year  comprised  the  following 
gentlemen : — Aldermen — Barnabas  Wheeler,  Jas.  M.  Cousins,  Samuel 
McBride,  John  Campbell,  David  Hughes,  John  Cousins,  John  Eoss, 
Alex.  Murray,  Daniel  Macfie,  James  Williams,  Thomas  Peel,  John 
Christie,  Thomas  Partridge,  sen ,  Thomas  Partridge,  jun.  Councilmen 
— Wm.  Johnston,  James  Deadman,  John  B.  Srnyth,  Oswald  Baynes, 
Jas.  Keid,  John  W.  Cryer,  Hewitt  Fysh,  James  Percival,  J.  W.  Kapley, 
T.  Browne,  Wade  Owen,  S.  Screaton,  M.  Macnamara  and  W.  C.  L. 
Gill.  Petitions  were  by  this  Council  sent  to  the  Legislature,  asking  for 
a  central  prison  and  a  military  school  of  instruction  here,  but  they 
bore  no  fruit. 


London  was  overrun  with  burglars  this  year,  and  so  bad  did  they 
become,  that  the  city  offered  a  reward  of  $200  for  the  capture  of  any 
one  of  them.  The  police  were  altogether  unequal  to  the  task,  and 
finally  the  citizens  formed  a  vigilance  committee,  and  patrolled  the 
streets  every  night.  In  the  fall  of  1865  the  Grammar  and  Public 
Schools  were  united,  and  the  Council  appointed,  as  its  representatives 
on  the  Board  of  Education,  Wade  Owen  and  Dr.  C.  G.  Moore. 

In  1866  David  Glass  was  re-elected  Mayor,  and  the  following  gen- 
tlemen constituted  the  Council: — Aldermen  —  Barnabas  Wheeler, 
Edward  Glackmeyer,  Samuel  McBride,  John  Campbell,  David  Hughes, 
John  Cousins,  Alex.  Murray,  John  Eoss,  Daniel  Macfie,  Daniel  Lester, 
John  Christie,  Thomas  Peel,  Thomas  Partridge,  jr.,  Thomas  Partridge, 
sr.  Councillors — James  Deadman,  Emanuel  Pavey,  John  B.  Smyth, 
Oswald  Baynes,  James  Keid,  John  W.  Over,  James  Percival,  Hewitt 
Fysh,  Jesse  W.  Kapley,  George  Burdett,  Wade  Owen,  Samuel  Screaton, 
Martin  Macnamara  and  W.  C.  L.  Gill. 

This  was  the  year  that  the  agitation  in  favor  of  city  waterworks 
first  commenced,  and  the  Council  early  in  February  appointed  a  com- 
mittee to  ascertain  if  a  supply  could  be  drawn  from  Pond  Mills. 
About  this  time,  too,  a  dog  mania  sprung  up  and  reached  such  propor- 
tions that  the  Mayor  issued  a  proclamation  ordering  all  dogs  within 
the  city  limits  to  be  restrained  or  muzzled.  The  year  1866  is  memor- 
able, also,  as  that  of  the  Fenian  Kaid.  The  British  troops,  which  had  been 
withdrawn  from  here  in  1864,  were  returned  in  the  fall  of  1865  in 
anticipation  of  the  raid.  The  following  spring  they  were  sent  to  the 
front,  as  were  also  the  Seventh  Battalion,  the  London  Field  Battery 
and  the  London  Troop  of  Cavalry.  The  citizens  at  once  got  into  a 
panic,  alleging  that  they  were  left  at  the  mercy  of  the  Fenians.  The 
Government  was  petitioned  for  more  regular  troops,  and,  on  the  advice 
of  Col.  Bruce,  the  City  Council  took  the  initiative  in  the  formation  of 
the  famous  "  Home  Guard."  However,  the  danger  drifted  past,  and  on 
June  11  "  the  boys  "  returned  from  the  front  and  were  banqueted  by 
the  city  at  a  cost  of  $357.  In  the  fall  of  this  year  Lawrence  Lawra- 
son  was  appointed  first  Police  Magistrate  of  the  city  of  London,  at  a 
salary  of  $1,250. 

In  the  year  1867  W.  Simpson  Smith  was  elected  Mayor  for  a  two- 
years'  term,  and  the  Municipal  Act  was  amended  so  as  to  do  away 
with  councillors  altogether,  three  aldermen  being  returned  for  each 
ward.  The  chosen  of  the  people  were  : — Barnabas  Wheeler,  Edward 
Glackmeyer,  Andrew  McCormick,  Samuel  McBride,  John  Campbell, 
John  B.  Smyth,  David  Hughes,  John  Cousins,  James  Durand,  Alex. 
Murray,  Hewitt  Fysh,  Wm.  S.  Smith,  Daniel  Lester,  Simpson  H. 
Graydon,  Eobert  Smith,  John  Christie,  Thomas  Peel,  Francis  Smith, 
Thos.  Partridge,  sr.,  Thos.  Partridge,  jr.,  and  James  Egan. 

James  Durand,  having  been  elected  an  alderman,  resigned  his  posi- 
tion as  chief  engineer  of  the  fire  brigade,  and  Samuel  Stewart  was 
appointed  in  his  place.  Firewood  had  become  very  scarce  around  the 



city  and  had  gone  up  to  some  $6  or  $8  per  cord.  Charles  Hunt  and 
Thomas  Swinyard,  directors  of  the  Great  Western  Kailroad,  were  pub- 
licly thanked  by  the  Council  when  they  obtained  a  supply  from  Both- 
well,  which  greatly  reduced  the  price.  This  year's  Council  appointed 
as  one  of  the  assessors  the  man  who  a  few  years  before  had  been 
impeached  by  an  investigating  committee  for  wrongfully  assessing  his 
own  property.  In  June  the  Council  bought  a  steam  fire  engine, 
but  still  continued  the  volunteer  system.  The  fire  engine  was  manned 
by  fifty  citizens,  each  one  of  whom  received  the  munificent  salary  of 
$5  per  annum. 

But  the  great  sensation  of  1867  was  caused  by  "  Slippery  Jack." 
Although  he  never  stole  anything,  he  made  himself  so  dreaded  by 
entering  people's  houses  and  frightening  them,  that  the  Council  offered 
$100  reward  for  the  capture  of  "  the  midnight  marauder  or  burglar, 
known  as  '  Slippery  Jack.' " 

Another  sensation  was  caused  by  a  Police  Court  case  in  which 
the  Council  took  a  hand.  It  seems  that  an  officer  of  the  garrison 
named  Capt.  Hughsou  hired  a  carpenter  to  do  some  work.  The 
carpenter  finished  the  work,  and  called  at  the  Captain's  front  door 
with  the  bill.  The  Captain  said  he  wasn't  used  to  having  mechanics 
present  their  bills  to  him  at  the  front  door,  and  kicked  the  carpenter 
out,  and  slammed  the  door  after  him.  Hughson  was  summoned,  but 
the  Police  Magistrate  let  him  off  on  the  ground  of  ignorance  of  the 
by-law.  Aid.  Hughes  appealed  the  case  to  the  Recorder's  Court,  and 
the  City  Council  guaranteed  the  costs.  The  city,  as  usual,  was  beaten 
in  the  end. 

In  1868  only  one  Alderman  from  each  ward  retired,  the  others 
remaining  in  office  for  two  or  three  years  respectively,  according  to  the 
act.  Andrew  McCormick  retired  in  No.  1  Ward,  and  was  re-elected ; 
John  Campbell  in  No.  2,  and  he  was  also  re-elected ;  in  No.  3,  Aid. 
Cousins  retired,  and  was  replaced  by  Wm.  Farris ;  in  No.  4,  Alex. 
Murray  was  re-elected ;  in  No.  5,  Murray  Anderson  replaced  Daniel 
Lester,  and  in  No.  6  John  Christie,  and  in  No.  7  Aid.  Egan  were  both 

A  report  to  the  Council  showed  that  the  earnings  of  the 
London  &  Port  Stanley  Kailroad  for  1867,  had  been  $42,759.91, 
against  $39,108.25;  increase  for  the  year,  $3,651.66.  The  total 
liabilities  against  the  company  in  1868  were  $596,800.  This  was  the 
time  the  question  of  handing  the  Port  Stanley  over  to  the  Great 
Western  Railway  was  first  mooted.  Aid.  F.  Smith  resigned  in  March, 
and  George  Macbeth  was  elected  in  his  stead.  About  this  time,  too, 
the  people  began  to  ask  for  a  park,  and  a  committee  to  select  a  site 
was  appointed,  with  Aid.  Egau  as  chairman.  The  site  they  picked 
out  was  the  property  bounded  by  Piccadilly  street  on  the  north,  Car- 
ling's  Creek  on  the  south,  the  Sarnia  Road  (Richmond  street)  on  the 
west,  and  Wellington  street  on  the  east.  The  absurdity  of  this  site 
for  a  public  park  is  apparent  now  to  everyone.  The  city  then  was 


252  HISTORY   OF    THE 

one-third  smaller  than  at  present,  and  that  property  was  much  more 
out  of  the  way  in  1868  than  even  now.  The  recommendation  is  per- 
haps explained  when  it  is  stated  that  most  of  the  land  to  be  bought 
was  designed  for  park  purposes.  However,  the  Council  of  1868  were 
pretty  independent,  and  rejected  the  committee's  report.  Further  than 
that,  when  it  was  tried  to  get  a  bill  through  the  Legislature  to 
sell  the  Port  Stanley  to  the  Great  Western  Eail way,  they  sent  a  depu- 
tation down  to  the  House,  and  succeeded  in  defeating  the  bill.  The 
only  other  event  of  importance  this  year  was  the  final  withdrawal  of 
regular  troops  from  London. 

In  the  year  1869,  all  the  old  members  of  the  Council  whose  turn 
it  was  to  retire,  were  re-elected  as  follows  : — Barnabas  Wheeler,  John 
B.  Smyth,  Walter  Nichol,  Hewitt  Fysh,  Simpson  H.  Graydon,  George 
Macbeth  and  Thomas  Partridge,  sen.  The  Council  selected  John 
Christie  as  Mayor,  but  in  about  a  month  he  got  tired  of  the  office  and 
resigned.  Mr.  S.  H.  Graydon  was  elected  by  the  Council  to  fill  the 
vacancy.  It  was  in  1868  the  Western  Fair  Board  was  organized,  and 
in  1869  the  City  Council  voted  $2,000  towards  the  erection  of  suitable 
buildings.  The  citizens  also  responded  liberally,  but  all  the  County 
Council  would  give  was  $500.  Miss  Eye  visited  London  in  the  sum- 
mer, and  was  entertained  as  the  guest  of  the  corporation.  On  the  13th 
of  September  His  Koyal  Highness  Prince  Arthur,  His  Excellency  the 
Governor- General,  and  some  other  distinguished  "  nabobs "  came  to 
London,  and  were  rapturously  received.  The  Council  on  the  occasion 
voted  $200  for  a  procession  of  the  fire  brigade  and  fireworks.  Col.  J. 
B.  Askin  died  in  this  year,  and  the  Council  passed  a  resolution  of 
regret  at  the  occurrence. 

By  far  the  most  important  matter,  however,  that  came  before  the 
people  in  1869,  was  the  railway  agitation.  J.  G.  Thompson  applied 
for  a  charter  for  Thompson's  air  line  through  Southern  Ontario,  while 
the  Great  Western  applied  for  another  charter  for  the  Canada  air  line. 
The  Council  of  London  decided  to  oppose  both  ;  but  a  public  meeting 
of  citizens  declared  they  would  take  the  least  of  two  evils,  and  decided 
to  oppose  the  Canada  air  line,  and  let  the  other  go  through.  Hon. 
John  Carling,  however,  with  his  usual  deep  interest  in  public  improve- 
ments, ignored  both  resolutions  and  supported  the  Canada  air  line, 
and  opposed  Thompson's.  Both  charters  went  through  the  House, 
though,  and  as  a  result  the  County  of  Elgin  has  the  roads  to-day.  The 
lot  for  the  present  city  registry  office  was  purchased  from  D.  Glass. 

In  1870  the  first  matter  recorded  in  the  Council  minutes  is  the 
decision  of  the  Council  to  attend  the  funeral  of  the  late  Hon.  G.  J. 
Goodhue  in  a  body  on  the  13th  of  January.  The  elections  this  year 
resulted  in  the  return  of  James  M.  Cousins,  Samuel  McBride,  David 
Hughes,  Henry  B.  Strong,  Jesse  W.  Rapley,  Thos.  Peel  and  Thomas 
Partridge,  jr.  Mr.  S.  H.  Graydon  was  re-elected  Mayor.  It  turned 
out  that  Mr.  Rapley  wasn't  properly  qualified,  and  he  resigned. 
Daniel  Lester  was  elected  in  his  stead. 



Fuel  became  so  scarce  that  the  London  &  Port  Stanley  Railroad 
drew  it  into  the  city  and  sold  it  by  the  cord  at  cost.  No  citizen  could 
get  more  than  a  cord  at  a  time,  and  as  a  result  the  price  of  fuel  fell  25 
per  cent.,  and  the  Council  publicly  thanked  the  directors  for  their 
consideration.  Trouble  broke  out  in  the  Phoenix  Fire  Company,  and 
charges  were  made  against  its  chief.  They  were  not  sustained,  and  as 
a  result  the  committee  decided  to  disband  the  company  and  reorganize 
it.  No  less  than  two  aldermen  died  this  year,  viz.,  Aid.  Strong  and 
Aid.  Macbeth,  the  latter  very  suddenly.  Thos.  McCormick  replaced 
the  first-named  in  No.  4  Ward,  and  John  Williams  the  latter  in  No. 
6.  Aid.  Egan  made  another  attempt  to  get  the  park  located  north  of 
Great  Market  street,  but  failed.  Aid.  Campbell,  however,  got  a  com- 
mittee appointed  to  negotiate  for  the  present  site  of  Victoria  Park.  In 
1870,  too,  the  construction  of  the  London,  Huron  &  Bruce  Railroad 
was  first  mooted. 

In  1871  there  was  another  change  in  the  mode  of  election,  and 
instead  of  one  of  the  three  aldermen  from  each  ward  retiring  each  year, 
all  went  out  of  office.  The  new  Council  comprised  James  M.  Cousins, 
Andrew  McCormick,  Duncan  C.  Macdonald,  John  B.  Smyth,  John 
Campbell,  Joseph  Jeffery,  Francis  E.  Cornish,  William  Starr,  John 
Woods,  Hewitt  Fysh.  Thomas  McCormick,  Samuel  Barker,  Simpson  H. 
Gray  don,  Jesse  W.  Rapley,  Benj.  Shaw,  John  Christie,  Thomas  Peel, 
John  Williams,  Thos.  Partridge,  jr.,  Thos.  Partridge,  sr.,  and  Jas.  Egan. 
Aid.  J.  M.  Cousins  was  elected  Mayor  by  the  Council.  By  a  vote  of 
the  people  $100,000  bonus  was  given  towards  the  construction  of  the 
London,  Huron  &  Bruce  Railroad.  The  Council  had  this  year  to  pass 
a  resolution  of  regret  at  the  death  of  Simeon  Morrill,  first  Mayor  of 
the  town  of  London.  A  bubble  which  burst  in  London  at  this  time 
was  the  Charing  Cross  Hotel.  It  was  to  be  an  immense  sanitarium 
near  the  Forks,  at  the  Sulphur  Springs.  Its  projector,  Mr.  Dunnett, 
invited  the  Council  to  attend  the  corner-stone  laying,  and  fixed  a  date. 
The  corner-stone  was  laid,  but  afterwards  the  project  fell  through.  It 
was  in  this  year  that  the  Council  let  the  London  &  Port  Stanley  Rail- 
road practically  pass  into  the  hands  of  the  Great  Western.  Among 
other  transactions  in  connection  with  this  deal  was  the  transference 
of  $70,000  worth  of  London  &  Port  Stanley  Railroad  bonds  to  W.  P. 
R.  Street  for  $3,500.  The  late  Bishop  Cronyn  died  ou  the  22nd  of 
September,  and  the  Council  suitably  honored  his  memory. 

In  1872  the  election  returns  placed  the  following  gentlemen  in 
office : — James  M.  Cousins,  Duncan  C.  Macdouald,  James  Moffat, 
John  B.  Smyth,  John  Campbell,  Samuel  McBride,  Wm.  Starr,  John 
Woods,  Arch.  McPhail,  Hewitt  Fysh,  Samuel  Barker,  Alex.  Murray, 
Simpson  H.  Gray  don,  Benj.  Shaw,  Jesse  W.  Rapley,  John  Christie, 
John  Williams,  Benjamin  Cronyn,  Thos.  Partridge,  jr.,  Thos.  Partridge, 
sr.,  and  James  Egan.  Aid.  Campbell  was  elected  Mayor  by  the 

The  first  piece  of  business  was  a  strong  resolution  brought  in  by 

254  HISTORY  OF    THE 

Aid.  Moffat  and  Smith,  condemning  all  who  had  anything  to  do  with 
the  sale  of  the  bonds  to  Mr.  Street,  and  proposing  legal  proceedings 
to  recover  them.  The  resolution  did  not  pass.  It  was  in  this  year 
and  in  consequence  of  this  deal  that  the  Council  introduced  the  system 
of  holding  secret  meetings,  a  practice  which  lasted  until  public  opinion 
became  so  strong  it  had  to  be  abolished.  But  by  far  the  most  startling 
event  that  occurred  in  this  city  in  1872  was  the  abduction  of  Dr.  E. 
Bratton,  a  Confederate  refugee.  He  was  wanted  in  the  States,  and  an 
American  detective  located  him  in  London.  He  obtained  the  aid  of  a 
citizen  and  seized  the  doctor  one  night  while  on  his  way  home,  gagged 
him,  had  a  cab  ready  and  drove  with  him  to  the  station,  took  a  train 
there  and  soon  had  the  unfortunate  refugee  on  American  soil,  passing 
him  off'  on  the  way  as  a  lunatic  who  needed  restraint.  The  city  Coun- 
cil at  once  held  an  indignation  meeting  on  hearing  of  the  case,  and 
ordered  the  Mayor  to  lay  the  matter  before  the  Crown.  This  was 
done,  with  the  result  that  Bratton  was  returned  to  British  territory, 
and  the  parties  in  Canada  who  had  a  hand  in  the  abduction  punished, 
one  getting  a  couple  of  years'  imprisonment.  The  latter  is  now  a  resi- 
dent, of  Essex  county,  while  the  other  still  resides  in  London.  The 
Council  minutes  of  this  year  contained  a  resolution  of  regret  at  the 
death  of  Hon.  John  Sandfield  Macdonald.  Lord  Dufferin,  Governor- 
General,  visited  London  in  the  fall  of  the  year,  during  the  Western 
Fair,  and  vast  crowds  came  from  all  parts  of  Western  Ontario  to  see 
him.  Ex-Mayor  Marcus  Holmes  died  in  the  fall  of  1872,  and  the 
Council  paid  due  respect  to  his  memory. 

In  1873  the  Council  comprised  J.  M.  Cousins,  D.  C.  Macdonald,  J. 
B.  Smyth,  S.  McBride,  Arch.  McPhail,  L.  C.  Leonard,  Thomas  Browne, 
James  Mofifatt,  Jesse  W.  Eapley,  John  Christie,  John  Williams,  Benj. 
Cronyn,  Thos.  Patridge,  jun.,  S.  H.  Graydon,  Andrew  McCormick,  B. 
Shaw,  James  Egan,  John  Beattie,  Alex.  Murray,  Thos.  Partridge,  sen., 
and  Wm.  Stan-.  Andrew  McCormick  was  elected  Mayor.  A  motion 
by  Aid.  Macdonald,  seconded  by  Aid.  Smyth,  asking  the  Legislature  to 
amend  the  law  so  as  to  elect  Mayors  of  ^cities  by  direct  vote  of  the 
people,  carried,  and  bore  good  fruit. 

Nothing  of  importance  occurred  municipally  during  the  year, 
•except  some  trouble  in  the  fire  department,  which  resulted  in  the 
resignation  of  D.  Bruce  and  the  suspension  of  Chief  Wastie,  who  was, 
however,  soon  after  reinstated. 

In  1874  the  Mayor  was  elected  by  a  direct  vote  of  the  people,  and 
Mr.  B.  Cronyn  was  the  successful  man.  The  Council  was  composed 
of  D.  C.  Macdonald,  Col.  Moffatt,  E.  Pritchard.  John  Beattie,  James 
Cowan,  T.  F.  Kingsmill,  Win.  Starr,  Arch.  McPhail,  Wm.  Farris, 
Alex.  Murray,  L.  C.  Leonard,  C.  W.  Andrus,  Jesse  W.  Eapley,  Geo. 
G.  Magee,  John  Kearns,  John  Christie,  John  Williams,  Col."  Lewis, 
Thomas  Partridge,  sen.,  Thomas  Patridge,  jun.,  and  J.  E.  Peel.  This 
year  the  city  succeeded  in  obtaining  the  Ordnance  lands  and  old 
buildings  thereon  from  the  Government  by  deeds.  Some  excitement 


was  caused  in  July,  1874,  by  another  row  in  the  fire  brigade,  in  which 
some  of  the  Aldermen  took  a  hand  During  August,  Lord  and  Lady 
DufYerin  paid  a  flying  visit  to  the  city,  lasting  simply  over  night,  and 
the  cost  of  entertaining  them  amounted  to  $1,395.50. 

In  1875  Mayor  Cronyii  was  re-elected,  and  the  Council  consisted  of 
Aldermen  Pritchard,  Smyth,  Macdonald,  James  Cowan,  A.  B.  Powell, 
Phillips,  Starr,  Farris,  Leonard,  Hiscox,  Abbott,  Bunn,  Browne,  Eapley, 
Williams,  Lewis,  Egan,  Partridge,  jr.,  Partridge,  sr.,  and  Christie. 

The  erection  of  iron  bridges  around  the  city  was  commenced  this 
year,  Blackfriars  being  the  first.  In  the  early  part  of  February  John 
Birrell  died,  and  the  Council  passed  a  suitable  motion  of  condolence. 
In  1875  the  fire  brigade  was  put  on  a  regular  permanent  basis,  Thos. 
Wastie  being  appointed  chief,  "  to  devote  his  whole  time  to  the  city's 
service,"  at  a  salary  of  $800  per  annum.  Aid.  Farris  died  in  July,  and 
Aid.  D  unbar  was  elected  to  the  vacancy.  The  City  Hospital  was 
completed  in  1875  and  opened  by  the  Lieutenant-Go vernor  of  the  Pro- 
vince. What  will  seem  strange  to  the  average  citizen  now,  several 
motions  to  sell  Victoria  Park  oft'  in  building  lots  were  actually  made 
in  the  Council,  but  defeated.  A  vote  for  a  water- works  system  resulted 
in  the  defeat  of  the  by-law  this  year. 

In  1876  D.  C.  Macdonald  was  elected  Mayor,  with  the  following 
Council  . — Aldermen  Pritchard,  Sutherland,  Fitzgerald,  Thompson, 
McPhail,  Skinner,  Hiscox,  Ross,  Henderson,  Minhinmck,  Rapley, 
Browne,  Christie,  Williams,  Lewis,  McColl,  Partridge,  sr.,  Partridge, 
jr.,  Jones,  Campbell  and  Murray. 

The  amalgamation  of  the  Great  Western  Railroad  and  London, 
Huron  &  Bruce  Railroad  took  place  by  act  of  Parliament.  In  the 
year  1876  the  Crooks  Act  came  before  the  Legislature,  and  when  the 
City  Council  proposed  to  raise  the  license  fees  there  was  a  great  scene 
in  the  Council  Chamber.  On  one  hand  the  licensed  victuallers  were 
present,  and  on  the  other  hundreds  of  ladies,  clergymen  and  temper- 
ance people.  John  Carling  and  others  spoke  in  the  liquor  interest, 
and  Rev.  R.  W.  Wallace,  Rev.  Mr.  Murray,  Rev.  James  Graham,  Dr. 
Oronhyatekha  and  Rev.  J.  Rice  for  temperance.  Temperance  carried 
the  day,  or  rather  the  Council,  by  one  vote  11  to  10. 

In  1877  Robert  Pritchard  was  selected  by  the  people  as  Mayor,  and 
the  following  aldermen  were  elected : — Messrs.  Sutherland,  Gray, 
Campbell,  Fitzgerald,  Thompson,  Murray,  Jones,  Skinner,  Regan, 
McNab,  Hiscox,  Minhinnick,  Browne,  Rapley,  Christie,  Williams,  Boyd, 
Egan,  Partridge,  jun.,  and  Partridge,  sen.  This  year  the  Council  pro- 
vided the  necessary  funds  for  the  erection  of  the  High  School  building, 
which  is  now  the  Collegiate  Institute. 

The  year  1877  also  saw  the  memorial  "  rumpus  "  on  the  police 
force,  which  resulted  in  the  resignation  of  Chief  Wigmore.  A  by-law 
for  the  construction  of  the  present  waterworks,  at  a  cost  of  $325,000, 
was  submitted  to  the  people  on  Dec.  14,  and  carried. 

In  1878  Col.  Lewis  was  returned  as  Mayor,  together  with  Aid. 


256  HISTORY   OF    THE 

Campbell,  Smyth,  Thompson,  Murray,  Powell,  Eegan,  Skinner,  Stringer, 
McNab,  Eddleston,  Keenleyside,  Glass,  Eapley,  Browne,  Christie,  Wil- 
liams, Vining,  Egan,  Thos.  Peel  and  J.  K.  Peel.  On  the  minutes  of 
the  second  meeting  of  this  year  is  recorded  the  following: — "Aid. 
Thompson  gave  notice  that  he  would  move  at  the  next  meeting,  that  in 
order  to  elevate  the  standard  of  this  Council,  the  proceedings  be  opened 
in  future  with  prayer,  and  that  ex-Monk  Widdows  be  engaged  as 
chaplain  for  the  Board,  and  that  the  Salaries  Committee  be  requested 
to  report  the  amount  to  be  paid  for  his  spiritual  services,  etc."  The 
late  E.  W.  Hyman,  one  of  London's  first  Water  Commissioners,  died  on 
the  12th  of  April  of  this  year,  and  the  Council  held  a  special  meeting 
to  pass  a  resolution  of  regret,  and  attended  his  funeral  in  a  body. 

In  1879  Col.  Lewis  was  re-elected  Mayor.  The  aldermen  were 
Eobt.  Pritchard,  John  Campbell,  James  Muirhead,  W.  W.  Fitzgerald, 
A.  B.  Powell,  A.  K.  Thompson,  Wm.  Skinner,  Samuel  Stringer,  Charles 
Taylor,  Geo.  Eddleston,  B.  W.  Greer,  Geo.  T.  Hiscox,  James  Ardell, 
Graham  Glass,  Geo.  Gray,  Wm.  Scarrow.  John  Williams,  John  Boyd, 
J.  R.  Peel,  James  Egan  and  John  Kay  nor.  Water  Commissioners — 
Hon.  John  Carling  and  J.  R.  Minhinnick.  Ex-Mayor  William  Simp- 
son Smith  died  in  June  of  this  year,  and  the  Council  attended  the 
funeral.  In  September,  1879,  the  Marquis  of  Lome  and  Princess 
Louise  visited  London,  and  it  cost  the  city  $1,244  to  entertain  them. 

In  1880  Alderman  Campbell  was  elected  Mayor,  being  opposed  by 
Minhinnick.  Raynor  and  Lewis,  Water  Commissioners.  R.  Pritchard, 
E.  Meredith  and  James  Muirhead,  Aldermen  of  the  First  Ward ; 
It.  S.  Murray,  A.  K.  Thompson  and  James  Cowan,  of  the  Second ;  C. 
Taylor,  J.  W.  Jones  and  Wm.  Skinner,  of  the  Third  ;  W.  Milroy,  Geo. 
T.  Hiscox  and  W.  H.  Rooks,  of  the  Fourth ;  N.  Wilson,  T.  Browne 
and  Graham  Glass,  of  the  Fifth;  W.  Scarrow,  J.  Boyd  and  W.  D. 
Buckle,  of  the  Sixth ;  and  Thomas  Peel,  J.  D.  Sharman  and  Wm. 
Wyatt,  of  the  Seventh  Ward.  Thomas  Carling  died  in  February,  and 
the  Council  passed  a  resolution  of  condolence  and  attended  the  funeral 
in  a  body.  It  was  decided  by  the  people,  with  93  majority,  to  sell  the 
Exhibition  Grounds ;  but  the  Council  subsequently  backed  down  and 
didn't  carry  out  the  people's  wishes.  The  laying  of  cedar  block  pave- 
ment was  commenced  this  year. 

In  1881  the  municipal  elections  resulted  in  the  choice  of  J.  Camp- 
bell for  Mayor,  his  vote  being  1,413,  while  Mr.  Lewis  received  1,095. 
James  Muirhead  and  A.  B.  Powell  were  elected  Water  Commissioners. 
1,301  votes  were  recorded  for  the  sale  of  the  Exhibition  Grounds  and 
1,435  for  the  sale  of  Baiter's  Grove.  The  Aldermen  elected  were 
Robert  Pritchard,  John  B.  Smyth  and  James  H.  Wilson,  First  Ward ; 
Stephen  O'Meara,  James  Cowan  and  Robert  S.  Murray,  Second  Ward ; 
John  W.  Jones,  Francis  Love  and  Samuel  Stringer,  Third  Ward;  Geo! 
T.  Hiscox,  Benj.  Higgins  and  Wm.  Milroy,  Fourth  Ward;  Lewis 
Adams,  Thomas  Browne  and  Graham  Glass,  Fifth  Ward ;  John  Boyd 
Wm.  D.  Buckle  and  Wm.  Scarrow,  Sixth  Ward;  Thos.  Partridge,  jr. 
J.  D.  Sharman  and  Wm.  Wyatt,  Seventh  Ward. 


In  1882  Edmund  Meredith  was  elected  Mayor ;  G.  S.  Bin-ell,  C.  B. 
Hunt  and  E.  Pritchard,  Aldermen  for  First  Ward ;  G.  S.  Hyman,  E.  S. 
Murray  and  O'Meara,  Second  Ward;  J.W.Jones,  W.  Skinner  and 
C.  Taylor,  Third  Ward ;  Thomas  Beattie,  John  Ferguson  and  B.  Hig- 
gins,  Fourth  Ward ;  T.  Browne,  S.  Crawford  and  J.  R.  Minhinnick, 
Fifth  Ward ;  John  Boyd,  W.  D.  Buckle  and  Talbot  Macbeth,  Sixth 
Ward ;  Harry  Becher,  Thomas  Peel  and  J.  D.  Sharman,  Seventh  Ward. 

John  Brown,  born  in  Ireland  in  1807,  settled  at  London  in  1832 ; 
subsequently  kept  store  at  St.  Thomas ;  returned  to  London,  and  in 
1835  was  a  member  of  St.  John's  Lodge,  A.  F.  &  A.  M.  In  1852  he 
was  appointed  City  Treasurer,  and  for  thirty  years  filled  that  position, 
until  death  called  him  in  1882. 

In  1883  a  few  changes  were  made  in  ward  representatives,  but  the 
Mayor  retained  his  office. 

In  1883  Messrs.  Birrell,  Labatt,  Hunt,  Hyman,  G'Meara,  Cowan, 
Skinner,  Stringer,  Browne,  Boyd,  Becher  and  Moore  formed  the 

In  1884  the  city  elections  resulted  in  the  choice  of  C.  S.  Hyman  for 
Mayor  by  620  majority.  J.  M.  Cousins  and  John  Eaynor  were  elected 
Water  Commissioners.  The  Aldermen  for  Ward  1  were  re-elected ; 
Messrs.  O'Meara,  Cowan  and  Beattie  were  elected  in  the  Second ;  in 
the  Third  Ward  Thomas  C.  Hewitt  replaced  Browne ;  in  the  Fourth  J. 
S.  Niven  and  W.  Scarrow  replaced  Boyd  and  Moore.  H.  Becher 
headed  the  poll.  At  this  time  the  by-law  establishing  a  free  library 
was  adopted. 

In  1885  Henry  Becher  was  elected  Mayor,  receiving  1,755  votes, 
while  his  opponent  (Hiscox)  received  1,164.  Messrs.  Birrell,  Hewitt 
and  Eaynor,  candidates  for  Water  Commissioners,  received  1.771, 
1,633  and  1,456  votes  respectively.  The  Aldermen  who  received  the 
highest  number  of  votes  were  George  Watson,  H.  C.  Green  and  Chas. 
Taylor,  First  Ward ;  Stephen  O'Meara,  Jas.  Cowan  and  C.  A.  Kingston, 
Second  Ward ;  Samuel  Stringer,  Joseph  Hook  and  Thomas  Browne, 
Third  Ward ;  W.  Scarrow,  T.  D.  Hodgens  and  John  Christie,  Fourth 
Ward.  The  by-law  to  abolish  the  office  of  Water  Commissioners  was- 
voted  down:  407  for;  1,069  against.  The  by-law  for  sale  of  the  Fair 
Grounds  was  carried:  for,  1,729  ;  against,  1,114. 

In  1886  the  city  elections  resulted  as  follows: — Mayor,  T.  D. 
Hodgens  (1,643),  W.  Scarrow  (1,375)  and  James  Cowan  (630) ;  Water 
Commissioners,  Hewitt  (1,977),  Birrell  (1,955)  and  Cousins  (1,899). 
The  Aldermen  elected  were : — For  Ward  1,  George  C.  Davis,  George 
Watson  and  Charles  Taylor ;  Ward  2,  S.  O'Meara,  Alex.  McDonald 
and  Charles  A.  Kingston  ;  Ward  3,  S.  Stringer,  Joseph  Hook  and  Thos. 
Browne ;  Ward  4,  M.  D.  Dawson,  Joshua  Garrett  and  John  Boyd ; 
Ward  5,  George  Heaman,  J.  W.  Bartlett  and  John  Nutkins. 

In  1887  James  Cowan  was  chosen  Mayor,  defeating  W.  Scarrow 
by  902  votes,  the  figures  being  2,270  and  1,368  respectively ;  Messrs. 
Hiscox,  Muirhead  and  Cowan  were  elected  Water  Commissioners; 


258  HISTORY   OF   THE 

while  the  by-law,  granting  a  loan  of  $75,000  to  the  Southeastern  Rail- 
road Company,  was  carried— for,  1,957,  contra,  329 ;  majority,  1,628. 
The  aldermen  re-elected  were  Davis,  0.  Taylor,  McDonald,  Stringer, 
Hook  and  Heaman ;  the  new  members  were  Jarvis,  Greer,  Moule, 
Bowman,  Moore,  Vining,  Geo.  Taylor,  Dreaney  and  Mclntosh. 

In  1888  the  Council  comprised  Wm.  Wyatt,  John  Heaman,  Thos. 
Connor,  Stephen  O'Meara,  John  Callard,  John  Moule,  W.  H.  Winnett, 
Wm.  Skinner,  Wm.  Jones,  Geo.  Taylor,  J.  B.  Vining,  Henry  Dreaney, 
N.  P.  Graydon  and  Geo.  Heaman. 

The  last  eight  years  of  municipal  life  (1881-8)  are  well  known  to 
almost  everyone  in  the  city.  There  was  the  discovery  of  John  Brown's 
defalcations  and  his  sad  death ;  the  reduction  in  the  number  of  wards 
with  fewer  aldermen ;  the  amalgamation  of  the  City  and  London  East ; 
Hodgens's  famous  tooth-powder  charges  in  connection  with  the  City 
Hospital ;  the  advent  of  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railroad  and  Michigan 
Central  Railroad  into  the  city;  the  lighting  of  the  streets  by  electricity  ; 
the  sale  of  the  old  fair  grounds ;  the  erection  of  fair  buildings  on 
Queen's  Park  ;  the  purchase  of  part  of  Carling's  farm ;  and  the  sale  of 
the  Ordnance  lands.  All  these  events  and  many  others  are  familiar  to 
the  reader,  and  it  is  unnecessary  to  rehash  them.  The  following  gentle- 
men have  filled  the  chief  magistrate's  chair  during  that  period: — 
1880-1,  John  Campbell;  1882-3,  Ed.  Meredith  ;  1884,  C.  S.  Hyman  ; 
1885,  Henry  Becher;  1886,  T.  D.  Hodgens ;  1887-8,  James  Cowan. 

Thomas  Scatcherd,  born  at  Wyton,  Missouri,  in  1821,  was  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar  in  1849,  and  served  the  city  as  solicitor  from  1849 
to  the  period  of  his  death  at  Ottawa,  April  15,  1876.  In  1861  he  was 
chosen  to  represent  West  Middlesex  in  the  old  Parliament ;  in  1867 
was  elected  for  North  Middlesex ;  in  1872  re-elected,  thus  spending 
fifteen  years  in  parliamentary  life. 

The  appointment  of  W.  R.  Meredith,  City  Solicitor,  vice  Scatcherd, 
deceased,  was  made  April  26,  1876. 

A  by-law  appointing  Mayor  Cowan,  R.  Pritchard  and  A.  B.  Powell 
as  the  City  of  London  Trust,  was  passed  Aug.  29,  1888. 

Fire  Department— The  Volunteer  Fire  Brigade  dates  its  organiza- 
tion back  to  1842.  It  was  originated  by  Simeon  Morrill,  George  J. 
Goodhue  and  High  Constable  Groves.  They  succeeded  in  having  a 
by-law  passed  by  the  District  Council  of  which  William  Balkwill 
was  president,  compelling  every  householder  to  keep  a  fire  bucket 
made  of  leather,  painted  black,  and  hung  in  a  convenient  place  in 
each  house.  Cowhide  dippers,  as  they  were  called  at  that  time,  were 
inspected  regularly  by  Capt.  Groves,  who  was  for  many  years  at  the 
head  of  the  fire  organization.  It  was  a  funny  spectacle  to  see  each 
man  with  a  bucket  running  to  a  fire,  and  then  form  in  line  at  some 
well,  passing  the  buckets  along  the  line,  up  ladders,  to  the  fire ;  but, 
ludicrous  as  it  was,  good  work  was  often  done,  and  valuable  property 
saved  by  these  pioneers. 

,  In  the  year  1844  G.  J.  Goodhue  purchased  an  engine  which  was 


simply  a  garden  sprinkler.  The  arrival  of  this  wonderful  piece  of 
machinery  was  the  occasion  of  the  first  company  being  organized,  by 
Capt.  Groves.  They  ran  this  little  tub  with  a  company  of  old  citizens, 
and  did  good  work  with  it  until  the  occasion  of  the  great  fire  of  April 
11, 1845,  when,  after  a  minute's  work,  it  was  abandoned,  and  disappeared 
in  a  general  ruin.  The  company  purchased  two  Perry  hand  engines 
from  a  Montreal  house,  which  they  used  for  some  time.  Their  first 
steamer  was  purchased  in  1867.  Upon  the  organization  of  Phoenix  Com- 
pany, S.  McBride  was  the  first  captain  ;  Edmund  Beltz,  first  lieutenant, 
and  D.  S.  Perrin,  second  lieutenant.  This  company  was  composed 
principally  of  young  men  who  were  very  active  and  took  a  delight  in 
sports,  and  would  often  go  over  into  the  States  to  a  firemen's  tourna- 
ment, frequently  winning  first  prizes,  and  was  counted  the  best  depart- 
ment in  existence  at  that  time.  The  company  who  got  to  the  fire  first 
were  awarded  prizes  against  other  companies  in  the  city ;  and  it  was 
very  laughable,  as  well  as  exciting,  to  see  them  getting  to  a  fire,  and 
was  often  dangerous.  John  Eolfe  was  Captain  of  No.  4,  Rescue,  hook 
and  bucket  company.  From  the  start  of ,  this  company,  the  name  was 
changed  several  times.  Company  No.  5,  called  "  Rising  Sun,"  was 
organized  some  time  after,  with  Daniel  Lester,  captain. 

In  1863  the  department  was  made  up  as  follows : — Chief  Engineer, 
Jno.  Hunter ;  assistant,  Chas.  Cater ;  second  assistant,  Jno.  McDowell. 
Phoenix  No.  2 — 60  men — Daniel  Perrin,  captain  ;  Donald  McDonald, 
first  lieutenant;  Geo.  Wheeler,  second  lieutenant;  James  Findlater, 
third  lieutenant ;  Wm.  Loughrey,  representative.  Rescue  No.  4 — 60 
men — John  Gibson,  captain;  John  Cavanagh,  first  lieutenant;  Thos. 
Langan,  second  lieutenant;  Timothy  Flinn  and  John  Shean,  repre- 
sentatives. Hook  and  Ladder  Company — 40  men — Wm.  Abraham, 
captain;  S.  Gibson,  first  lieutenant;  Wm.  Bradshaw,  second  lieu- 
tenant ;  J.  P.  O'Byrne  and  Wm.  Graham,  representatives.  Many  of 
London's  leading  business  men  at  present  were  at  one  time  volunteer 
firemen  of  this  city.  Geo.  Taylor,  Samuel  McBride,  James  Durand, 
Samuel  Stewart,  Ed.  Beltz,  A.  S.  Abbott,  Geo.  Jackson,  Richard  Wig- 
more,  A.  Grant,  and  many  others  were  on  the  volunteer  fire  brigade  in 
old  days.  In  December,  1872,  a  Babcock  fire  extinguisher  was  intro- 
duced, and  with  this  new  departure  a  motion  to  abolish  the  volunteer 
fire  department,  and  create  a  regularly  paid  fire  brigade,  was  made.  As 
the  city  grew,  a  volunteer  brigade  with  hand  reels  could  not  protect  it ; 
and  in  1867  the  Phoenix  steam  engine  was  purchased.  The  volunteer 
system,  however,  continued  in  force  until  1873.  Thomas  Wastie, 
chief  for  some  time  previous  to  that,  instituted  the  permanent  system, 
and  was  the  first  chief  of  the  paid  department. 

Present  Department. — The  fire  department  of  to-day  dates  back 
to  April  1,  1873,  when  Thomas  Wastie  was  appointed  Chief.  Two 
permanent  men  beside  the  chief  were  only  appointed  at  first  in  1873, 
viz.,  Oliver  Richardson,  driver,  and  David  Bruce,  engineer.  There 
were  fourteen  call  men  appointed,  at  $100  each.  They  were  James 


260  HISTOKY   OF   THE 

Findlater,  John  F.  Doyle,  E.  Wonnacott,  Patrick  Gleeson,  Thomas 
Eichardson,  Geo.  Till,  Daniel  Sullivan  (killed  shortly  afterwards  in  an 
accident  at  Hyraan's  tannery),  Harry  Boyd,  John  Maddiver,  Joseph 
Eeeves,  Harry  Pratt,  John  Eoe,  Alex.  Harvey  and  Eichard  McBride. 
During  the  year  1875  there  were  138  fire  alarms,  being  86  over  1874. 
107  fires  were  attributed  to  incendiaries,  and  31  fires  to  other  causes. 
On  three  occasions  there  were  two  fires  raging  at  the  same  time.  The 
most  dangerous  was  that  of  June  12,  1875,  on  Maitland  street.  Dur- 
ing the  year  1 8  brick  buildings  were  on  fire,  one  being  totally  destroyed ; 
27  wooden  buildings  were  totally  destroyed,  and  54  partially  destroyed. 
The  department  was  made  up  of  20  men.  In  1875  the  fire  alarm 
system  was  put  in,  and  in  1879  the  introduction  of  the  waterworks 
did  away  with  the  old  Phcenix  steamer,  which  was  sold  to  Middle - 
brook.  Ont.,  in  1886.  No  2  steam  engine  was  purchased  in  1873,  the 
same  make  as  first  steamer,  being  a  double  pump  and  cylinder.  This 
engine  was  sold  to  Petrolea. 

The  record  of  fires  from  1877  to  July  1,  1888,  is  as  follows: 

1877 56    18SO 50    1883 77    1886 75 

1878.... 52    1881  91    1884 74    1887 96 

1879 56    1882  70    1885 73    1888  33 

At  the  present  time,  with  fourteen  permanent  and  six  call  men,  the 
brigade  never  was  in  a  more  efficient  condition.  The  following  is  the 
personnel  of  the  department  as  at  present  constituted : — Chief,  John 
A.  Eoe ;  Departmental  Foreman,  A.  McMurchy ;  Electrician,  J.  E.  D. 

The  force  at  Central  Fire  Station  comprises : — Station  Foreman, 
John  Aikins;  Drivers,  George  Gray  and  James  Gleeson;  Firemen, 
Oliver  Eichardson,  J.  D.  Eiddell,  Thomas  Aikin  and  Samuel  Notley  ; 
Call  Men,  P.  C.  Gleeson,  E.  Wonnacott,  Joseph  Eeeves,  Michael 
Gleeson,  Harry  C.  Smith  and  Michael  Donohue. 

Station  No.  2  comprises: — Station  Foreman,  J.  D.  Findlater; 
Driver,  Arch.  Nicholson;  Firemen,  Arch.  Mohr  and  John  Swan  wick. 
Chief  Eoe  has  been  at  the  head  of  the  force  for  about  six  or  seven 
years,  succeeding  Wastie,  who  went  to  the  North-west. 

Transactions  of  Council  with  Department.— In  June,  1843,  Cap- 
tain Till  and  other  members  of  the  fire  department  resigned,  when  it 
was  ordered  that  the  key  of  the  engine-house,  together  with  all  appara- 
tus belonging  to  the  engine,  trumpets,  buckets,  etc.,  etc.,  be  examined 
by  Thomas  Frazer,  and  placed  in  possession  of  the  village  clerk.  By- 
law No.  50,  passed  immediately  following  the  resignation  of  the  fire 
company,  provided  that  not  more  than  six  pounds  of  gunpowder  shall 
be  kept  in  any  store  or  dwelling,  and  that  not  more  than  thirty  pounds 
shall  be  kept  in  any  out-building  near  such  dwelling-house  or  store. 
In  July,  Alex.  Lowrie  was  summoned  for  making  a  fire  on  Talbot 
street,  and  had  to  pay  nine  shillings  and  ninepence  for  violation  of  by- 
law. Henry  Groves  was  chosen  Captain  of  the  fire  department,  August 
23.  He  was  ordered  to  procure  some  necessaries  for  the  company,  but 


nothing  over  the  value  of  five  shillings  without  a  special  instruction 
from  the  Board.  The  direct  pay  was  twenty-five  shillings  to  the  com- 
pany for  every  fire,  chimneys  excepted.  The  constable  reported  £4- 
lls.  3d.  received  from  ex-fire-Captain  Till.  John  Gray  received  a  box 
of  lucifer  matches  September  9,  and  on  the  same  day  the  village  Board 
ordered  "  that  the  box  be  removed  to  some  distant  out-house,  as  the 
Board  considered  the  same  unsafe  to  be  kept  in  a  store."  Very  string- 
ent laws  were  adopted  about  this  time  to  provide  against  fire.  Thomp- 
son Wilson,  barrack-master  was  charged  by  the  Inspector  of  London, 
with  allowing  the  chimney  in  the  brick  barracks  to  catch  fire  ;  but  the 
case  was  dismissed  by  the  Police  Board.  Another  item  going  to  show 
the  existing  fear  of  fire,  is  by-law  53,  which  provided  "  that  any  per- 
sons who  may  open  any  of  the  public  tanks  or  draw  water  therefrom, 
except  in  case  of  fire,  should  be  fined  not  less  than  five  shillings," 
Anthony  Gale  was  fined  five  shillings  for  allowing  his  chimney  to  take 
fire  in  December,  1843.  William  Marshall  was  appointed  town  chim- 
ney sweeper,  and  Inspector  Whittimore  was  instructed  to  see  that  every 
house  and  shop  had  its  share  of  fire  buckets  in  1844.  Fire  had  taken 
such  a  hold  of  the  public  mind,  that  a  large  meeting  was  held  to  organ- 
ize a  hook  and  ladder  company.  The  Board,  agreeable  to  the  opinion 
of  the  people,  sanctioned  this  organization  and  appointed  Samuel  H. 
Park,  captain ;  Patrick  McLaughlan,  first  lieutenant ;  Alex.  Lowrie, 
second  lieutenant ;  and  Alex.  S.  Armstrong,  secretary.  In  February, 
summary  proceedings  were  taken  against  John  Burke,  for  refusing  to 
aid  in  extinguishing  a  fire. 

In  January,  1845,  the  fire  engine  was  taken  to  Peter  McCann's 
house,  he  agreeing  to  keep  it  safe  at  ten  shillings  per  month.  John 
Birrell  was  allowed  £35  6s.  4d.  for  laying  new  sidewalk  on  Dundas 
street,  the  former  walk  being  destroyed  by  the  fire  of  October,  1844. 

August  31,  1846,  a  fire  engine  was  ordered  from  James  McKenny,  * 
Quebec,  and  the  same  to  be  paid  for  by  a  check  on  the  Board  at  one 
year,  with  interest.     In  September,  new  tanks  were  erected  at  the 
corners  of  Talbot  and  Richmond  streets  and  Dundas. 

In  April,  1847,  E.  P.  Ellis,  treasurer  of  the  Fire  Company,  pre-    • 
sented  an  account  of  £13  5s.  Od.     Peter  McCann,  first  lieutenant  of 
Fire  Company,  also  presented  his  account.     In  August,  John  Gumb 
was  ordered  to  deliver  30,000  brick  at  £1  per  thousand,  for  the  purpose 
of  building  an  engine  house. 

A  700-pound  bell,  the  same  exhibited  at  the  Buffalo,  N.  Y.  fair,    , 
was  ordered  from  A.  Good  at  12  cents  per  pound,  $14  for  the  yoke, 
and  $5  for  the  wheel.     In  October,  1848,  this  was  the  first  and  long- 
looked   for  fire-bell  of  London,  a  trumpet  being  its  predecessor  for 
alarm  purposes. 

The  Council  passed  a  by-law  forbidding  the  erection  of  wooden , 
buildings  where  old  buildings  were  burned,  June  16,  1849.     On  Jan. 
21,  Bennett's  resolution  to  form  a  Town  Protective  Society,  to  take 
charge  of  all  goods  in  case  of  fire,  was  earned.     In  March  a  by-law  for 


the  government  of  the  Fire  Department  was  passed.  In  December  it 
provided  for  the  employment  of  a  chief  engineer,  first  and  second 
assistant  engineers,  a  captain  for  each  engine,  hook  and  ladder,  hose 
and  property  protection  company,  one  first  and  second  lieutenant,  one 
secretary  and  one  treasurer.  The  engine  company  was  limited  to  sixty 
members,  and  the  other  companies  to  forty  members,  Wm.  Goodwin 
was  secretary.  The  nomination  of  Simeon  Morrill  chief,  and  Peter 
McCann  and  John  Plummer  assistants,  was  confirmed. 

In  May,  1850,  a  sum  of  £250  was  granted  to  purchase  a  fire 
engine  capable  of  throwing  water  fifty  feet  high. 

A  motion  by  Councillor  Barker,  made  in  1852,  to  permit  the  volun- 
teer rifle  company  to  wear  side-arms  while  attending  fires  was  lost.  A 
lot  on  the  north  side  of  King  street  was  purchased  from  Alex.  Mc- 
Donald, and  on  it  an  engine  house  was  built.  The  Council,  in  Feb- 
ruary, appointed  the  captains  of  several  fire  companies.  A  board  of 
fire  wardens  elected  Elijah  Leonard  chief  engineer,  with  William  Eow- 
land  and  James  Cousins  second  and  third  engineers.  Each  warden 
was  to  wear  a  Kossuth  hat  with  plumes. 

In  August,  1853,  the  Council  resolved  to  raise  £900  by  debentures, 
for  building  the  firemen's  hall  and  engine-house. 

In  March,  1854,  the  fire  brigade  was  presided  over  by  C.  N. 
Simms,  chief,  with  J.  E.  Murphy  and  Francis  Smith,  first  and  second 

The  fire  companies  of  1857  were  Fire  King,  Hook  and  Ladder, 
Phoenix,  Defiance,  Eescue  and  Rising  Sun.  The  officers  of  the  Hook  and 
Ladder  Company  of  1859  were  : — Charles  Stevens,  captain  ;  William 
Abraham  and  Charles  Flew,  lieutenants ;  John  S.  Mearns,  secretary, 
and  D.  McPherson,  treasurer ;  the  last  two  named  being  representa- 
tives to  the  Fire  Brigade  Board. 

Fires,  181^4-1888. — The  following  record  of  fires  is  based  solely  on 
contemporary  history,  such  as  the  Council  journal  and  newspaper  files. 
The  first  reference  to  fires  in  this  journal  is  made  in  January,  1844, 
when  the  Police  Board  ordered  twenty-five  shillings  to  be  paid  to  the 
fire  company  for  services  rendered  at  the  burning  of  John  O'Brien's 
house.  John  Jennings'  distillery  was  destroyed  by  fire,  April  14,  and 
the  Board  offered  a  reward  of  £25  for  the  conviction  of  the  incendiary. 
In  October  the  police  office  was  used  as  a  store-house  for  goods  rescued 
from  the  fire  of  that  month.  The  Board  further  thanked  Captain 
Caddy  for  £10  subscription,  being  the  proceeds  of  one  night's  enter- 
tainment by  the  Garrison  Theatrical  Company.  This  sum  was  equally 
divided  between  Leonard,  Perrin,  Thomas  Clark,  Veitch,  Faulds  and 
Edmunds,  they  being  the  principal  sufferers  from  the  fire.  Samuel  H. 
Park  was  paid  £2  17s.  6d.  for  the  use  of  teams  during  the  fires.  Peter 
McCann  was  allowed  £4  10s.  for  men  on  duty  during  the  fire. 

The  fire  of  April  11,  1845,  which  either  washed  or  wafted  away 
some  three  hundred  stores,  dwellings,  churches,  banks,  post-office, 
hotels,  etc.,  was  the  most  disastrous  known  in  London.  It  originated 


in  the  Kobinson  Hall,  and  spread  with  amazing  rapidity.  On  this 
occasion  the  2nd  Eoyals  (Infantry),  who  were  then  stationed  in  the 
new  barracks  on  the  present  Victoria  Park,  did  efficient  service  in 
guarding  property  and  keeping  order  for  the  sufferers  against  a  large 
number  of  plunderers  from  the  city  and  country.  At  this  time  a  large 
garden  sprinkler  presented  to  the  fire  company  was  destroyed,  and  all 
the  houses,  cabins,  churches,  etc.,  within  the  district  bounded  by 
Ridout,  Dundas,  Talbot  south  to  the  river  were  swept  away.  To  give 
an  idea  of  how  this  fire  spread,  it  is  related  that  James  Nixon  had  just 
taken  his  horse  from  the  Robinson  Hall  stables  one  minute  before  the 
archway  was  ablaze.  The  locations  of  the  greater  number  of  business 
houses  in  1845  are  given  at  the  close  of  this  chapter,  so  that  the 
names  of  the  principal  sufferers  are  preserved. 

Stephen  Bonser  (or  Bonsel)  was  allowed  £5  for  services  as  en- 
gineer, while  £3  18s.  3d.  were  allowed  to  the  company  for  services  at 
the  burning  of  Mrs.  Shepherd's  house  in  April,  1847. 

Among  the  persons  paid  for  services  at  the  fire  of  Jan.  15,  1849,, 
were  George  Taylor,  Charles  Hine,  Wm.  Winslow,  Richard  Bissett, 
Joshua  Freckleton,  Wm.  Lament,  Peter  Wright  and  Henry  Boyd, 
each  receiving  five  shillings.  The  investigation  into  the  origin  of  this 
fire,  which  destroyed  Donald  McDonald's  store  and  Joseph  Goodwin's 
dwelling  adjoining,  showed  that  Robert  Gunn  discovered  the  fire.  On 
January  16  the  Council  presented  a  record  of  their  vote  of  thanks, 
printed  in  gilt  letters  and  neatly  framed,  to  the  young  men  Burwell, 
Schram  and  Will  Burns,  "  for  their  intrepid  and  persevering  conduct 
in  arresting  the  progress  of  the  lamentable  fire."  During  this  fire  Mr. 
Burke's  house  was  pulled  down  unnecessarily.  The  burning  of 
Henry  Dalton's  soap  factory,  Jan.  30,  was  accidental. 

The  following  entry  is  made  in  the  records  of  the  Council : — "  The 
chief  engineer  reported  to  the  Council  that  he  had  offered  a  reward  of 
£5  to  the  Phoenix  Fire  Company,  if  said  Company  would  save  a  certain 
wooden  building  which  was  in  danger  of  being  consumed  by  fire  on  the 
morning  of  May  28th."  Notices  were  given  that  application  for  pay- 
ment of  this  sum,  and  also  of  £1  to  Mr.  Holmes's  Fire  Company,  would 
be  made  at  next  session  of  Council.  The  fire  originated  in  Reynolds's 
butcher  shop,  also  used  by  cabinet-maker  Allen,  a  brother  in-law  of 
Reynolds.  This  resulted  in  the  destruction  of  buildings  belonging  to 
Dennis  O'Brien,  and  of  Sutherland's  printing  office.  At  that  time 
Sutherland  slept  in  the  printing  office.  Peter  Glen,  tailor,  and 
Donald  Stewart  resided  near  the  burned  buildings  The  Council 
offered  £25  for  the  conviction  of  the  incendiary.  The  grants  to  the 
Phoenix  and  Holmes's  Companies,  as  asked,  were  made,  and  £5  to  the 
Juvenile  Fire  Company.  On  June  18th  an  attempt  was  made  to- 
bum  Lawrason  &  Chisholm's  store.  The  Council  presented  John 
O'Neil  with  an  address,  thanking  him  for  saving  such  valuable 

A  fire  was  started  in  the  buildings  on  the  north  side  of  Dundas 

264  HISTORY  OF    THE 

street,  August  15,  1850.  The  Council  offered  £250  reward  for  the 
capture  and  conviction  of  the  incendiaries.  The  fire  originated  in 
Smith,  Matthewson  and  Moore's  buildings,  where  they  formerly  kept 
store.  It  was  discovered  after  midnight  by  Kobert  Summers,  who 
gave  the  alarm,  and  saw  a  man  run  from  the  place,  having  first  thrown 
turpentine  against  the  house.  This  building,  Goodhue's  store,  the 
frame  occupied  by  Oliver's  shoe  store  and  Dennis  O'Brien's  brick 
(then  occupied  by  Ronald  Robinson  as  a  tavern),  were  destroyed.  The 
inmates  barely  escaped.  At  Oliver's  and  other  places  Robert  Summers 
aided  in  saving  the  family  arid  some  of  the  leather. 

The  fire  of  January  7,  1851,  threatened  the  town.  Lieut.-Colonel 
Outchley  and  men  of  the  23rd  Royal  Welsh  Fusiliers,  the  local  fire- 
men, and  a  small  number  of  citizens,  worked  faithfully  to  rescue  pro- 
perty. The  majority  of  the  citizens  were  mere  spectators,  as  the  fol- 
lowing resolution  of  the  Council  points  out: — "That  this  Council 
regret  being  called  upon  to  condemn,  in  the  strongest  language,  the 
apathy  evinced  by  a  great  portion  of  the  spectators  on  that  melancholy 
occasion,  who,  not  content  with  refusing  to  assist  in  procuring  water  or 
otherwise  endeavoring  to  arrest  the  flames,  actually  seemed  by  their 
gestures  and  conversation  to  enjoy  the  sight,  and,  so  far  from  being  of 
any  use,  only  retarded  those  who  were  willing  to  exert  themselves. 
Therefore,  the  Council  would  request  all  those  who  attend  fires  merely 
to  gratify  a  morbid  curiosity,  to  remain  at  home  in  future."  One  re- 
sult of  this  fire,  however,  was  the  appropriation  of  £300  for  the  pur- 
chase of  a  "  good  engine  and  hose."  The  fire  of  February  7  was 
discovered  in  the  house  occupied  by  Win.  Till,  cabinet-maker,  on 
Ridout  street.  Till's  shop,  with  the  exception  of  a  small  dwelling 
house  on  the  northern  side,  formed  the  last  of  a  range  of  wooden  build- 
ings, extending  nearly  from  York  to  King  streets.  The  wind  was 
from  the  north,  which,  with  the  exertions  of  the  Hook  and  Ladder 
Company  and  a  partial  supply  of  water,  prevented  the  consuming  of 
the  block.  As  it  was,  about  one -third  (the  southern  part)  was  con- 
sumed ;  and  in  the  remainder  the  houses  were  completely  gutted.  In 
the  houses  burnt,  the  following  were  the  sufferers : — Thomas  Fraser's 
dwelling  house,  the  cabinet  shop  and  dwelling  house  of  William  Till, 
with  a  quantity  of  lumber ;  no  insurance ;  the  next  was  owned  and 
occupied  by  E.  P.  Ellis  as  a  cabinet  shop,  insured  for  $1,500  in  the 
Oenessee  Mutual ;  the  next  occupied  by  W.  H.  Soper,  gunsmith,  who 
was  insured  for  £100 ;  the  building,  owned  by  Maurice  Baker,  was 
also  insured.  This  was  the  last  building  burned,  and  was  pulled  down 
while  on  fire,  thereby  stopping  any  further  progress.  Till,  on  whose 
premises  the  fire  broke  out,  lost  heavily.  The  military  were  on  the 
ground,  and  rendered  all  the  assistance  in  their  power. 

The  fire  of  August  24,  1851,  destroyed  the  old  Catholic  church 
building  at  the  corner  of  Richmond  street  and  Maple  avenue. 

The  fire  of  Oct.  7  was  discovered  in  the  ran^e  of  wooden  buildings 
on  Richmond  street,  between  the  Congregational  Chapel  and  Dundas 


street.  The  range  was  owned  by  S.  S.  Pomeroy,  and  consisted  of  six 
different  shops ;  one  of  which  was  vacant,  and  the  other  five  occupied 
as  follows : — Dr.  Wanless,  druggist,  stock  insured  for  £250  in  the 
Empire  State  Co.,  and  furniture,  &c.,  £200  in  the  Provincial ;  R.  Gunn, 
shoemaker ;  Lawson,  tailor ;  W.  Jarman,  tin  and  copper-smith,  £100 
in  the  Empire  State  Co. ;  Wm.  Bissell,  £50  in  the  Hudson  River  Co. 
Some  damage  was  done  to  Mr.  Strong's  Hotel,  but  through  the  exer- 
tions of  Phoenix  Fire  Co.,  No.  2,  the  fire  was  prevented  from  extend- 
ing. The  fire  of  December,  which  destroyed  some  houses  on  the 
south  side  of  Dundas,  necessitated  an  order  by  Council  giving  the 
privilege  to  persons  burned  out  of  erecting  temporary  wooden  build- 

In  February,  1857,  a  fire  broke  out  in  the  basement  of  the  City 
Hall,  caused  by  overheating  of  furnace  pipes.  In  this  year  the  hospital 
was  burned.  Later  in  1857  the  City  Hospital  on  the  Hamilton  Road, 
Henry  Groves'  house  on  York  street,  Pomeroy's  on  Dundas,  Carmichael's 
on  Mill  street,  and  Cameron's  on  Wellington  street,  were  set  on  fire. 

The  fire  of  May  27,  1859,  destroyed  six  tenement  houses,  owned 
by  Ingram,  on  Waterloo  street.  In  July,  1860,  a  fire  broke  out  in  the 
Higgins  stable  on  Dundas  near  Clarence,  and  destroyed  the  building 
and  adjoining  sheds  in  rear  of  the  Hiscox  tavern.  Higgins's  and  His- 
cox's  taverns  and  Wesleyan  parsonage  were  saved  by  the  firemen, 
under  Wigmore,  McPherson  and  Frank  Church.  The  first  fire  of  1863 
originated  in  Thomas  Craig's  office,  and  resulted  in  the  destruction  of 
Adam  Hope  &  Co.'s  hardware  stock  and  store.  The  military  engineers 
saved  the  books.  The  second  fire  was  in  their  new  store,  where 
Stephenson's  store  now  stands,  opposite  the  City  Hotel.  At  this  time 
Warren's,  Chisholm's  and  Hope's  stores  were  destroyed. 

In  1865  a  fire  destroyed  all  the  buildings  between  the  stores  of  E. 
Beltz  and  R.  Reid  ;  subsequently  the  vacant  lot  was  purchased  by  J. 
Green,  for  the  purpose  of  building  thereon  a  dry  goods  warehouse. 
During  the  operation  of  clearing  out  the  old  ruins,  one  of  the  walls  fell, 
•carrying  down  Beltz's  hat  store  and  Mrs.  Egan's  property.  The  fire  of 
May  24th  destroyed  Elijah  Leonard's  old  foundry  on  Ridout  and  Ful- 
larton ;  also  Dennis  O'Connor's  dwelling.  Owing  to  the  fact  that  the 
machinery  and  material  were  removed  to  the  new  foundry,  Leonard's 
loss  was  small. 

Thompson  &  Hendershott's  oil  refinery,  on  the  river  bank,  east  of 
the  London  and  Port  Stanley  bridge,  was  burned  January  23,  1867. 
Wood's  Hotel,  corner  of  Clarence  and  Dundas  streets,  was  destroyed 
by  fire  December  13.  The  buildings  were  erected  in  1840  and  owned 
by  Benj.  Higgins.  The  firemen,  aided  by  the  53rd  regiment,  confined 
the  fire  to  the  hotel. 

The  Reindeer  Inn,  also  known  as  "  Murphy's  Erin-go-Bragh," 
owned  in  1867-8  by  John  Armour,  was  burned  January  27,  1868. 
This  was  a  large  frame  building  at  the  corner  of  Bathurst  and  Rich- 
mond streets.  Heathfield  &  Williams'  drug  store,  on  Dundas  street, 


266  HISTORY  OF    THE 

was  on  fire  March  4.  The  department  saved  the  building,  but  deluged 
the  stock  with  water.  The  fire  of  July  27,  which  threatened  the 
Catholic  school-house,  was  followed  by  a  fire  on  Hitchcock  street 
(Maple  street)  and  Eichmond  street,  which  destroyed  Stewart's  fanning 
mill  factory  and  nineteen  other  buildings.  The  mill  building  was 
owned  by  John  Dignam;  but  the  contents  represented  $12,000.  A. 
Kerr's  building  adjoining  was  valued  at  $1,000 ;  Stewart  and  Eudd's 
dwelling  and  barns,  $2,500  ;  barn  adjoining  factory,  $500  ;  McKellar 
&  Stewart's  wagon  factory,  $6,000;  McKellar's  dwelling,  $1,000; 
Waddell's  cottage,  $1,200 ;  Western  Hotel  stables  and  contents,  $2,000  • 
Grey's  plow  factory,  $300 ;  Magee's  block  of  six  dwellings,  $3,600  ; 
Gillean's  building  damaged ;  also  Mrs.  Darby's,  Hardwood's  carpenter 
shop,  Peel's  marble  works,  Eichardson's  carpenter  shop.  P.  Weston's 
dwelling  and  other  buildings  damaged.  The  losses  amounted  to 
$40,000.  M.  &  E.  Anderson's  foundry,  Adelaide  and  Dundas  streets, 
was  blown  up  September  21,  1868,  killing  one  man  and  wounding 
seven.  Twelve  years  before  the  Anderson  foundry,  then  on  Eichmond 
and  Fullarton  streets,  met  with  a  similar  fate,  when  a  number  of  lives 
were  lost  and  a  number  wounded.  The  fire  of  December  29  destroyed 
the  grocery  house  of  Frank  Smith  &  Co.,  the  loss  being  estimated  at 
about  $40,000. 

The  fire  of  Jan.  6,  1869,  originated  in  Finlayson's  dry  goods  store, 
on  Dundas,  and  gutted  that  store.  In  saving  adjoining  property  much 
damage  was  done,  the  total  losses  being  placed  at  $30,000.  John- 
White's  hotel,  on  North  street,  was  partially  destroyed  by  fire  also  in 
January.  Thomas  Hodgens's  wagon  shop,  on  Eichmond  and  Market, 
was  destroyed  by  fire  February  11.  The  fire  of  June  7  destroyed 
Bullock's  dwelling  and  slaughter-house  on  King  and  Eectory  streets, 
near  St.  Paul's  Cemetery.  The  Canada  Chemical  Works  were  burned 
in  September.  The  Ontario  Chemical  Works,  on  London  Eoad,  were 
destroyed  October  12,  involving  a  loss  of  $15,000.  Win.  McMillan's 
oil  refinery,  on  Bathurst,  east  of  the  Grand  Trunk  Eailroad  depot,  was 
gutted  by  fire  November  3-4.  The  house  of  Wm.  Smith,  near  the- 
Catholic  cemetery,  was  burned  November  26.  The  act  was  imputed 
to  Mary  Hawkins,  whose  love  was  not  reciprocated.  A  tavern  at  the 
corner  of  Eichmond  and  Litchfield  streets  was  burned  December  6. 

The  tinshop  of  I.  W.  C.  Baker  was  burned  January  5,  1870, 
entailing  a  loss  of  $2.500.  The  other  property  destroyed  was  A.  John- 
ston's building,  $1,400 ;  Hiscox's  hotel,  $1,600 ;  T.  Powell's  furniture, 
$500 ;  Mrs.  Trebilcock's  stock,  about  $600 ;  Goldner  &  Hooper's, 
about  $300;  Dr.  Westland's  furniture,  $300,  and  Benj  Hioains's 
building,  $300— in  all  $7,500.  The  O'Callaghan  and  Elson  frame 
building,  which  stood  on  Eichmond  street,  opposite  the  City  Hall,  was 
burned  January  21.  Elson's  butcher  shop,  Mountjoy's  fruit  store, 
Henry  Taylor's  bank  and  Burke's  photographic  rooms  were  in  the 
building.  The  house  was  erected  about  1841,  and  for  ten  years  was 
used  by  the  Wesleyan  Methodists  for  church  purposes.  The  fire  on 


Duke  and  Cartwright  streets,  of  February  22,  destroyed  property 
valued  at  $2,000.  A.  Graham's  barn,  and  James  Anderson's  and  Mrs. 
Hennessy's  cottages  were  destroyed.  The  grocery  store  of  Michael 
Gleeson,  on  Eichmond  and  Bathurst  streets,  was  destroyed  by  fire 
February  27.  The  children  narrowly  escaped  death.  The  petroleum 
works  of  Englehart  &  Co.,  on  Adelaide  street,  were  destroyed  by  fire 
February  24.  Oliver  Odell  was  burned  to  a  crisp,  and  others  severely 
injured.  A  second  explosion  at  Eriglehart's  works,  April  9,  entailed  a 
loss  of  $2,000  ;  and  a  third  on  May  23,  1870,  damaged  property  valued 
at  $6,000.  Macmillan  &  Latham's  oil  still  exploded  August  11. 

The  explosion  at  Steadwells'  refinery  April  22,  1872,  caused  the 
death  of  Joseph  Ellis  and  J.  Weaver,  while  on  December  31st  young 
Hussey  was  killed  in  Elliott's  foundry.  The  burning  of  Mrs.  Howard's 
child  at  the  barracks  occurred  September  3, 1872.  S.  Adams  &  Co.'s  oil 
stills  were  damaged  by  explosion  in  June.  In  November,  the  frame 
buildings  near  the  Terrapin  restaurant  on  Dundas  street  were  des- 
troyed by  fire.  Mrs.  S.  A.  Gibbons,  whose  fancy  goods  store  was  in 
one,  and  Geo.  Shaw,  who  had  a  grocery  in  another,  suffered  some  loss. 
The  old  buildings  were  on  the  site  of  the  proposed  buildings  of  W.  J. 
Eeid  &  Co.  In  December,  the  Victoria  Hotel  stables  on  Duke  and 
Wellington  streets,  with  the  dwellings  of  Wm.  Noden  and  Mrs.  Ions, 
were  burned.  On  the  morning  of  December  10th  the  old  frame  pas- 
pen  ger  depot  of  the  Grand  Trunk  Kailroad  was  destroyed,  and  on 
December  15th  the  old  artillery  barracks  on  Wellington  street. 

The  explosion  of  an  oil  still  in  the  Hodgens  refinery,  east  of  Ade- 
laide street,  resulted  in  the  destruction  of  fourteen  oil  cars.  This 
occurred  January  10,  1873.  The  fire  of  February  8th  destroyed  Kirk- 
patrick's  shoe  store,  and  Thomas  Simmon's  fruit  shop  on  Dundas  street. 
On  April  18th  the  boiler  in  Hyman's  tannery  (London)  exploded,  killing 
Daniel  Sullivan.  Geo.  Homer,  foreman,  and  George  Vincent,  engineer, 
were  arrested  on  the  charge  of  continuing  the  use  of  the  engine  for 
months  after  they  knew  of  the  dangerous  condition  of  the  safety-valve. 

The  Ontario  Car  Works  of  London  were  destroyed  by  fire  in  June, 
1874.  The  total  loss  of  $80,000  was  met  by  an  insurance  of  $65,000. 
The  fire  of  June  22  destroyed  nine  buildings  on  Eichmond  street, 
between  King  and  York  streets,  and  on  the  27th  two  frame  buildings 
on  the  west  side  of  Eichmond,  between  the  streets  named,  were 
destroyed.  On  July  4th  two  frame  buildings  on  Bathurst,  near 
Clarence,  were  burned. 

The  fire  of  February  27,  1875,  destroyed  Muirhead  &  Gray's  oat- 
meal mills,  and  also  the  block  on  the  corner  of  Dundas  and  Eichmond. 
On  March  31  Westlake's  dry  goods  store  was  burned.  In  August  the 
factories  of  Nash  &  Jackson  and  of  White,  Yates  &  Joliffe  were  des- 

The  Golden  Quoit  Hotel,  on  York  and  Burwell  streets,  was  burned 
August  30,  1876.  M.  Glass  was  then  proprietor. 

The  London  Iron  Works,  owned  by  E.  Leonard  &  Sons,  were  des- 

268  HISTORY   OF    THE 

troyed  by  fire  May  4,  1881,  thirty  years  after  their  establishment  by 
Elijah  Leonard.  Seventy  portable  engines  and  boilers  were  destroyed, 
and  the  total  loss  was  placed  at  $60,000.  The  works  stood  on  York, 
between  Waterloo  and  Colborne,  and  gave  employment  to  eighty-five 
workmen.  George  Gray  and  Harry  Smith,  two  firemen,  narrowly 
escaped  death.  Thomas  Green's  planing  mill  was  destroyed  by  fire 
September  11,  entailing  a  loss  of  $25,000. 

The  Globe  Agricultural  Works  on  Dundas  street  were  destroyed 

by  fire  September  11,  1882.      The  concern  was  insured  for  $27,000, 

but  the  loss  was  placed  at  over  $45,000  by  Mr.  Mahon,  the  manager. 

The  Imperial  Oil  Company's  works  in  London  East  were  struck 

by  lightning  and  destroyed  on  July  11,  1883. 

The  wholesale  house  of  Hobbs,  Osborne  &  Hobbs,  was  blown  up 
by  gunpowder,  February  18,  1884.  The  two  upper  floors  were  carried 
away,  and  fire  completed  the  ruin.  Donald  Smith  was  burned  to  a 
crisp;  Percy  H.  Ince  was  rescued  half  crushed  and  half  burned; 
Frank  Shaw  and  Frank  H.  Smith  escaped.  The  firm  carried  the 
heaviest  hardware  stock  in  Western  Ontario,  and  lost  about  $35,000. 
The  building  was  insured  for  $12,000,  and  the  stock  for  $63,000. 

The  Phoenix  Foundry,  erected  in  1871-2,  was  destroyed  by  fire 
May  29,  1885.  Five  hundred  reapers  and  binders  were  burned,  and 
an  acre  of  buildings  and  material  destroyed.  John  Elliott  &  Sons,  the 
owners,  estimated  the  loss  at  between  $150,000  and  $200,000  insured 
for  $52,000. 

The  Canada  Chemical  Co.'s  works  were  destroyed  June  12,  1887, 
involving  a  loss  of  $100,000.  In  1867  this  industry  was  established* 
here;  was  burned  out  in  18 70,  but  rebuilt  and  carried  on  a  great  busi- 
ness. The  fire  of  June  17  broke  out  in  an  old  frame  building 
on  the  south  side  of  Queen's  avenue,  near  Talbot  street,  and  destroyed 
much  property.  Cousins's  pump  factory  on  Wellington  street,  with 
two  stables,  were  burned  August  5. 

Hunt's  mill,  at  the  foot  of  Talbot  street,  was  destroyed  by  fire  May 
18,  1888.  The  gutting  of  the  old  Mechanics'  Institute  building  on 
Talbot  street,  opposite  Queen's  avenue,  occurred  July  22,  1888.  The 
oatmeal  mill,  on  the  corner  of  Talbot  street  and  the  railway,  was 
destroyed,  only  the  bare  walls  standing,  August  20. 

Village  and  City  Police.— In  the  year  1840,  London  was  consti- 
tuted a  police  village,  controlled  by  a  Board  of  Police,  with  functions 
similar  to  those  of  the  Board  of  Aldermen  of  to-day.  Of  that  body, 
which  was  elective,  Mr.  Goodhue  was  chosen  the  first  President.  Under 
this  system  of  rule  the  village  continued  till  1847,  when  it  was  created 
a  town  with  Simeon  Morrill  as  its  first  Mayor.  In  1834  Lawrence 
Lawrason  was  appointed  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  for  London,  and  for 
over  40  years  served  as  such.  In  1866  he  was  appointed  first 
Police  Magistrate  for  London,  holding  the  position  until  his  death  in 
1882.  E.  Jones  Parke  is  the  present  Magistrate. 

A  memorial  of  military  honesty  is  written  under  date  of  May,  1843. 



It  appears  that  Private  James  Ilett,  of  the  Royal  Eegiment,  found  a 
shawl.  This  the  Board  ordered  should  "  be  cried  through  the  town  by 
the  *  General  Brown,'  and  given  up  to  the  true  owner." 

In  May,  1843,  a  note  for  £11  5s.,  payable  to  Thomas  Clifford  or 
bearer,  by  Nathan  Choat,  was  found  on  the  street  and  turned  over  to 
the  Board. 

Michael  McGarry  was  appointed  Constable,  Town  Warden  and 
Inspector  in  August,  1844,  vice  Bennett.  In  those  days  the  duties  of 
Town  Warden  and  Inspector  were  not  always  pleasant  or  safe.  On  one 
occasion  Lowrie  called  at  Devanny's  bake  house  to  inspect  the  stove 
pipe.  A  law  suit  followed,  when  one  of  the  witnesses,  Richard  Falls, 
or  Faulds,  swore  as  follows  : — "  Lowrie  caught  hold  of  Devanny's  col- 
lar, and  Devanny  gave  him  the  paper  and  told  him  to  leave  the  bake 
house,  which  Lowrie  refused  to  do,  upon  which  Devanny  threw  him 
out "  This  unceremonious  conduct  cost  the  baker  8s.  9d. 

The  officers  of  the  Police  Board  in  1846,  were  the  same  as  in  1845, 
with  the  exceptions  that  Win.  McBride  was  appointed  assessor.  In 
January,  1846,  the  room  for  Police  Board  was  rented  from  Timothy 
Cook,  on  Ridout  street,  for  £1  per  month.  The  officials  at  this  time 
were  very  exacting.  John  Becket  had  to  pay  fourteen  shillings  "  for 
standing  with  his  team  on  one  of  the  crossing  places  on  the  street,  con- 
trary to  by-law."  October  9,  1848,  Councilman  Doyle's  motion,  that 
all  the  policemen,  except  the  high  bailiff  and  inspectors,  be  dismissed, 
was  earned ;  also  one  providing  that  the  new  police  force,  consisting  of 
three  privates  and  the  high  bailiff,  should  receive  £20  per  annum  and 
usual  fees,  while  the  inspector  was  to  be  paid  £30  per  annum.  Ezekiel 
Whittimore  was  inspector,  and  Messrs.  Wiggins,  Boyd  and  R.  Jennings, 
policemen.  Colonel  Clinch,  was  inspector  of  licenses. 

In  January,  1849,  Peter  McCaim  was  appointed  high  constable  ; 
James  Dunbar  and  Michael  Kennedy,  fee-paid  constables  for  St. 
Andrew's ;  Michael  McGarry  and  Henry  Boyd,  for  St.  Patrick's ;  T. 
Wiggins  and  J.  Wakely,  for  St.  David's ;  and  T.  Fletcher  and  W.  Robb, 
for  St.  George's;  Annesley  Griffith,  inspector;  W.  Williams,  town 
crier ;  R.  Jennings,  pound-keeper ;  and  J.  H.  Caddy,  engineer. 

On  January  21,  1849,  Miriam  H.  Rowley,  while  passing  by  his 
store,  observed  a  light  inside  ;  the  ubiquitous  Peter  McCann  was  soon 
on  the  scene,  when  he  found  Malachi  Hart  and  Michael  Young  pre- 
paring to  sleep  in  Rowley's  bed-clothes.  McCann  took  them  to  prison, 
and  next  day  had  them  fined. 

Daniels  moved  to  have  the  Mayor  and  two  councilmen  also  sit 
weekly  as  Police  Court  Magistrates  in  1849.  In  1854  Thael  Van 
Valkenburg  was  appointed  high  bailiff,  but  in  January,  1855  the  office 
gav<)  place  to  that  of  high  constable.  In  January,  1855,  a  report  in 
favor  of  establishing  a  regular  police  force  was  adopted.  Robert  Maw- 
hinney,  John  lies,  John  Keary,  Andrew  Pollock,  John  T.  Mitchell, 
Henry  Shad  well  and  Christopher  Teale  were  appointed,  but  Pollock 
resigned,  and  Edward  Templeton  was  appointed.  William  O'Rielly 

270  HISTORY   OF   THE 

was  chief  constable.  In  July,  1855,  Samuel  Parke  Ayres  was  ap- 
pointed chief  constable,  vice  William  O'Kielly.  On  September  24, 
1860,  the  police  force  was  discharged  and  a  new  one  appointed,  com- 
prising the  following  members  : — Eobert  Mawhinney,  James  Taylor, 
Patrick  Wallace,  William  Baskerville,  James  Guttridge,  Henry  Phair 
and  John  Larkin.  Baskerville  was  appointed  chief,  but  was  succeeded 
in  February,  1861,  by  Richard  Wigmore. 

In  1877  there  were  thirty-two  applicants  for  the  office  of  Chief  of 
Police,  recently  held  by  Chief  Wigmore.  Sergeant  W.  T.  Williams,  of 
the  Toronto  police,  was  chosen,  while  ex- Chief  Wigmore  was  appointed 
head  of  the  detective  force,  at  a  salary  of  $600  per  annum. 

In  1863  the  force  consisted  of  a  chief  and  seven  constables.  There 
were  no  sergeants  and  no  detectives.  Brock  Stevens  was  chief,  having 
succeeded  S.  P.  Ayers,  second  chief  of  the  London  city  police,  a  year 
or  so  before.  T.  Van Valkenburgh  was  the  first  to  hold  office.  The 
constables  were  Henry  Phair,  Robert  Mawhinney,  Patrick  Wallace, 
John  Larkin,  William  Baskerville,  James  Guttridge  and  Jas.  Fletcher. 
Three  of  the  above-mentioned  seven  are  still  on  the  force.  Baskerville, 
who  afterwards  became  sergeant-major,  is  in  the  city  also,  and  it  is 
only  a  short  time  since  Mr.  Mawhinney  died.  Brock  Stevens  resigned 
from  the  force  shortly  after,  but  continued  to  reside  in  London  until 
1876,  or  thereabouts,  when  he  committed  suicide  for  some  unexplained 
cause.  He  was  succeeded  by  Richard  Wigmore,  previously  employed 
in  the  Sheriff's  office,  and  Mr.  Wigmore  held  the  office  until  1875, 
when,  through  some  difficulties  arising  on  the  force,  he  resigned.  He 
was  succeeded  by  Wm.  T.  T.  Williams,  the  present  chief,  who  previous 
to  that  time  had  been  a  sergeant  in  the  Toronto  police  force,  and  had 
also  seen  considerable  military  police  and  detective  service  in  England 
and  France.  The  force,  as  now  constituted,  comprises  one  chief,  three 
sergeants,  two  detectives,  and  twenty-four  police  constables.  The  fol- 
lowing are  the  names  of  the  officers  : — 

Chief,  W.  T.  T.  Williams;  sergeants,  Robt.  Adams,  Thos.  Jenkins 
and  Arthur  Maguire ;  detectives,  Henry  Phair  and  William  Ryder; 
police  constables,  John  Larkin,  Patrick  Wallace,  James  Hobbins,  John 
Boyd,  Robert  Weir,  William  Pope,  Robert  Crawford,  Nelson  Smith, 
Robert  Egleton,  John  Morgan,  Richard  Ralph,  David  Dibbs,  Walter 
Chalcraft,  Thomas  Nickle,  George  Campbell,  Robert  Birrell,  Thomas 
Howie,  Thomas  McDonald,  Wm.  McGowan,  John  D.  McColl,  Michael 
Toohey,  Gilbert  Woolway,  James  Gilson  and  Thomas  Whittaker. 

The  force  is  in  a  very  efficient  state,  as  Chief  Williams  main- 
tains the  strictest  discipline.  For  years  now  "  crooks  "  have  worked 
shy  of  London,  owing  mainly  to  the  wide-awake  character  of  the  city 
detectives.  The  detective  department  was  added  to  the  force  about 
1871  or  1872,  Enoch  Murphy  being  the  first  appointed.  About  1873 
or  1874  fire  bugs  were  burning  up  the  city  right  and  left,  and  Henry 
Phair  was  made  a  detective  and  is  still  on  the  force.  Detective 
Murphy  was  succeeded  by  Detective  Ryder  about  three  years  ago. 


The  other  two  officers,  besides  Detective  Phair,  who  were  on  the  force 
in  1863,  and  are  still  on  it.  are  Patrick  Wallace  and  John  Larkin.  As 
stated  above,  there  were  no  sergeants  in  1863 ;  but  now  there  are  three 
of  the  most  capable  police  officers  in  Canada  holding  these  positions. 
Eobert  Adams  is  the  senior,  and  has  seen  long  service  on  the  force. 
Thomas  Jenkins  comes  next  in  seniority,  and  has  been  on  the  force 
about  twelve  or  thirteen  years.  He  is  also  a  very  capable  officer,  as  is 
Arthur  Maguire,  the  third  on  the  list,  also. 

Henry  Boyd,  for  over  20  years  the  city  bell-ringer  of  London,  died 
in  Dec.,  1872.  Years  before,  while  on  the  police  force,  he  was  beaten 
by  soldiers,  from  the  effects  of  which  he  suffered  until  his  death. 

Richard  Dinahan,  who  was  caretaker  of  the  City  Hall  for  over  17 
years,  was  presented  an  engrossed  copy  of  the  Council's  resolutions  on 
his  resignation  in  Jan.,  1873.  Eobert  Mawhinney,  who  died  in  1888, 
held  the  position  for  years.  Henry  Merritt  succeeded. 

Town-Crier  Williams  was  the  first,  and  for  a  long  time  the  only 
advertising  medium  London  possessed.  He  would  go  about  the  town 
ringing  his  bell,  and  from  time  to  time,  as  he  became  the  center  of  a 
crowd,  would  make  his  announcements.  "  There  will  be-e-e  an  auc- 
tion sa-a-ale,  on  the  Market  Squ-a-re,  this  afternoo-o-n,  at  half-past 
two-o-o."  And  then  he  would  go  on  and  detail  what  was  to  be  offered. 
Town-Crier  Williams  commenced  business  in  the  forties,  and  continued 
until  the  daily  newspapers  left  nothing  for  him  to  do.  They  absorbed 
the  advertising  patronage,  and  the  profession  of  the  town-crier  became 
a  thing  of  the  past  in  1863-4. 

London's  Water  Supply. — In  the  earlier  years  of  the  settlement 
the  house-keeper  carried  water  from  the  river  in  a  pail,  or  where  a 
large  supply  was  needed,  an  empty  whisky  barrel  would  be  rolled 
down,  filled  and  rolled  back  to  supply  the  kitchen,  give  drink  to  the 
thirsty,  or  aid  in  building  up  the  stock  of  whisky.  In  April,  1830,  a 
well  was  ordered  to  be  excavated  opposite  lot  16,  on  the  south  side  of 
Dundas  street,  and  within  the  street  limits,  with  a  water  conveyance 
thence  to  the  jail,  where  a  reservoir  and  pump  were  to  be  constructed. 
Wells  then  came  into  general  use,  and  well-water  continued  to  be  used 
for  years.  On  the  organization  of  the  village,  the  water  question 
received  some  attention,  but  only  from  1843  is  there  reliable  informa- 
tion of  the  measures  taken  to  insure  a  supply.  Two  tanks,  fifteen  feet 
eight  inches  long,  six  feet  wide  and  ten  feet  deep,  were  ordered  in 
November,  1843 — one  to  be  placed  near  the  foundry,  and  one  at  the 
corner  of  Richmond  and  Horton  streets.  In  February,  1844,  the  town 
well  on  North  street,  in  the  rear  of  Farley's  house,  was  cleaned  and 
otherwise  improved.  Leonard  Perrin  was  allowed  "to  lay  down 
pipes  from  lot  15  to  lot  16  on  Dundas  street  in  February,  1845."  In 
June,  Lawyer  Wilson  asked  permission  to  lay  down  pipe  from  the 
well  at  the  corner  of  Talbot  and  North  streets  to  his  buildings  on 
Dundas  street.  In  June,  1846,  Robert  Gunn  complained  to  the  Board 
"  that  John  Wilson  turned  the  water  out  of  its-  proper  course  in  North 



street."  This  undoubtedly  resulted  from  Wilson's  unanswered  prayer 
for  leave  to  put  down  water  pipes  referred  to  in  1845.  Permission 
was  given  the  people  to  take  water  from  the  pipes  leading  from  the 
sprino  to  the  tanks  in  August,  1847.  Among  the  first  to  take  advantage 
of  this  privilege  of  attaching  pipes  to  the  tank  at  the  old  Montreal  bank, 
at  the  corner  of  Ridout  and  North  streets,  was  Dennis  O'Brien.  A 
special  assessment  of  one  farthing  on  the  pound  was  made  in  Septem- 
ber, 1848,  on  Dundas  street  from  Kidout  to  Talbot,  to  pay  the  expense 
of  sprinkling  the  street. 

In  January,  1851,  E.  Johnstone,  of  the  Committee  of  the  County 
Council  on  the  jail  water  supply,  recommended  that  the  Warden, 
Engineer  and  a  member  of  Council  be  appointed  a  permanent  com- 
mittee to  superintend  improvements  on  water- works,  and  for  selling 
water  to  consumers  in  the  town.  In  February,  1852,  Councillors 
Barker,  Oliver,  Code,  McClary  and  Anderson  were  appointed  a  com- 
mittee to  consider  the  best  means  for  obtaining  a  supply  of  good 
water  for  the  town.  In  August  there  were  eleven  large  tanks  in  use, 
three  of  which  were  constructed  of  brick.  A  committee  of  the  Council 
recommended  the  erection  of  eighteen  additional  tanks — nine  of  brick 
and  nine  of  wood.  This  committee  was  presided  over  by  John  C. 

A  petition  to  the  Legislature  asking  power  to  erect  a  system  of 
water-works  was  adopted  in  January,  1853.  In  November,  1854, 
Elijah  Leonard  introduced  a  by-law  providing  for  the  establishment  of 
the  London  and  Westminster  Water- works  Company.  Peter  McCann 
was  one  of  the  directors.  In  consequence,  however,  of  a  suspicion 
that  the  Pond  Mills  water  contained  nothing  but  surface  water,  the 
company  fell  through.  In  1866  several  artesian  wells  were  sunk,  but 
the  water  was  strongly  impregnated  with  sulphur.  One  of  the  wells, 
at  the  foot  of  Dundas  street,  has  been  running  since,  and  it  is  pro- 
posed to  build  a  sanitarium  in  connection  with  it  at  an  early  date. 
After  the  failure  of  the  artesian  wells,  and  a  thorough  test  of  the 
Westminster  ponds,  it  was  decided  to  try  the  Byron  springs,  about 
four  miles  down  the  river.  The  result  was  the  discovery  of  an  inex- 
haustible supply  of  pure  spring  water,  and  a  natural  elevation  for  a 
reservoir  commanding  the  city. 

In  November,  1871,  a  report  from  the  committee  sent  to  examine 
the  water-works  at  Jackson,  Mich.,  was  received.  In  March,  1874, 
Charles  Dunnett  placed  before  the  Council  Dr.  Anderson's  reference 
to,  and  Dr.  Machattie's  analysis  of  1870  of,  the  sulphur  springs  water. 
On  October  7,  1874,  Thomas  C.  Keefer,  writing  to  the  Council,  speaks 
of  collecting  the  springs  near  Cobmbs's,  but  suggests  that,  to  avoid 
tunnelling  the  river  to  put  down  water  pipes,  every  effort  should  be 
made  to  obtain  a  supply  on  the  city  side  of  the  branches.  On  February 
15,  1875,  Messrs.  Macmahon,  Gibbons  and  McNab  were  authorized  to 
inform  the  Council  that,  should  privileges  be  granted,  a  private  com- 
pany with  $600,000  capital  was  willing  to  undertake  the  construction 


of  water-works.  On  March  29,  1875,  a  vote  on  the  question  of  the 
by-law  appropriating  $400,000  for  water- works,  on  the  basis  of  T.  C. 
Reefer's  estimate,  was  taken,  when  243  votes  were  for  and  699  against. 
A  very  bitter  feeling  was  manifested  before  and  during  the  election. 
The  disbursements  for  the  year  1874  were  $659,202.02. 

In  September,  1876,  a  company  applied  for  a  charter  to  supply  the 
city  with  water.  The  members  were  George  S.  Birrell,  Charles 
Murray,  Isaac  Waterman,  Ellis  W.  Hyman,  John  McClary,  John 
Elliott,  Thomas  Muir  and  George  Moorhead.  The  committee  re- 
ported in  favor  of  accepting  a  scheme  proposed  by  this  company  or 
the  establishment  of  a  system  by  the  city.  At  this  time  William 
Eobinson,  city  engineer,  presented  estimates  for  $94,395  as  the  cost  of 
a  thorough  system.  Wilson's  spring,  on  the  6th  Concession  of  London, 
Lot  4,  as  described  in  the  engineer's  report  of  1875,  was  referred  to  as 
the  proper  source  of  supply. 

The  by-law  authorizing  the  construction  of  water- works  passed  at 
special  meeting  of  the  Council,  December  26,  1877,  and  in  March, 
1878,  a  contract  for  the  construction  of  water- works  and  reservoir  was 
sold  to  Stevens,  Turner  &  Burns,  of  London,  for  $194,000.  In  May 
an  18-inch  pipe  was  placed  from  Waterloo  and  York  streets  to  Coombs's 
Hill,  3J  miles,  crossing  the  Thames  south  of  Westminster  bridge.  The 
reservoir  and  works  were  constructed  near  the  old  mill,  and  a  dam 
constructed  to  obtain  power  for  the  pumping  machinery,  as  it  was  then 
determined  to  dispense  with  the  use  of  coal.  The  building  was  erected 
by  Screaton  &  Gibson,  and  in  it  were  placed  two  Holly  turbine  wheels 
of  103  horse-power  each.  The  reservoir  on  Chestnut  Hill — 298  feet 
above  the  river,  and  150  feet  above  the  highest  point  in  the  city, 
except  the  Catholic  Cathedral — has  a  capacity  of  6,000,000  gallons, 
being  198  square  feet  at  the  bottom,  and  400  square  feet  at  the  sur- 
face, with  a  depth  of  17  feet.  The  grounds,  comprising  62  acres,  were 
fenced  in  1878  by  James  Biggs,  under  the  direction  of  John  Kitchen, 
the  Water  Commissioners'  foreman.  On  November  11,  1878,  City 
Engineer  Wm.  Robinson  resigned,  and  Thomas  Tracy,  P.  L.  S.,  was 
appointed.  John  Carling,  R.  Lewis  and  J.  R.  Minhinnick  were  the 
first  Water  Commissioners.  In  June,  1882,  J.  M.  Cousins  was 
appointed,  vice  Muirhead,  as  shown  in  the  municipal  history. 

The  whole  of  the  works,  including  a  reservoir  of  over  6,000,000 
gallons'  capacity,  about  31  miles  of  mains,  180  hydrants,  valves,  a 
dam,  pump  house,  machinery,  road,  etc.,  also  about  1,000  services,  was 
completed  and  water  turned  on  in  January,  1879.  Since  that  time 
extensions  have  been  made  each  year,  including  the  London  East 
works,  which  were  connected  in  1885  on  the  amalgamation  of  London- 
East  with  the  city.  In  1882,  steam  pumping  machinery  of  a  capacity 
of  2,000,000  gallons  (imperial)  was  put  in,  and  has  given  the  most 
thorough  satisfaction,  a  duty  of  82,000,000  feet  pounds  per  100 
pounds  of  coal  consumed  having  been  realized,  according  to  the  test  of 
George  C.  Robb,  M.  E.  Considerable  damage  was  done  to  the  works 


270  HISTORY   OF    THE 

by  the  great  flood  of  July,  1883,  but  the  repairs  were  quickly  and 
thoroughly  made,  the  supply  being  kept  up  by  the  steam  pumping 
machinery.  In  1886  the  reservoir  was  cleaned  out,  relined  with 
hydraulic  cement  concrete,  improved  facilities  for  emptying  and  clean- 
ing added,  and  additional  storage  for  the  spring  water  provided  at  con- 
siderable cost,  and  in  August,  1887,  Button's  springs  were  purchased 
for  $2,500.  The  original  works  were  designed  by  Wm.  Eobinson,  C.  E., 
and  carried  out  under  the  superintendence  of  T.  H.  Tracy,  C.  E.,  the 
present  City  Engineer,  who  has  had  charge  of  the  work  since  that  time. 
The  present  works  comprise  over  45  miles  of  mains,  250  hydrants  with 
valves,  and  about  5,000  services,  which  have  been  put  in  free  to  the 
consumer  to  the  extent  of  twenty  feet  inside  the  street  line.  The 
offices  of  the  department  are  located  in  the  City  Hall.  The  neighbor- 
hood surrounding  the  water-works  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  in 
Western  Ontario.  It  is  known  under  the  name  of  Springbank,  and 
with  the  boats  running  on  the  river,  thousands  of  people  visit  it  week- 
ly. The  receipts  of  the  department  at  the  present  time  are  between 
$40,000  and  $45,000  annually,  and  the  running  expenses  from  $10,000 
to  $12,000.  The  balance  up  to  1885  was  not  only  expended  on  capital 
account,  but  additional  sums  borrowed.  In  1885,  however,  the  de- 
partment had  a  handsome  balance  on  hand,  and  since  then  the  show- 
ing has  been  even  better. 

Analysis  of  Water. — To  point  out  the  difference  between  the 
waters  used  by  the  people  of  ante- water- works  days  and  the  present 
inhabitants,  the  following  statement  is  given,  founded  on  the  report  of 
W.  Saunders,  chemist,  on  the  constituent  parts  of  water  in  and  around 
London,  made  to  the  Council.  Water  from  the  well  at  the  corner  of 
Adelaide  and  North  streets  (the  Mayor's  residence)  contained  25J 
grains  of  solid  matter ;  from  his  own  well  on  Dundas,  between  Waterloo 
and  Colborne,  29  J  grains ;  from  Dr.  Brown's  well,  Kent  street,  near 
Talbot,  51  grains,  and  from  Harvey's  well,  Talbot  street  north,  70 
grains.  The  water  at  Coombs'  springs  yielded  16  J  grains,  while  it 
showed  only  9  degrees  of  hardness,  compared  with  11  to  17  degrees  for 
the  well  waters  named. 

The  Asylum  wells  water  in  1871,  as  certified  by  A.  T.  Machattie, 
contained  11.07  grains  (east  well)  and  18.81  grains  (west  well)  of 
saline  matter.  The  former  showed  6.51  grains,  and  the  latter  14.90 
grains  of  carbonate  of  lime ;  while  carbonate  of  magnesia  was  repre- 
sented by  4.56  and  3.91  grains  respectively.  The  analyst  stated  that 
"  the  only  saline  matters  present  in  any  appreciable  quantity,  are  the 
carbonates  of  lime  and  magnesia,  which  are,  as  usual,  dissolved  in 
excess  of  carbonic  acid.  The  waters  are  remarkably  free  from  alkaline 
chlorides  and  sulphates ;  they  contained  no  organic  matter,  either  of 
vegetable  or  animal  origin,  a  fact  which  conclusively  indicates  the 
absence  of  surface  water  or  any  contamination  from  sewage  ;  they  are 
perfectly  colorless  and  transparent,  and  contain  nothing  in  any  way 
prejudicial  to  health.  The  '  east'  well  being  softer  than  the  '  west '  is 



so  much  the  more  suitable  for  ordinary  domestic  purposes ;  but  there 
is  nothing  in  either  water  to  prevent  its  general  use  in  the  Asylum." 

A  Terrible  Holiday. — The  celebration  of  May  24th,  the  Queen's 
birthday,  has  been  observed  at  London  since  1850,  when  Councillor 
Labatt  asked  the  Mayor  to  proclaim  the  day  as  a  town  holiday.  For 
years  it  was  observed  by  the  people  in  revelry  and  banqueting.  The 
barbarous  barbecue,  roasted  ox,  whisky  and  ale,  being  main  features ; 
but  as  men's  intelligence  developed,  a  good  deal  of  the  barbarian  disap- 
peared, and  the  day  became  one  of  quiet  pleasure.  Such  was  that  of 
1881  in  its  beginnings.  All  day  long  the  loyal  people  of  London 
indulged  in  quiet  pleasures ;  some  at  home,  some  at  Springbank,  and 
others,  more  fortunate,  visiting  friends  in  the  country  or  in  other  cities 
of  Canada.  The  day  was  ordered  for  holiday  making,  the  Princess 
Victoria  and  Princess  Louise  carried  hundreds  down  to  Springbank 
and  back,  and  all  went  merry  as  marriage  bells  until  evening,  when 
the  murky  sky  gave  notice  to  the  merrymakers  that  the  hour  for  return- 
ing was  at  hand.  At  five  o'clock  the  Victoria  arrived  at  the  picnic 
grounds,  bringing  down  many  who  had  passed  the  day  in  the  city. 
Both  decks  were  even  then  crowded.  Xo  sooner  was  the  boat  halted 
than  a  greater  crowd  on  the  wharf  leaped  on  board,  and  in  a  few 
minutes  about  800  men,  women  and  children,  were  huddled  together 
in  a  space  fit  only  for  100  persons.  The  captain  and  crew  seemed  as 
contented  as  the  excursionists ;  all  were  anxious  to  be  at  home  for 
supper.  So  the  boat  cleared  from  the  wharf  and  crept  slowly  up  the 
Thames.  The  swell  of  the  waters  sometimes  leaped  in  on  the  lower 
deck,  but  there  was  little  fear  in  the  hearts  of  the  travellers  until  the 
crowd  surged  to  one  side,  when  that  side  of  the  lower  deck  was  sub- 
merged to  a  depth  of  eight  inches.  The  captain  now  became  aware  of 
danger,  and  asked  the  people  to  be  still ;  but  the  warning  was  unheeded. 
The  boat  had  now  reached  the  expansion  of  the  river,  about  1,300  feet 
west  of  the  cove  bridge,  and  held  its  way  one-fourth  the  width  of  the 
river  from  the  bank.  Suddenly  a  volume  of  water  swept  over  the 
lower  deck,  and  the  boat  turned  over,  leaving  the  deck  floors  almost 
perpendicular,  then  the  supports  bent  and  broke,  and  in  an  instant 
the  celebrants  were  in  the  water,  fighting  for  life,  or  crushed  to  death 
in  the  wreck.  The  evidence  of  John  T.  Fryer  before  the  coroner's 
jury  forms  part  of  the  official  history  of  this  tragedy.  He  states : — 
"  Was  on  the  Victoria ;  I  saw  her  coming  to  Springbank ;  I  was  on  the 
dock ;  she  came  in  bow  first ;  she  appeared  to  be  very  much  crowded ; 
a  number,  myself  among  the  rest,  jumped  over  the  bulwarks,  and 
gained  the  boat  before  the  gang  was  lowered.  I  saw  some  of  the 
passengers  get  off — not  many ;  I  saw  a  number  getting  on  over  the 
gangway ;  the  vessel  then  swung  around  and  came  up  to  the  dock 
with  the  bow  towards  London  ;  she  was  so  loaded  then  that  I  could  not 
get  a  seat ;  my  wife  got  a  seat ;  my  wife  got  on  over  the  bulwarks  ; 
when  she  got  in,  I  handed  my  child  to  her ;  my  reason  for  getting 
over  the  bulwarks  was  to  secure  a  seat,  as  I  saw  the  rush  was  so 


great;  there  were  eight  in  my  party,  all  of  whom  got  over  the  bul- 
warks, except  my  father — he  came  over  the  gangway ;  after  the  Victoria 
came  back  to  the  dock  the  second  time,  she  remained  some  five  or  ten 
minutes  there  before  she  started  for  London ;  I  think  some  got  on  and 
some  got  off  the  second  time  ;  I  heard  some  say  that  the  captain  said 
he  would  not  start  until  some  of  the  people  got  off ;  but  very  few  got 
off;  the  boat  went  towards  Ward's  hotel,  but  we  did  not  stop  there; 
the  boat  appeared  straight  to  me ;  when  approaching  Woodland,  we 
passed  the  Forest  City ;  the  people  went  to  the  south  side  to  see  it, 
and  that  gave  the  boat  a  list  in  that  direction ;  immediately  after  pass- 
ing the  Forest  City,  I  noticed  the  Princess  Louise ;  I  said  to  those 
near  me  it  was  strange  the  three  steamers  should  all  be  at  Springbank 
at  the  same  time ;  after  passing  the  Forest  City,  I  saw  the  Princess 
Louise  coming  around  the  bend  approaching  Woodland ;  it  appeared  to 
me  that  both  boats  were  making  to  the  wharf;  as  we  got  to  Woodland 
the  people  were  pretty  much  to  the  south  side ;  it  was  here  where  the 
vessel  commenced  to  lurch ;  just  after  that  I  stepped  into  the  wheel- 
house  with  my  child  in  my  arms ;  after  this  one  or  two  boys  came  up 
to  the  captain  and  told  him,  '  We  must  get  the  people  to  go  over  to  the 
north  side  of  the  boat,  as  the  boat  is  listing  over  to  the  south,  and  the 
water  is  coming  in  on  the  deck  below.'  After  this  a  deck  hand  (a 
Frenchman)  came  up ;  he  told  the  captain  that  the  people  would  not 
move  for  him,  and  for  him  (the  captain)  to  come  down  and  use  his 
influence.  The  captain  asked  if  the  engineer  had  the  pump  or  syphon 
at  work.  The  captain  hurried  around  to  myself  and  one  or  two  others 
to  use  our  influence  to  try  and  get  the  people  to  trim  the  boat ;  he 
said  he  couldn't  leave  the  wheel.  One  young  girl  in  front  of  the  wheel- 
house  asked  the  captain  if  there  was  any  danger  ;  he  said,  'If  you  don't 
go  over,  I  will  run  you  ashore,  and  you  will  have  to  walk  home.'  Just 
after  he  said  this,  the  boat  made  a  sudden  lurch  to  the  south,  and  then 
rolled  over  to  the  north  and  went  down,  north  bow  first.  When  the 
people  found  the  boat  lurching  to  the  south  they  then  moved  over  in 
a  hurry  to  the  north,  this  causing  her  to  lurch  heavily  to  the  north, 
and  went  over  apparently  north  bow  first.  When  I  was  in  the  water 
up  to  the  neck,  the  connection  to  the  steam  boiler  broke,  and  the  steam 
rushed  by  our  faces.  In  getting  on  to  the  hull,  I  noticed  the  supports 
had  all  been  broken  off  clean  with  the  deck."  Nicholas  Forkey,  a 
deck  hand,  gave  similar  evidence. 

A  thousand  stories,  relating  to  that  evening  on  the  river,  have  been 
told ;  but  all,  even  if  given  here,  could  not  portray  the  scene.  The  first 
effort  to  save  life  was  made  by  Henry  Nickles  and  M.  Reidy,  of  the 
forest  City  Club,  who  took  two  women  ashore,  and  then,  undressing, 
labored  to  save  life  so  long  as  one  appeared  living  in  the  water  or  the 
wreck.  Guy  Parks  and  John  Cousins  remained  in  the  club  boat,  and 
took  the  first  load  of  women  ashore.  Fitzpatrick,  night  baggageman  at 
the  depot,  rescued  his  wife,  daughter  and  daughter's  child. 

The  boat  Princess  Louise  arrived  soon  after,  but  too  late  to  rescue. 



She  was  moored  close  to  the  wreck,  and  near  the  north  bank,  and 
planks  stretched  from  her  deck  to  the  shore.  At  about  seven  o'clock 
that  evening  the  bodies  of  the  dead  were  brought  on  board  and  ranged 
on  the  upper  decks.  So  great  was  the  number,  that  the  bodies  of 
children  and  infants  were  placed  over  those  of  adults.  At  10  o'clock 
that  night  153  bodies  were  recovered;  later,  more  were  found,  and 
next  day  the  work  of  burial  was  commenced,  the  streets  of  London 
leading  to  the  cemeteries  being  devoted  to  funeral  processions  for  the 
remainder  of  the  week. 

The  grant  of  $500  to  the  Mayor  of  London,  to  aid  in  defraying  the 
expenses  of  the  care  and  maintenance  of  those  who  needed  assistance, 
in  consequence  of  the  wreck  of  the  Victoria  on  the  Thames,  May  24, 
1881,  was  made  by  the  County  Council,  June  7. 

The  list  of  the  182  interments  in  the  various  cemeteries  is  as  follows  : 


Short,  James,  13,  city. 

Matthews,  Annie,  23,  London  West. 

Matthews,    George   William,    2,    London 


Hayman,  Henry,  37,  London  East. 
Haynian,  Mrs.  H.,  37  London  East. 
Hayman,  William  H.,  2,  London  East. 
Abey,  Harry,  12,  London  East. 
Kendrick,  Maria  E. ,  24,  city. 
Major,  Charles  Edward,  12,  city. 
LeClaire,  John,  15